UFO Joe's Canadian UFO XFiles
MAIN INDEX - TABLE OF CONTENTS - SITE MAP
HECHO EN WINNIPEG, CANADA
PRINTED IN CANADA
1. The Photographic Evidence
2. UFO Landings and Physical Traces
3. Physical Reactions to Sightings
4. UFO Occupants
5. UFO Abductions
6. UFOs and Military Installations
7. Military Pilot Sightings
8. UFOs and Energy Generating Sites
9. The E. M. Effect and Power Blackouts
10. UFOs and Radar Sites
11. Civilian Pilot Sightings
12. The Canadian Government and UFOs
13. Future Scenarios
March 29-30, 1966
The only other known Canadian case involving physical contact
with a UFO took place in Hamilton, Ontario, about a year prior
to the Michalak incident.
At about 9:15 PM on the evening of March 29, thirteen year-old
Charles Cozens was strolling through a field behind the Hamilton
Police Station. Suddenly, a luminous oval object descended from
the evening sky heading toward him, closely followed by another.
Alarmed, the boy took cover behind a fence, from where he could
watch the spectacle. As the metallic craft settled into the
grass, he could hear a distinctive buzzing sound. Along the rim
of the objects, which were about eight feet in diameter, he
noticed a string of multicoloured lights, illuminating the
surrounding grass, "flickering like a computer."1
A few moments later, Charles decided to approach the objects for
a closer look. As he stood beside one of them, he was suddenly
overcome with the irresistible urge to touch it, which he did.
He was surprised to find that the surface was hard and smooth,.
similar to polished metal. "I could not feel hot or cold so they
must have been about body temperature,"2 he recounted.
One of the craft had a long gun-like antenna protruding at one
end, and Charles noted that "it was thicker at the base
and narrowed to the size of a nickel at the top."8 He touched
the antenna; there was a flash and he received an electric
shock. Terrified, he ran away toward the police station.
I was running to tell someone,... - but when I looked back, they
were gone and I thought the police would not believe me, so I
ran home to tell my parents.4
His parents noted the three-inch yellowish burn mark on his hand
and thoroughly questioned him before notifying the authorities.
Forty-eight hours after the incident, his father drove to the
hospital to have him examined for possible radiation. The
diagnosis revealed that he was suffering from a harmless
first-degree burn which healed within a week.5 Even though
Charles had been in direct contact with the craft, he did not
suffer additional adverse effects.
The following night, Lawrence E. and his brother Owen, two other
Hamilton youths, reported seeing two objects "unlike anything
they had ever seen before, flying low over the city."6 While
they couldn’t distinguish their shapes against the night sky.,
they both said the flashing red, blue and green lights were
accompanied by "a whirring noise, not at all like an aircraft."
The sighting left both these boys extremely shaken.
Checking out the story for publication, Hamilton Spectator
reporters were advised by Air Canada that no aircraft had passed
over the Hamilton sky at 11:15 PM, the time the objects had been
Both these incidents coincided with a week-long wave of other
sightings that had occurred in southern Ontario—between Windsor
to Toronto. It was by far the most intensive and widely reported
UFO "flap" ever recorded in Canada. Disturbed by these
ufological manifestations, William D. Howe (NDP-Hamilton South)
asked in the House of Commons that the government reveal what
type of investigations Canada was conducting.
In response, the then Associate Minister of National Defence,
Leo Cadieux, assured Mr. Howe that be would instruct the Defence
Research Board "to initiate an investigation
which would have the results for which the honourable member is
It was never revealed whether the Defence Research Board or any
other related agency ever investigated the week-long sightings.
But the UFO flurry, coupled with increasing parliamentary
concern, appeared to have sparked an open era of government
investigations. In the ensuing two years, the office of the
Defence Directorate of Operations (DOPS) at Canadian Forces
Headquarters in Ottawa was put in charge, of examining reported
sightings; many of them, after close scrutiny, remained
unexplained and unidentifiable. Although never openly admitting
the possible existence of UFOs, DOPS went so far as to state
that they did not pose a threat to national security. (See
Chapter 12, "The Canadian Government and UFOs.")
1 Hamilton Spectator, April 2, 1966.
5 (CAPRO) Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 2 (January-February 1969) p. 9,
6 Hamilton Spectator, op. cit.
7 House of Commons Debates, April 21, 1966 (Ottawa:
Queen’s Printer) p. 41-49.
OCTOBER 22, 1967
This, October, 1967 sighting demonstrates the wide range of
symptoms manifested by UFO witnesses, as well as the apparent
UFO interest in high-voltage transmission lines and
communications installations. It is also one of the rare
occurrences of a UFO reported over a densely populated urban
area - in this case a suburb of the City of Winnipeg. This
incident took on an added dimension of intrigue with the
discovery of footprints that strongly suggested the presence of
The principal witnesses, two new home salespersons in the suburb
of Charleswood, were locking up for the night, when they noticed
a peculiar formation of brilliant red lights over the adjacent
field. Their curiosity quickly turned to astonishment when they
realised that the three mysterious lights were floating in
mid-air. Although no shapes could be discerned, both observers
felt sure the two- or three-foot-wide pulsating lights were part
of larger craft obscured by the night sky. As they watched the
bizarre spectacle, they were joined by six people who had
stopped their station wagon to view the lights. Moments later,
two similar vessels appeared and took up a position alongside
the formation. One of them lit up the low cloud cover from where
it had descended.
The noiseless objects then rose and moved away in formation,
floating over the nearby Perimeter Highway, they appeared to
change positions, now forming a geometrically perfect triangle.
With his binoculars, one of the salespeople, Mr. Edward Fortney,
was now able to make out the shape of the craft against the
lighter background of the sky. He described them as "rectangular
blobs of black glass that the lights emanated from."
The formation, now visibly dipping and bobbing like ping-pong
balls, then headed toward a line of high-voltage hydro towers
running parallel to the highway, half a mile away. As the craft
approached the towers, the leader’ descended to within fifteen
feet of the wires. In the words of Mr. Fortney, a former
electrical technician with the RCAF:
The three lights forming a triangle broke formation and
strung out behind their leader. Now’ they really hustled
south above the wires in single file. I could see the wires
light up with a red glow as they sped south over them, and
the towers lit up as they passed over them also. I estimated
their speed at least 125 mph as they flew over the wires.
It was very noticeable.2
Then Mr. Fortney was called to the telephone to speak with a
radio announcer who had been notified of the occurrence by one
of the witnesses. When asked whether the craft were still
visible, he looked out and saw them hovering above a high
elevation TV transmission tower, a few miles to the southwest.
The three lights over the tower now pulsated quite strongly
with an orange-red brilliance. The ‘sight I now saw appeared
like a giant neon arrow pointing to the sky. The lights on
the shaft were a little smaller and steady, with the arrow
head brilliantly pulsating.3
After about five minutes, the craft broke formation and were
last seen travelling northwest in single file.
Later on his way home, Mr. Fortney experienced a sudden headache
- in his own words, "a real skull-buster," - which persisted
till about midnight. The following day, he returned
to the field site, where at first he discovered a peculiar
circular pile of fist-sized stones. Then he noticed several
tracks of small child-like footprints in the moist soil, leading
to and from the stone pile and radiating out towards three areas
of footprint concentrations. In his own words,
It was as though they were all crowding to get into or onto a
ladder of their flying machines. From the three trampled
areas, sets of footprints in straight lines radiated out...
always in pairs, as if they were soldiers with a definite job
to do. Estimated by the tracks, at least eight creatures were
The indentations were unique in that the heel marks seemed to be
deeply pressed in the soil, indicating the probable absence of
any ankle movement! Although they somewhat resembled normal shoe
prints—the front came to a point and the back left a rounded
Cuban-heel style depression—any further similarity with human
footwear ended there. There were no tread marks, nail heads or
cracks on either the sole or the heel parts. Also, the prints
were extremely small by our standards; a mere seven inches in
length and only two and three quarters- inches across the sole.
If they were children, how come they had all the same type
and size of footwear?... We estimated they weighed between
forty and fifty pounds by comparing the depressions left by
That same day, as word of the sighting spread, representatives
from the RCAF, the RCMP, the Tucson-based Aerial Phenomena
Research Organisation and the mass-media converged on the site.
Before going to bed that night, Mr. Fortney felt a slight ache
in his legs and he had a "hot sensation," like a sunburn on his
face and hands. The next day, the leg pain intensified and
spread to his back and kidneys. A few days later these aches
were replaced by a hot feeling in his thighs, followed a month
later by a chilled feeling which persisted until January. He
also had a metallic, copper-like taste lingering in his mouth.
Then, seven weeks after the incident, on December 10, an
alarming yelIow-green coating appeared on his tongue and he
immediately sought medical attention. Blood tests
revealed he was suffering from dehydration and a significant
drop in his white blood cell count. The symptoms soon
disappeared and Mr. Fortney remains convinced these symptoms
were caused by exposure to some form of electromagnetic
radiation emitted by the UFOs.
Predictably, the RCAF quickly replaced all this
"extraterrestrial" speculation with a more "down to earth"
explanation. The UFOs were dismissed as four RCAF Otters of the
402 Auxiliary Squadron en route to Minot, North Dakota to pick up
a pipe band which was returning from a trip to Texas!6
1 Fortney, Edward, Signed statement. (Winnipeg: The Manitoba
Centre for UFO Studies, Winnipeg Planetarium, Manitoba Museum
of Man and Nature, c/o Edward Barker. January 1968) p. 6.
2 Ibid., p. 6.
3 Ibid., p. 7.
4 Ibid., p. 9.
5 Ibid., p. 10.
6 Winnipeg Tribune, October 25, 1967.
July 16, 1969
In Abee, Alberta, a ten-year-old girl experienced temporary loss
of vision after staring directly into the bright under-carriage
of a UFO, not more than ten feet away from her. As corroborative
evidence, the craft also produced foliage damage in the
immediate vicinity of the sighting.
The incident took place on July 16, 1969 at about 3:30 PM near
the small town of Abee, sixty miles northeast of Edmonton.
Following the sighting, Ashley Pachal and Gilbert Funk of the
UFO Society of Edmonton drove to Abee where they interviewed the
principal witness, Sylvia Annola and her parents, Mr. and Mrs.
Edwin Annola. Here is the transcript of that interview.
Sylvia: I was reading and I heard this noise and I ran to the
door and flung it open and... (I saw) this big gray
thing above the well, and it was about to land, and
the lights on the bottom sort of blinded me.
Pachal: Now it was daylight at the time?
P: What did these lights look like?
S: Well they were just a glow like, of light... sort of
P: What colour?
P: Were there just lights at the bottom or did the whole
S: The whole object glowed a little bit but the lights at
the bottom were really bright. They’re just a little
round thing of lights.
P: Was it close to the edge of the object or close to the
S: The middle on the bottom.
P: So there were lights in the middle; there weren’t any
around the edges. Can you describe the object a little
S: Well, it looked almost like a hat.
P: Had it rounded edges or sharp edges?
S: Rounded edges.
P: What kind of hat?
S: Well like a top hat.
P: The corners weren’t as sharp?
P: Was there anything on top that looked like a cabin or
P: Any antennas, or anything sticking up?
P: So all you saw was this object with the lights on the
bottom... Well you saw this object coming down, now
could you tell a little more of what you did then?
S: Well after I thought it had gone, and I was blinded, I
came in and told mummy about it, and in the meantime I
was bumping into everything.
P: O.K.... now I think we went a little bit fast there.
You saw the object coming down and... ran outside.
How close were you to it at the nearest point?
S: Oh about ten feet.
P: It was right above you, or beside you?
S: Well sort of away from me and above me.
P: I see. And you were looking right into the light?
P: Have you ever seen a photo flash bulb or an electric
P: Would you say it was as bright as an electric welder?
P: ... and you say you were blinded?
P: For about how long?
S: Oh about half an hour.
P: Were your eyes sore after that for a few days?
P: (turning to the parents) Have any of you people
anything to add...?
Edwin Annola (father): I was in one of the outbuildings and I
could hear.... well I actually thought... there’s a
steel table down the hill with a vise on it and quite
often she used to put things in this vise and use a
file on it, you know kind of copying what I was doing,
and I could hear this sort of zew... zew... zew... zew
zew... and then it would speed up until it went zew
zew zew zew zew, and I thought she must really be
working out there. And then the noise died out, and in
the meantime that’s when she saw the flying saucer.
Now, after it disappeared we... were all standing
there, and... we could hear voices... sounds like a
two-way radio... there was a police car parked at the
corner something over a mile or so from here, and
there was an accident at the corner. Now whether this
UFO and this accident have something in common I don’t
know, but anyway the driver of the car left the
highway, over the approach, and straight into a
telephone pole: he was dead instantly.
Mrs. A. (mother): He was dead before he hit.
E.A.: So they figure. But the point is this, that the car
was that far away, had the window rolled down, and we
could hear every word on his’ two-way radio, the air
was so electrified, or clear, or whatever you want to
call it. That sound carried a long way. (It was
suggested that the radio could have been connected to
the car’s outside speakers.)
P: .... and you figure that this should have happened
pretty well at the same moment that this.
E.A.: The accident and the UFO should have been almost the
Mrs. A.: She said it seemed to come from northward, and the car
was going north.
P: The driver of the car could have seen this and it
could have distracted him and caused him to go off the
E.A.: We noticed the dog was missing... but this dog had never
left home, positively never, as long as we were home.
So I jumped into a half-ton [truck] and went every
which way you could think of, but no dog.
He answers to a bicycle horn if he’s away out in a
field or something... We tried the horn... no
results. The dog was gone. So I happened to go
outside, oh... I’d say half an hour later after
this happened, and there he was, cringing under a
gate. Now he loved riding in vehicles. I opened the
door, and I said "Tanny come on." He wouldn’t move. I
had to get out and pick him up and put him into the
vehicle. And when I brought him home he was looking
all around, and slunk out of the car, which was not
his nature at all.
P: Well these objects have been known to emit high
pitched sounds which dogs can hear, and it bothers
them, and I think that when this came around this must
have been what happened.
G Funk: It also gives them a frightening experience, which is
not uncommon in many reports that we have seen where
animals have often shown an adverse attitude, one of
cringing or fear.... It is very interesting, and
notable that you should come out with this story.
P: This is a little bit more than most dogs have done
though. A lot of them are scared but they don’t leave
home... yours left home.
E.A.: He left home. That’s for sure he left home.
And he was not what you would say a mild-mannered dog
by a long ways. He stuck up for his rights you know
and nobody, betted him around, but this one time he
left home and didn’t want to come back.
From the well there when it left it took off in a
north-westerly direction, and the path... well it
raised up to get over the trees, and the trees were
burnt you know... you could see it, well we showed a
lot of people. And the leaves they just dried upon the
trees, you know, and they stayed there over the
Damage to vegetation, both at ground and tree-top level, is one
of the more commonly reported side effects related to the
presence of UFOs. However, most of the damage seems to be caused
by exposure to heat, believed to be microwave radiation. It is
not known whether in this particular case, the foliage was
subjected to tests.
1 Ashley Pachal, "When a UFO Came to Abee," Flying Saucer
Review: Case Histories, Supplement 15 (June 3, 1973), do
Compendium Books, 281 High Street, London, NW 1, England.
Of all the UFO incidents recorded over the years, none have
triggered more controversy and more skepticism, hot to mention
emotional reaction, than those which involved occupants. Even
people who may entertain the feasibility of UFOs, find the
notion of intelligent extra-planetary beings visiting the earth
somewhat more difficult to accept.
The tendency to scoff at the presence of such alien beings is
rooted in misinformation, myth and fear. Only a few centuries
ago most everyone knew that the world was flat; any other claims
were unacceptable. Understandably, stories of alien visitations
would be in direct conflict with the established beliefs of most
people raised on the premise that humanity is at the centre of
the universe. The concept of such a universe teeming with
intelligent life also poses a ticklish dilemma for those whose
spiritual convictions revolve around an exclusive, symbiotic
relationship between God and humanity. If ufonauts do exist, how
could they fit into this type of spiritual order?
There are other factors contributing to the credibility gap. In
a world dominated by such negative forces as con-artists,
growing political and religious corruption, un-fulfilled personal
dreams and sensationalist mass media, most people have learned
to mistrust what they cannot see for themselves. It was mass
media that characterised early occupant reports as nothing more
than the delusions of people who claim to see "little green men
from Mars." Yet, the same mass media that has neglected to
explore one of the greatest stories of all time, is now
capitalising on the mass audience fascination with our final
frontier - space.
In spite of this "popular" and "mainstream" trend, serious
UFO researchers are still confronted with widespread skepticism
whenever sightings involving passengers arise. Iconoclasts ask,
"Where is the proof? Where is the irrefutable evidence?"
Justifiably so. My response is, "Where have you looked?" if you
solely rely on mass media for the story behind the story, you
tan only expect negligible coverage of the mounting evidence
confirming occupant presence. Admittedly, no one, to my
knowledge, has yet successfully managed to photograph any of
these alien travellers. Nor have UFO occupants landed in New
York’s Central Park and then asked to be allowed to address the
General Assembly of the United Nations.
Instead, a growing number of reputable scientists and
researchers have been steadily accumulating a collection of
undisputable proof such as suspected footprints and credible
testimonies by witnesses under hypnosis. Part of the difficulty
in obtaining better evidence stems from the fact that UFO beings
seem to be reluctant to let themselves be seen. They prefer to
remain undetected while conducting their "earthly" activities.
This may explain why the majority of occupant sightings occur in
isolated, peripheral areas, usually at night time, with a peak
between 9 and 10 PM.1
An insight into the habits of occupants comes from the Mutual
UFO Network (MUFON), the respected research organisation based
in Seguin, Texas, comprised of hundreds of researchers who work
together with a board of consultants representing virtually
every discipline from bacteriology to nuclear physics.2
Contrary to the popular belief that sightings of UFO beings are
extremely rare, researchers froth MUFON’s Humanoid Study Group
(HSG) have compiled a long list of such cases-over 1,600
different entity incidents. In the words of HSG co-chairman,
physicist David Webb: "Many of the reports are well-documented,
first-hand investigations involving credible witnesses."3
The MUFON study is considered to be the most complete in
existence. In Canada, biologist John B. Musgrave,
MUFON Provincial Director for Alberta has similarly put together
an impressive compendium of entity incidents, which lists a
total of forty-eight Canadian cases, five of which have been
included in this chapter.4
Attempts to come up with a composite description of UFO entities
are complicated by the variety of beings reported. But if we
overlook the number of species that have been reported, the one
characteristic they all seem to share is their "humanoid"
appearance. This means they walk upright, have two arms, two
legs, a torso and a bead. in a paper presented to the American
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in September 1975,
Cornell University physicist and aeronautics specialist Dr.
Robert M. Wood went so far as to suggest that:
It is evident that if some of the hundreds of occupant
reports are correct, a common biological origin with homo
sapiens is a significant possibility.5
Dr. Wood also estimated that as many as a thousand different
extraterrestrial civilisations must have been involved in earth
visitations throughout history.
From the wide spectrum of reported species, the humanoids can be
divided into three general categories-the dwarves, the man-like
entities and the giants/robots.
Dwarves. The most frequently reported of all the humanoids, the
dwarves, average from 0.7 to 1.2 meters in height.6 If it were
not for their thin physiques, they would probably resemble
humans with pituitary gland problems.
Unlike the popular image of "little green men from Mars," they
are neither green, nor do they appear to come from Mars. Their
complexion has been described as "very pale," often bordering on
white, although reddish and bluish skin colours have
occasionally been mentioned.7 In spite of anatomical variations
from species to species, they are usually
characterised as having large, bald heads, with elongated,
slanted eyes, small mouths and noses and pointed ears.8
The majority wear clothing resembling space suits with breathing
apparatus. In one landing incident, five dwarves were reported
to have been wearing bright yellow suits with yellow headgear.9
Other dwarfish humanoids do not require life support systems,
and it must therefore be concluded that they feel comfortable
breathing our air. As to their wardrobe, the entire spectrum of
colours has been reported, including silvery gray, khaki, red,
Man-like Entities: Next in frequency of appearance are beings
bearing a striking resemblance to man with regard to size and
facial features.11 They have been described as thin, having long
arms and legs, slanted eyes, light skin and, in some cases, long
Aside from these physical similarities with man, their behaviour
also seems to be human-like in terms of movements, gestures and
attitudes. At times, witnesses have reported being addressed in
their native tongues.2 In rare cases, female humanoids were
seen accompanying what were presumably the male ufonauts.
Wherever humanoids were accompanied by dwarf-like beings, the
humanoids appeared to be coordinating all the activities,
suggesting that they may hold a higher social standing than the
The man-like entities seem to be perfectly at ease breathing our
air, and are usually seen clad in skin-tight garments. Three
such entities observed outside Rosedale, Alberta wore khaki
skin-tight outfits with see-through fabric covering their faces,
somewhat reminiscent of bank robbers with nylon stockings over
Giants/Robots. Both the giants and the robots represent the
fringe of humanoid sightings. Primarily reported in South
America, the giants appear to be multi-specied; some are as tall
as eighteen feet.14 They are the least human-like of all the
entities - being variously one-eyed, ten feet tall, black-faced,
with bushy black hair and in some instances with three
unblinking eyes and "melon beads".
The infrequently seen robots differ from the humanoids in that
their movements are stiff and mechanical, while they appear
angular and machine-like. In June 1974, in a well documented case
outside Drummondville, Quebec, a couple allegedly watched
fifteen "robot-like" creatures with neon-like bars across their
bodies inspecting the couple’s trailer home.15 What are the
possible origins of these UFO occupants? Without adequate data
many theories have been put forward. Some people believe that
UFOs and their pilots originate in the Center of a hollow earth,
or that certain humanoids are descendants of a lost and obscure
underwater civilisation; others see the uninhabited polar ice
caps as a place from which they could possibly come.
Based on the assumption that intelligent life is not restricted
to the planet Earth but exists as a natural phenomenon elsewhere
in the universe, the majority of researchers have. subscribed to
the theory that UFOs are extra-planetary in origin. At the
"Conference on Communication with extraterrestrial Intelligence"
(CETI) held in September 1971 at the Byurakan Observatory in
Soviet Armenia, Cornell University astronomer Dr. Carl Sagan
estimated that in our galaxy alone there are at least one
million advanced technical civilisations!16 Other scientists
believe the figure to be even higher. Dr. S.S. Huang, formerly
of the Goddard Flight Center and now at Dearborn Observatory,
Northwestern University, has "estimated that the number of
inhabitable solar systems is about three to five per cent of the
number of stars." This would lead to eight billion inhabitable
systems in our Milky Way galaxy.alone.17 Dr. Robert M. Wood goes
so far as to suggest that:
...to get such a variety and frequency of visitors, one must
assume they come far, and so hyperoptic travel (velocity in
excess of the speed of light) must be routine; possibly a few
come from nearby galaxies.18
Confronted with the prohibitive distances which separate
our solar system with the nearest star systems, an increasing
number of researchers are now rejecting the established
extraterrestrial hypothesis in favour of the para-dimensional
theory which, simply stated, proposed that UFOs originate from
other time-space dimensional realities - from a kind of parallel
universe extra-dimensional boundaries are crossed via corridors
or "vortexes" which interconnect our world with another
space-time continuum. The mystery shrouded Warminster-Stonehenge
region in England, the so-called Bermuda Triangle, the Devil’s
Triangle in the North Pacific south of Japan, and the Great
Lakes Triangle are considered to be some of the more notable
"vortex" passages.19 Materialisation and demineralisation of
UFOs frequently noted over these areas reinforce belief in this
theory. (See Chapter 7, "Military Pilot Sightings".)
Recent findings by physicist-cosmologists tend to suggest the
likelihood of the existence of such parallel worlds where our
traditional physical laws no longer apply. According to
Cambridge University black-hole theorist Stephen Hawking,
entrance to these different branches of the universe could be
gained through any one of the billions of special-category black
holes to be found in our galaxy alone.20
Another hypothesis closely tied in with this theory and held by
a minority of researchers is that the UFO beings are future
generations of human time travellers visiting the twentieth
century. While this theory might account for the man-like
appearance of some of these creatures, it fails to explain the
physiological diversity of the remaining species.
Another less popular theory has been advanced by psychologist
Dr. Michael Persinger at Laurentian University in Sudbury. He
combines geophysical electromagnetic and geological stresses hi
of mistaken for UFOs by emotional reactions.21 Admittedly, this
theory may be valid in certain instances, but it fails to
consider the overwhelming physical evidence for the
presence of geometrically shaped craft capable of displaying
inconceivable aerodynamic maneuvers.
A relatively recent hypothesis that is gaining in popularity is
the notion that UFOs can best be understood as parapsychological
phenomena. Advocates of this theory cite the prevalence of
wide-ranging paranormal effects in association with UFO
sightings, such as levitation of humans and animals,
materialisation and demineralisation of UFOs, clairvoyant
visions by witnesses prior to sightings, post-sighting healing,
and the recurring sightings which seem to plague certain
witnesses.22 Critics point to the limitations of this theory in
taking into account recognised physical UFO properties. While
the psychic aspect of the mystery is undeniable, we cannot
exclude the possibility that some of these paranormal
manifestations may, in fact, have their origin in some as yet
undiscovered physical laws.
Faced with the dilemma that no one theory seems adequately to
encompass all facets of the phenomenon, many researchers are now
turning towards the "pluralistic" or "unified hypothesis," which
recognises the potential diversity In other words, in the
origin equation different hypotheses, applicable to different
time-space frameworks, must be considered.
Having established the probability of the multiple origins can
now ask the question, why are the all here?" While the reported
range of observed UFO occupant activities is predictably
diverse, it appears that collectively most visitations are aimed
at conducting investigations of humans and the world they live
in. Such missions can be broken down into three distinctive
areas of interest - natural environment, man-made structures and
observation of humans.
Natural Environment. In most parts of the world, including
Canada, UFO entities have been spotted picking, plucking,
uprooting and collecting samples of vegetation, natural and
cultivated, such as flowers, shrubs, twigs, grass, herbs,
leaves, lavender and tomato plants.23 In one instance two
dwarves "with smiles showing fine white teeth" took a pot of
from a woman.24 They have also been observed collecting soil
samples, stones and rocks. Their scientific curiosity seems to
extend to animals, wild and domesticated, and rabbits, chickens,
pigs and even cattle taken aboard UFOs.
Man-made Structures. The most common type of occupant activity
in this category structure involves the inspection of highways,
railroad tracks, mining shafts, oil derricks and buildings.25 To
a lesser extent, UFOs have been also observed maneuvering in the
vicinity of military and energy-generating facilities and
communication installations. The site of the first A-bomb
explosion in New Mexico was the scene of a UFO landing, although
no occupants were observed.26
Observation of Humans. In what is now emerging as an
intensifying pattern, the activities of Earth’s inhabitants are
becoming the target of increased occupant surveillance. While
most UFO beings appear to be content to monitor humans from a
respectable distance, in two separate incidents in Quebec
witnesses told how they were stared at by strange-looking beings
through the window of their homes.27 Some UFO entities have now
apparently turned to the disturbing practice of taking humans
aboard their craft to examine them. Another type of occupant
activity, rarely seen, is commonly referred to as "the pit stop"
which usually occurs in the daytime 'a presumed forced landing'
and seems to involve the replenishing of supplies such as water,
or the repair of a mechanical malfunction. The "repair" theory
has led me to speculate that the sulphur smell described by
Stephen Michalak, (P. 38), may in fact have been an odour caused
by a burned-out motor.
Having given a brief overview of the complex nature of the UFO
occupant phenomenon, here then are five typical encounters that
testify to the diversity of UFO beings.
1 David F.. Webb, "Analysis of Humanoid Reports", 1976 MUFON
Symposium Proceedings, Ann Arbor, Michigan (June 12, 1976)
The Mutual UFO Network, Seguin, Texas. 1976. p. 33.
2 MUFON Symposium Proceedings, op cit. p. 12-13.
3 David F. Webb, "Analysis of Humanoid/Abduction Reports",
Proceedings of the 1976 CUFOS Conference, Lincolnwood,
Illinois (April 30-May 2, 1976). The Center for UFO Studies,
Evanston, Illinois. 1976. p. 266.
4 Canadian UFO Report, Vol. 4, No. 6 (Winter-Spring 1978), p.
9; Vol. 4, No. 7 (Summer 1978), p. 20-23.
5 Robert M. Wood, "Testing the Extraterrestrial Hypothesis",
Thesis, Synthesis, Antithesis. The Los Angeles and Orange
County Sections of the American Institute of Aeronautics and
Astronautics, and the Los Angeles Chapter of the World Future
Society. A Joint Symposium. Los Angeles, California,
September 27, 1975, p. 17.
6 UFO-Quebec, Premier Trimestre Vol. 2, No. 1 (1976), p. 19.
7 Otto Binder, "The Clues that Prove UFOs Come From Different
Galaxies", SAGA’s 1975 UFO Annual (New York: Gambi
Publications, 1975), p. 43.
8 UFO-Quebec, op. cit. p. 19.
9 UFO-Quebec, Vol. 1, No. 1 (1975) p. 69.
10 SAGA’s 1975 UFO Annual, op. cit. p. 64.
12 UFO-Quebec, Quatrième Trimestre, Vol. 2, No. 4 (1976).
13 Canadian UFO Report, Vol. 2, No. 4 (1972) p. 5.
14 SAGA’s 1975 UFO Annual, op. cit. p. 64.
15 UF0-Quebec, Vol. 1, No. 1 (1975) p. 10.
16 Carl Sagan, ed. Communication With Extraterrestrial
Intelligence (CETI) (Cambridge, Mass.: Massachusetts
Institute of Technology Press, 1973) p. 166.
17 Jacques Vallée, Anatomy of a Phenomenon: UFOs in Space (New
York: Ballantine Books, 1974), p. 204. 18 Robert M. Wood, op.
cit., p. 17.
19 'Brinsley Le Poer Trench, Earl of Clancarty', Saga UFO
Report, Vol. 4, No. 6 (October 1977) (New York: Gambi
20 Dennis Overbye, "The Wizard of Space and Time", OMNI, Vol 1,
No. 5 (February 1979) (New York: OMNI Publications
21 Sudbury Star, January 12, 1976.
22 J. Alien Hynek, "Exclusive UFO Report Interview", Saga UFO
Report, Vol. 3, No. 3 (August 1976), p. 60.
23 James M. McCampbell, Ufology: New Insights from Science and
Common Sense (Belmont, Ca.: Jaymac Company, 1973), p. 123.
25 Ibid., p. 125.
26 Jacques Vallée, Passport to Magonia. Case Summaries, Case No.
420 (Chicago: Henry Regnery & Company, 1969).
27 UF0-Quebec, Vol. 1, No. 1 (1975), p. 11.
JANUARY 6, 1977
UFO sightings over large urban centers are considered somewhat
of a rarity, as the vast majority of incidents normally occur in
remote, rural areas. Rarer still are cases involving the
presence of UFO occupants in urban surroundings.
For this reason, the reported appearance of two UFO passengers
on a mid-town Montreal rooftop on January 6, 1977 must be
considered unique and unprecedented. Ironically, the sighting
coincided with Christmas Eve celebrated by millions of
Christians according to the old Julian calendar. For children of
Ukrainian origin it is traditional to search the sky for the
first evening star which heralds the opening of the Holy
Christmas Eve festivities. But for Mrs. Florida Malboeuf of
Casgrain Street in Montreal, the bright light in the sky turned
out to be much more than a prelude to an age-old tradition.’
At about one o'clock on that particular morning Mrs. Malboeuf
rose from her bed, unable to sleep because of a bronchial
condition. Gazing out of the window she saw a strange-looking
object drifting above the rooftop of the house across the
street.2 To her astonishment, it seemed to be making its way
toward her. She could clearly see that it was dome-shaped, and
resembled a flattened oyster with a chain of bright lights
around its rim which almost blinded her. She estimated the
object •to be about twenty feet wide. As she watched, the
blazing craft hovered atop the three-storey building opposite,
but then she could no longer see it from her vantage point at
street level as it had become obscured behind the roof deck.
Seconds later, two figures appeared at the edge of the roof.
Even though there was nothing unusual about the way they walked,
she instinctively knew they were not humans! They appeared to be
extremely tall, in the neighbourhood of six and a half feet. They
were thin and had unusually long arms and legs. Although she
could not distinguish their features, their heads appeared to be
covered by tight-fitting "bathing caps," similar to those worn
by frogmen. The rest of their bodies
seemed to be covered by a white one-piece skin-tight tunic.3
Apparently unaware of her presence, the two figures surveyed the
scene, first looking Onto the street below and then pointing
toward- the sky, as if in search of something. Their behaviour
appeared human-like and after a few minutes they retreated.
Seconds later, the craft rose and again came into view. It
slowly drifted away in a southerly direction, as if headed for
Shaken, Mrs. Malboeuf went back to bed but had difficulty
falling asleep. It wasn’t until six o’clock the following
afternoon that she decided to tell her son André, twenty-four,
about her nocturnal adventure. Judging by his mother’s agitated
state, André realised that she must have undergone a very
traumatic experience. He immediately set out to investigate,
first by consulting neighbours, none of whom had seen or heard
anything out of the ordinary the night before. It seemed to him
that the rooftop of the vacant building across the street would
be the next most logical place to go. Unfortunately, there was
no way of reaching it from inside. He had no choice but to climb
a hydro pole and make his way across a six-foot-wide chasm,
using a ladder as a makeshift bridge. When he reached the
rooftop he was startled by what he saw. A twenty-foot-wide
circular sheet of ice covered a thin layer of snow. It was
obvious that some form of heat had melted the snow and the
circle had subsequently frozen over. This ice sheet was flanked
by two smaller oval-shaped ice patches a few feet away,
presumably created by the same heat source. The smaller ice
layers appeared to be fiat, whereas the larger one was visibly
depressed in the centre, forming a shallow crater.
Excited by this evidence of a possible UFO landing, André
immediately called Le Journal de Montréal to report what had
happened. He also notified air traffic control at Dorval
Airport, and was advised that his statements would be forwarded
to both the Canadian and the U.S. North American Air Defence
Command (NORAD) Headquarters in North Bay, Ontario, and in
Colorado Springs, Colorado, respectively. He was also informed
by Dorval air traffic control that three other persons had
called them to report what was presumably the same UFO drifting
above the nearby Rosemont subway station, moments after Mrs.
The revelation that these sightings would be transmitted to
top-level defence personnel tenth to confirm that, contrary to
repeated official denials, Canadian military authorities in
collaboration with U.S. agencies are still actively involved in
monitoring UFO sightings. (See chapter 12, "UFOs and the
The next day - a Saturday - photo journalist Gilles La France of
Le Journal de Montreal interviewed Mrs. Malboeuf and
photographed the landing site.5 That same day, her son called
Montreal Urban Community Police and two a their officers arrived
a short time later to interview Mrs. Malboeuf and conduct a
peripheral investigation which they described as "unofficial and
Following the appearance of the story in the Sunday edtion of
Le Journal de Montréal and the weekly tabloid, The Sunday
Express, local UFO investigators converged on the scene of the
sighting. The first to arrive was Howard Gontovnick, a Laval
area ufologist who publishes the periodical (UF0-Canada.7 Despite
the fact that much of the ice layer were covered by drifting
snow, he managed to take several colour photos, one of which is
reproduced here. The next day a Monday, Marc Leduc of UFO-Quebec
also visited Mrs Malboeuf, but due to a severe snowstorm he was
prevented from inspecting the rooftop. He returned on Wednesday
night, accompanied by Wido Hoville of UFO-Quebec Howard
Gontovnick and Paul Dubeau, another of the UFO witnesses of
Together with André Malboeuf, they embarked on the perilous
ascent to the top of the building, where they made an other
surprise discovery. Four peculiar footprints, originating at the
centre of the ice mass and pointing toward the roof’ edge could
be seen. Although these imprints resembled th heel and toe marks
of a boot, they were unlike any the men had ever seen before.8
For one thing they were only 6 inches long and a mere 1.7 inches
wide, thereby excluding the likelihood they had been made by an
adult. Also, due to the extreme difficulty in reaching the
rooftop and the narrow width of the prints, the possibility that
they might belong to a child could be excluded. Unlike the
structure of an ordinary foot
the curvature of these imprints was sharply exaggerated toward
The connection between the strange footprints and what bad
caused the snow to melt in circular patterns is unmistakable.
Prints embedded in the frozen layer clearly suggested they must
have been produced while the surface was still in a molten
state. What had caused the snow to melt? The circular ice
patterns could not have been created by mild weather conditions.
According to Dorval weather office records, the temperature had
remained well below freezing during the month preceding Mrs.
Malboeuf’s nocturnal "shocker." Another possibility put forward
was that the heat source had originated in the building.
However, the thin layer of unmelted snow beneath the ice patch
conclusively ruled out that theory.9
Clearly then, the ice surfaces must have been produced by an
external heat source from an object with airborne capabilities.
The fact that no landing gear imprints were found within the
circular patches of ice indicated that the craft had not
actually landed on the roof, but must have remained in a
hovering position. From the location of the footprints, it would
appear that the occupants had disembarked from the underside of
the craft and walked towards the edge of the roof.
In the final analysis, I believe that we can also eliminate the
possibility of a hoax. To reproduce the circles, the hoaxer
would have had to secure a silent, airborne craft capable of
producing a twenty-foot wide uniform heat emission. To my
knowledge, no such craft exists. As to the footprints, the
trickster would have had to engage a six-year-old child with a
severe case of crippled foot wearing specially fitted hoots. He
would have then had to hoist his juvenile accomplice to the roof
of the building while the "miracle craft" was performing its
"instant summer" trick. And then just to complete the scenario,
he would have had to convince Mrs. Malboeuf to publicise the
fabricated story. Without apparent financial gain or publicity
for either party, the hoax theory becomes all the more
In the end, we are left with physical evidence to confirm Mrs.
Malboeuf’s contention that two humanoids had disembarked from a
hovering, spherical craft onto the rooftop of the vacant house
across the street from her own.
1 UFO Quebec, Vol. 3, No.1 (Premier Trimestre 1977), p. 6.
2 The UF0 Researcher’: Newsletter, Vol. 1, No. 3 (Winter 1977),
3 The UFO Pulse Analyzer, Issue 2 (May 1977), p. 18.4
4 Le Journal de Montréal, January 9, 1977.
6 UFO-Quebec, op. cit., p. 7.
7 The UFO Researcher’s Newsletter, op. cit., p. 18.
8 UFO-Quebec, op. cit., p. 8.
9 Ibid. p. 8.
June 7, 1971
The province of Alberta is famous for its vast untapped
resources of "black gold," and for the resulting concentration
of geological expeditions in search of new energy resources. If
we are to believe the account of a Rosedale resident, it now
appears that the world’s major energy consortiums are not alone
in combing the province for tell-tale rock formations. Some
occupants of UFOs seem equally interested in Alberta’s
On the evening of June 9, 1971, Ms. or Miss Esther Clappison, a
middle-aged woman, witnessed the exploratory activities of three
humanoid beings who had landed in a box-like, transparent craft
a short distance from her farm house.1
In a taped radio interview with ufologist, William K. Allan,
formerly of Calgary, she calmly described the curious spectacle:
On June the ninth, I was attracted to a light coming through
the windows. I couldn’t ascertain what it was all about, so I
went around to the front of my home where there is a porch.
Accompanying me was my old yellow dog, called George. I was
surprised when I got there to See a rectangular-shaped
lighted object down on the ground at an intersection of two
One end of the craft appeared to have been opened, revealing an
interior illuminated by a diffused white, opaque light. Ms.
Clappison barely bad time to recover from shock, when she saw
two human-like forms moving about inside the craft. As her eyes
grew accustomed to the dark, her fears were confirmed: although
the forms seemed human, they looked unmistakably alien.
She then noticed a third figure outside, across the road, in a
crouched position. From her vantage point, the beings appeared
to be wearing tight-fitting uniforms of drab green material
similar to skin divers’ outfits. She couldn’t distinguish the
facial features of the three humanoids since their heads
appeared to be covered by see-through fabric. Her attention was
particularly drawn to the hands of the creatures:
They were like mittens; not exactly like a ski-doo mitten,
but you know, just the thumbs, very prominent thumbs going
into points. I gathered that’s why he was having difficulty
picking up the rocks.3
She then remembered a recent William K. Allan broadcast on
CFCN-AM radio in Calgary, in which listeners were urged by the
ufologist to look for the instrument panel when viewing a UFO
"The humanoid at this time had realised someone was there
(me) and had covered as much of it (instrument panel) as he
could with his person and his arm. He continually kept
looking backwards to see that his arm was covering what was
in the front of that craft.
The panel went right across the craft and was about fifteen
inches straight down and there seemed to be darker shapes on
the down part."4
Too frightened to advance, Ms. Clappison remained a safe
distance from the craft while watching the visitor’s every move.
The being at the panel then motioned to his companion inside the
craft, who in turn gestured to their colleague outside.
"The man out there was obviously picking up samples. I guess
it was rock, not dirt, because he was picking, not scooping.
After a moment, I tried to get closer and have a real eyeful,
but the old dog wouldn’t let me. He was scared to death and
he pushed me right back. That was quite a push you’ve got to
admit. Well, then, I came in to attract my brother’s
attention. Then I looked through the window to see the object
again and what they were doing, but there wasn’t even the
light. When I returned with my brother, there was nothing
there and so help me I hadn’t been drinking. I’m not a
The next morning, the Clappisons inspected the area and found a
scorched imprint at the edge of the road where the craft had
been the night before. Twenty feet long and five
feet wide, the rectangular marking appeared to correspond to the
estimated dimensions of the craft described by Mrs. Clappison.
Close inspection of the charred imprint revealed that the burnt
vegetation had been exposed to some form of intense heat
radiation. When William K. Allan visited the site four months
later the blackened imprint was still clearly visible.6
Judging from the extensive burns that bad destroyed the
resilient desert weed, it became evident that no machine of
earthly origin could have produced the uniform, geometrically
shaped burn pattern.
1 Canadian UFO Report, Vol. 2, No. 4 (1972), p. 5.
2 Taped interview with Esther Clappison, conducted by William
K. and Yvonne Allan. (October 1971.) Courtesy of W.K. Allan.
6 Canadian UFO Report, op. cit., p. 6.
St. Cyrille, Quebec
June 25, 1974
Imagine for a moment coming face to face with what you believe
to be creatures from a world totally alien to your own. How
would you react? With shock? Curiosity? Fascination? Hysteria?
Most people would probably respond with fear. Someone else with
a different behavioural make-up might find the encounter
entertaining, might even invite the curious visitors to come in
for a beer.
To a twenty-nine-year-old resident of St. Cyrile, Quebec, Mr.
L., the experience of being stared at by an "alien invader"
proved to be terrifying. To this day the credibility of this
alien visitation remains unchallenged, following the
verification of witness evidence. The case is noteworthy in that
the beings seemed more preoccupied with examining the wheel
assembly of trailer homes, than the residents inside.
Mr. L. and his wife live in a trailer home outside St. Cyrille,
forty-five miles east of Montreal. (Their identities are known
to UFO-Quebec researchers.)’ The couple had just returned from a
holiday in Florida. Exhausted from the long trip, Mrs. L.
retired early, whereas her husband decided to stay up and watch
television. What followed is best described by Wido Hoville of
UFO-Quebec who investigated the incident.
At 1:15 AM, Mr. L. was preparing for bed, when he heard a
strange sound outside. It was some sort of
boom!... boom!... boom!, as if something had fallen on the
ground. Lifting the curtain of his living room window, he saw
a reddish-orange circular object hovering over a field on the
north-east side of his trailer. Beams of yellow light shone
from the bottom of the craft, which seemed to hover about
four feet from the ground. The startled witness went into the
bedroom to wake his wife, and while there, he heard a buzzing
Looking from the bedroom window, he saw a figure that had
apparently emerged from the object and was hovering not more
than fifteen feet from the window! Shocked, Mr. L. went with
his wife into the living room, from where they observed three
more "robots", as they called them, because the strange
creatures looked stiff. The figures were close to the trailer
next door, examining the shaft and wheel assembly.2
The floating creatures were about six feet tall, with luminous
infrared bars on their bodies that flashed on and off. The glare
from the neon bars and night time obscurity prevented the couple
from distinguishing any facial features. Terrified by the
presence of these creatures, the couple dared not venture
outside, and only periodically peeked out of the window to see
if they were still there.
At one point during the three-hour observation, the couple saw
about fifteen "robots" standing together in line close to a
nearby creek. They stood there for over five minutes, then as if
on command they suddenly moved together. When the observers
looked out again at 4:20 A.M. the craft and the robots had
It was later revealed that an unidentified woman in the
neighbourhood had also seen the creatures and had called the
police. Evidently disbelieving her story, they never showed up
The immediate local reaction to the incident was understandably
one of skepticism until Jean Roy, a Drummondville resident,
discovered what appeared to be hard physical evidence to support
the story. Three oval rings of flattened grass were found in the
immediate vicinity of the trailers. One was at the precise
location where the couple had observed
the UFO, while the other two were behind some tall bushes on the
other side of the creek. All three rings were of similar
dimensions—seventeen by eleven feet in diameter with a two foot
outer perimeter of crushed grass. Inside the ring, three
one-half-inch deep indentations were found.
Three months later, after the grass had been cut, the rings of
damaged vegetation were still plainly visible; the vegetation
inside the ring had grown twice as high as the surrounding
grass. While no footprints could be found, investigators did
discover several paths of disturbed vegetation emanating from
the rings. These paths, including one that ended directly
outside the couple’s trailer, seemed to correspond generally
with the movements of the floating "robots."
Further evidence surfaced two years later, when on September 5,
1976, UFO-Quebec investigators revisited the two witnesses.
Under controlled clinical hypnotic regression, Mrs. L. was able
to elaborate and substantiate her original account of that
memorable morning. Here are excerpts from the session as
translated from the French.4
Q: What did he (her husband) ask you that night when
he woke you up?
A: To look outside.
Q: Why did he ask you to look?
A: Because there was a spotlight that lit up the garage.
It was like a car’s back lights that was illuminating the
garage door. He thought it was robbers or thieves.
Q: What did you do after seeing this?
A: I looked in the field.
Q: What did you see?
A: A saucer.
Q: How was it?
A: Dull with yellow lights.
Q: Was it on the ground?
Q: Did you watch it for a long time?
A: No. A few minutes.
Q: Were the lights on top or underneath?
Q: Did they light up the ground?
A: Yes. It was all lit up, yellow and red.
Q: Were there any other lights?
A: Yes. On top. Like a spotlight. It was turning.
Q: Was there something else under the saucer?
A: Landing legs.
Q: How many?
Q: Do they reach down to the ground?
Q: Do you hear anything?
A: The wind.
Q: A whistling sound.
A: Hou.. .Hou.. .Hou. . .Hou...
Q: Is the whistling periodic?
A: It is continuous.
Q: At what time did the wind cease?
A: At about four.
Q: What did you do?
A: I panicked and went back to bed.
Q: What was your husband doing during this time?
A: He was looking outside. He was afraid.
Q: Why was he afraid?
A: He said he saw a figure.
Q: Did you see it?
Q: Where was this figure?
A: He said it was in front of him.
Q: Describe the figure.
A: It was round.
Q: What was he doing?
A: My husband said the figure was in front of him and was
staring at him.
Q: And you didn’t see the figures?
A: It’s vague—They’re in a row.
Q: Where is this row?
A: In front of the house next door.
Q: How many are there?
A: I don’t know.
Q: What are they doing?
A: They’re bending down, then getting up.
Q: Are you looking at them for a long time?
A: No, only three seconds.
Q: Why not longer?
A: I’m afraid.
Q: What were you thinking of?
A: The invaders?
Q: What invaders?
A: Those on television.
Q: What colour were they?
A: Shimmering. Like metal, silvery. They were lit up.
A: You could see their body but not the head.
Q: Did they come close to the house?
Q: How many were there?
A: Several of them. .. about ten.
Q: How many approached the house?
A: I don’t know, I heard metallic sounds.
Q: Was it close by?
A: Two feet away.
Q: What sort of metallic sound?
A: On the "togne". (Word used by Mrs. I. to describe the
metallic appendage used in pulling the trailer.)
Q: What’s making the noise?
A: I don’t know.
Q: How many times?
A: Three times, about one every second.
Q: Were you afraid?
A: I’m more worried for my husband.
Q: Why are you worried about your husband?
A: Because he’s afraid. To protect him.
Q: To protect him from what?
A: From something completely alien.
Q: What do you think could have happened? Where did the saucer
A: I don’t know.
0: Did any of them enter the trailer?
Q: Why are they there?
A: They’re searching.
Q: Do they find what they’re searching for?
Q: Why do you think not?
A: I don’t know.
Q: When the wind whistling stopped, did you get up?
Q: What did you see?
1 UFO-Quebec, Vol. 1, No. 1, (1975), p. 6.
2 Canadian UFO Report, Vol: 3, No. 1, p. 22.
3 UFO-Quebec, op. cit., p.?.
Saint Matthias de Chambly, Quebec
October 6, 1973
Daytime encounters with UFO occupants are extremely rare. For
this reason, the appearance of dwarf-like beings in broad
daylight at Saint Matthias, east of Montreal, stands out as a
unique occurrence. Unlike most such cases, this occupant
presence does not appear to have been intended for scientific or
investigative purposes. Rather it would seem that the brief UFO
landing may have been an emergency stop, provoked by the need to
replenish water supplies.
The incident is also unusual in that the witnesses mistook the
small child-like creatures they saw for boy scouts doing their
'good deed for the day'.
It all began at 12:45 in the early morning hours of October 6,
1971.1 when Mr. and Mrs. N.R. (whose identities are known to
UFO-Quebec researchers) were strolling along a country road.
They noticed an intense light coming from a field about a
quarter of a mile away. It resembled a searchlight and seemed to
be scanning the area. Mr. R. dismissed it as coming from police
officers out looking for the cattle rustlers who had recently
plagued the area.
The next morning at about 11:30 AM, Mrs. R. was hanging up the
wash in her backyard, when she noticed a column of smoke rising
from the fields to the north. She called her husband, who was
baffled by the curious nature of what should have been a fire.
Not only was there no visible flame but as it bad rained
earlier, that type of combustion in a water-logged field seemed
With their attention now focused in that direction, Mr. and Mrs.
R. spotted a round, yellowish, dome-shaped object resembling a
camper’s tent, a short distance away from the “fire.” They
concluded that a group of boy scouts must have set up camp and
started a campfire. Suddenly, a yellow square-shaped object
resembling a bulldozer emerged from the tent and proceeded to
take up position near a spring about two hundred feet away.2
Still thinking of boy scouts,
they didn’t question the appearance or five child-like figures
about four feet in height.
Wearing bright yellow, suits with a headgear resembling football
helmets, the figures seemed to be carrying something in their
arms as they scurried back and forth between the tent and the
object. Due to the tall undergrowth, no leg movement could be
Unperturbed by the presence of the young campers, the couple
resumed their chores and only periodically glanced across the
field. Then, twenty-five minutes later, 'scouts' and tents were
gone. Since the only road leading out of the field runs along
the couple’s farmhouse, they should normally have seen the
'campers' depart. Somewhat mystified, they began to re-evaluate
their theory and wondered if a more exotic explanation would be
in order. The first hint of a possible UFO connection came from
a neighbour who told the couple that he had seen a 'yellow tent'
take off and bead towards Mont Groupement, twenty-five miles
When the couple’s daughter returned from work that evening, her
parents told her about the incident. She walked across the field
to the 'campsite' and discovered a fifty-foot wide circle of
burnt and crushed grass. She also noticed a six-inch-wide track,
resembling tractor marks, leading from the circle toward a
smaller twelve-foot-wide circle by the spring.3
When Miss R. returned to the house, her head began to ache and
she felt nauseous - symptoms often associated with radiation
exposure. She did not seek medical attention as the headache and
the nausea soon disappeared. Several weeks later, when word of
the incident had reached the offices of UFO-Quebec, Wido Hoville
and Philippe Blanquière inspected the site and filed this
The first circle was still visible and so was the track and
the other smaller circle. We took some colour photos which
vividly demonstrate the burn markings and the track-like
imprints. Within the circumference of the large circle, we
found three square imprints arranged in a triangular pattern
thirty-four feet in length. At the time, we didn’t have a
Geiger counter and it was impossible to conduct a radiation
Next to the landing site, we found several water
springs where domestic animals customary come to drink. At
about 1,500 feet to the east of the site were two
high-voltage power lines, while to the west, a pipeline can
be found. At the precise location of the landing, we
discovered a synclinal axis... [which] strongly supports the
hypothesis that UFOs are often observed in regions where
geological discontinuities are present such as fault lines,
quarries canyons, etc.
We flew over the site to take some photos of the marks and we
could plainly see the axis crossing the field from the southwest
to the northeast. In the last twenty years, the regions of
Chambly and Rougemont have emerged as areas of intensive UFO
activity, with several credible reports of both UFO landings and
It would appear that the landing was probably made for the
purpose of refuelling water supplies. The marks clearly indicate
that some sort of device had travelled from the large circular
craft to the spring. The hurried movements of the humanoids
leaves us with the impression they were on a "rush-job".
A curious side note to the affair is the unresolved case of the
'cattle thieves'. While we can find not a shred of evidence
linking the cattle disappearances to our cosmic 'water bearers',
it is noteworthy that such animal abductions have occurred in
conjunction with intense UFO activity.
1 UFO-Quebec, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1975) p. 10.
2 Canadian UFO Report, Vol. 3, No. 3 (1975) p. 8-9.
3 UFO-Quebec, op..cit., p. 12.
4 UF0-Quebec, Vol. 1, No. 7 (1976) p. 20-22.
Abductions and kidnapping under any circumstances are traumatic
experiences. But when the captors are repulsive looking creatures
from another world, surely the ordeal takes on yet another
dimension of horror.
This may sound like a chilling plot for a science fiction horror
film, but to the scores of people who have actually experienced
this horror it’s real and unforgettable.
In what must certainly be considered the strangest and most
disturbing aspect of the mystery-shrouded UFO occupant
phenomenon, a growing number of people now report being
immobilised and beamed aboard a UFO! In virtually every known
case, the victims of the 'spacenapping' tell of being subjected
to an apparent medical examination by UFO entities. Truth is
often stranger than fiction; thus the obvious is, "To what
extent can these apparent flights of fantasy be taken
If we are to believe the studies conducted by serious worldwide
UFO-oriented research groups, these abduction stories are highly
credible. The previously cited MUFON Humanoid Study Group has
already compiled a list of 166 reports where - the UFO’s
witnesses related an on-board experience. This represents 10 per
cent of the total number of HSG cases.’ According to Study Group
co-chairman, physicist David Webb, some of the recurring
features of kidnappings include:
On-board medical examinations, induced amnesia, Intelligible
communication, paralysis of the witness and such
physical characteristics of me humanoids as slanted eyes,
small stature, small noses and ears and a mouth slit.2
In geographical terms, over half of the documented abductions
have occurred in the United States, followed by strong
concentrations in Brazil (20 per cent) and Argentina (6 per
cent).3 With the exception of three early incidents in 1915,
1921 and 1942, UFO 'spacenapping' are exclusively a post-1947
'modern-era' phenomenon.4 UFO abductions have increased
dramatically since 1965. The five-year period from 1970 to 1975
accounts for 53 per cent of MUFON’s total compilation.5
Even more alarming is the realisation that the number of known
incidents represents a mere fraction of the total spectrum of
cases. Dr. James Harder, professor of civil engineering at the
University of California at Berkeley, claims that in the United
States alone, hundreds, and possibly thousands of UFO-related
abductions have never been reported.6 As Research Director for
the Aerial Phenomenon Research Organisation (APRO), his
statements cannot be taken lightly. Having personally
investigated more than fifty such abduction cases, he is
considered by many to be the world’s leading scientific
authority on this phenomenon.
Why do most cases remain unreported? For reasons that are little
understood, the majority of victims, often referred to as
'contactees', simply do not remember the experience. While they
normally recall seeing the UFO, the abduction itself remains
inexplicably locked away in their subconscious, as if the
experience had been purposely erased from memory. All they are
left with is an unexplained time-loss which can range from a few
minutes to several days. The world-famous UFO abduction of
Travis Walton, near Heber, Arizona on November 5, 1975,
reportedly lasted a full five days.7
In time, some of the contactees gain an insight into their
elusive experience, often by means of a sudden memory flash
or a vivid dream. Realising the staggering implications of a
brief glimpse into their contact with alien life forms, most
victims usually seek immediate attention from psychologists or
ufologists. For many other victims, however, the curious memory
lapse remains a permanent mystery. Whether out of indifference
or fear, they never bother to explore the time-loss further.
Because these cases of amnesia appear to have their origin in
Some form of induced memory suppression, researchers have turned
to clinical hypnotic regression in an attempt to extract the
hidden experience. In most cases, the technique has been
successful, unlocking a Pandora’s box of spine tingling accounts
of on-board events. As a result, hypnosis is now frequently
employed by a growing number of professional researchers when
they are confronted with suspected abduction cases. One of them
is Dr. Harder. World renowned for his pioneer work in applied
hypnosis, he has the distinction of being one of the six
scientists to testify on UFOs before the July 1968 U.S. House
Committee on Science and Astronautics.8
Dr. Leo Sprinkle, associate professor of psychology at the
University of Wyoming at Laramie, is another prominent
researcher who customarily employs hypnosis. He has gained
international recognition with his investigations of two of the
most controversial abductions in UFO history: the case of
Ashland, Nebraska, patrolman Herb Schirmer on December 3, 1967;
and the abduction and space voyage of elk hunter Carl Higdon
near Rawlins, Wyoming, in October 1974.9 Dr. Sprinkle has worked
with private and government-sponsored UFO research groups,
acting as APRO consultant since 1962 and serving in 1968 as
consultant to the Condon Committee, the U.S. Air Force-sponsored
University of Colorado UFO study. It was the Condon Committee,
headed by the late Dr. Edward Condon, that presented the highly
controversial and much publicized conclusion that there was no
evidence to confirm that UFOs were extraterrestrial spacecraft.
Since then, these conclusions have been openly challenged by
prominent scientists throughout the world, including former
members of the Committee itself.
Both Dr. Harder and Dr. Sprinkle are strong defenders of
hypnotic regression techniques and consider them one of the most
effective and reliable tools available for extracting repressed
memory and authenticating witness testimonies. Dr. Harder
explains some of the difficulties encountered in evaluating the
information obtained through hypnosis.
First off, in many instances, the participants are told by
the UFO beings not to remember the encounter. And sometimes
it appears that a phony memory has been substituted for the
real one. For instance, one person I hypnotised said he was
shown a propulsion mechanism and told it was driven by
"lithium crystals". I immediately recognised that as
something from 'Star Trek'. We have no reason to believe that
lithium crystals are part of any real UFO propulsion
system... But when you have multiple witnesses remembering
the same experience, then you know you’re dealing with
something else... And then, once they’re under hypnosis,
they’re in no mental state to resist cross-examination... I
don’t think someone I suspected of lying under hypnosis could
get away with it.10
Dr. Harder does not believe that the abduction victims are
singled out for any special attribute they may possess:
Abductees seem to come from all races and ethnic groups...
the average abductee, however, is likely to be a little more
intelligent than most... in my experience, these people
seem to be at least slightly more psychic than most of their
As to the alien entities themselves, their attitude toward their
terrestrial guests often differs from species to species.
Some appear to be friendly and helpful, while others are
aloof and cold.’2
If we are to exclude a few isolated incidents where abductees
have experienced momentary pain during examinations, cruelty and
aggressive behaviour do not appear to be a characteristic of
these alien hosts.
What then can be made of seemingly random and harmless diagnoses
by these alien physicians? For those with romantic visions of
man’s first contact with intelligent life forms as a glorious,
historical occasion worthy of pomp and ceremony, the
questionable 'clinical' conduct of UFO occupants is confusing
and invites speculation on the intent behind UFO visitations.
While deploring the practice of abducting unwilling 'patients',
most researchers see these experiments as part of overall
missions aimed at studying man and his environment. These alien
activities seem to be poignantly reminiscent of our
conservationists’ tagging programs designed to monitor the
movements and behaviour of endangered species. Are we to conclude
that we are the endangered species of the galaxy?
But the equally questionable and unethical practice of
unauthorised medical experiments and memory tampering has led
other researchers to suspect a more sinister plot behind the
abductions. They point to cases where blood samples (generally
in the lymph node areas) were extracted from the victim, or
where, for unknown purposes, foreign substances were injected
into the blood stream. One of the best known 'sinister plot'
advocates is veteran UFO researcher and author John A. Keel, who
If the ufonauts are interested in our lymphatic systems, and
the other defensive mechanisms of the human body, we may all
have cause to worry about those funny lights in the night
In citing the obvious neurological expertise of these cosmic
Marcus Welbys, Keel goes so far as to speculate that some, if
not all, contactees may have been subjected to sophisticated
forms or induced behaviour modification through surgical or
We do know that brainwashing plays an important role in UFO
contact cases. We also know that many witnesses vividly
remember false episodes that have been planted into their
minds, apparently to cover up what really happened to them...
It’s a frightening thought, but researchers around the world
have now collected a mountain of evidence indicating that
many UFO witnesses do suffer sudden changes in personality
life style, and may have experienced some form of radical
We cannot, on the other hand, rule out the possibility that
some, if not all, personality transformations are normal
psychological changes brought about by new attitudes toward the
meaning of life and the perceived reality of extra-planetary
However, the most disturbing aspect of the whole abduction
syndrome, which also remains the least investigated, is the
permanent disappearance of abduction victims. In his address to
the 1976 Center for UFO Studies conference at Lincolnwood,
Illinois, David Webb commented that "an alarming number of cases
of reported abductions from which the witness has not returned
is also a common feature."5 While some of the known
disappearances have involved military pilots (See Chapter 7,
'Military Pilot Sightings'), very little else is know about the
worldwide phenomenon of vanishing persons, be they UFO-related
or not. Obviously, more research is required in this field.
Canada can boast a handful of cases involving mysterious memory
losses by witnesses viewing UFOs. Only two known witnesses have
undergone hypnotic regression—a fourteen year-old boy in Calgary
and a forty-one-year-old man in St. Johns, Newfoundland. In the
case of the Calgary youth, the session proved to be extremely
fruitful in not only confirming the actual UFO abduction, but
also in revealing grizzly details of an on-board examination.18
Details of the incident and portions of the hypnosis session
appear below. In the Newfoundland case, the session failed to
disclose any pertinent revelations about the suspected
abduction. Instead, it brought to light an even more bizarre
aspect of the mystery. Under hypnosis, the victim was prevented
from revealing details of his two-hour memory lapse by
mysterious interference from a third party—an unknown voice,
audible only to the abductee!17
In the final analysis, because UFO abductions represent the only
perceivable form of direct human contact with the intelligence
behind UFOs, they hold the key to solving this most
complex and puzzling mystery. If we are to understand the true
purpose underlying UFO visitations, UFO research must turn
toward improved methods of information retrieval, be it hypnosis
or other forms of memory recall, as well as toward follow-up
interviews with the confirmed "contactees".
1 David Webb, 'Humanoid Study Group Report: Abduction Cases' -
The MUFON Journal, Number 123 (February 1978) - The Mutual
UFO Network, p. 18.
2 David Webb, 'Analysis of Humanoid/Abduction Reports',
Proceedings of the 1976 CUFOS Conference (April 30-May 2,
1976.) Lincolnwood, Illinois, The Center for UFO Studies,
Evanston, Illinois, 1976. p. 266-271.
3 Ibid., p. 266-276.
4 Ibid., p. 266-271,
5 Ibid., p. 266-271.
6 Jerome Clark, 'UFO Report Interviews Dr. James Harder', Saga
UFO Report, Vol. 5, No. 2 (December 1977) p. 39.
7 David Webb, op. cit., p. 271.
8 Fuller, John G., 'Aliens in the Skies: The New UFO Battle of
the Scientists' (New York: G.P. Putnam & Sons & Berkeley
Publishing Corporation, 1969) p. 129.
9 'Exclusive UFO Report Interview,' Saga UFO Report, Vol. 3,
No. 2 (June 1976), p. 31.
10 Jerome Clark, op. cit., p. 38, 68.
11 Ibid., p. 39.
12 Ibid., p. 39.
13 John A. Keel, 'UFOs - The Medical Evidence', Saga UFO Report,
Vol 5, No. 4 (March 1978) p. 25.
14 Ibid, p. 25.
15 David Webb, op. cit. p. 266.
16 B. Ann Slate, 'Contactee Supplies New Clues to UFO Mystery',
Saga UFO Report, Vol. 3, No. 1 (April 1976) p. 26.
17 Telephone conversation with Mr. James E.B., August 20, 1977.
November 19, 1961
The victim of the most notorious Canadian UFO abduction on
record• has, under clinical hypnosis, vividly described the
horror of being isolated and closely examined by what he
considered repulsive-looking monsters.
The event occurred in the early evening of November 19, 1967.
The unwilling guinea pig was fourteen-year-old David Seewaldt of
Calgary who had just left a friend’s house.1 He was walking
across the field that led to his home, about two blocks away.
It was 5:45 PM and the late autumn darkness bad settled over the
southern Albertan city. Normally, the walk took only a few
minutes, but on that fateful Friday evening, it would be the
strangest trip of young David’s life. In his own words:
... all of a sudden, I heard this high-pitched sound. I
turned around and looked, and I saw this sort of silver,
gray-ish object flying in the sky. It had all coloreds lights
around the Center part and they were flashing on and off all
Frightened, he began to run. The next thing he knew, he was
bursting through his front door, the sinister vessel now
overhead. His older sister, Angela, followed him upstairs where
she found him cowering behind his bed in a state of utter
terror. Worried about her brother’s strange behaviour, she
grabbed him and asked, "What happened? Why are you so late
It was now 6:30 PM - forty-five minutes after David had left his
friend’s house. He stared past her sister with horror on his
face and finally managed to stammer: "I... I was
chased by a flying saucer!"3 He then proceeded to describe the
sudden appearance of the craft and the ensuing ordeal which
seemed as if it had lasted a minute or so. Instead forty-five
minutes had elapsed and David didn’t know why. Try as he would,
he could not account for the time loss.
The usually calm and mild-mannered youngster was a bundle of
nerves for the rest of the weekend. Concerned about his apparent
case of amnesia, his parents sought the help of ufologist,
William K. Allan, who at the time was hosting a radio program on
UFOs on CFCN-AM radio in Calgary. Their meeting unfortunately
failed to unlock David’s frozen memory and in time the entire
incident was forgotten by the Seewaldt household.
But then, five months later, in April 1968, David awoke one
night from a nightmare. He vividly remembered what had happened
during the missing forty-five minutes and recalled being taken
aboard the UFO and being subjected to a medical examination by
creatures so different from ordinary humans that .he could only
describe them as "monsters". The nightmare again left him
thoroughly shaken and his parents turned again to Mr. and Mrs.
Allan for help. "I was very upset over this dream", commented
Mrs. Seewaldt. "He was real shaken up over it. He really missed
a night’s sleep after it. I don’t recall David having a
nightmare before. He isn’t a child who has a great
Confronted with the sensitive nature of the case, the Allans
realised that clinical hypnotic regression might be required.
They secured the voluntary services of a dental surgeon, a Dr.
K. (anonymity requested), who specialised in the use of hypnosis
in his practice.5 As the session got underway, it soon became
apparent that David had a mental block about his traumatic
experience, for each time be was asked what happened after
seeing the craft, he began to perspire, his legs started to
shake violently and he could not speak. To remove the mental
block Dr. K. suggested that David replay his experience as if he
were watching television. Following are excerpts of a videotaped
session held at the University of Calgary psychology department
by Dr. K. and a psychologist, Dr. M,
K: Now, David, I would like you to see yourself on the
nineteenth of November last year... All right, will you
tell me where you are?
D: I’m in the empty lot.
K: All right, look around and tell me everything that you see.
D: I see an object.
K: Where is it?
D: Above me.
K: What colour is the object in the sky?
D: Silver-gray-ish. It has a coloreds band of lights around the
middle of it... green, yellow, blue, orange, red, pink...
K: What happens next?
D: They put a beam on me.
K: What colour is the beam?
K: Where does the beam come from?
D: The ship. The middle... on the bottom.
K: How did you feel when the beam touched you?
D: I was sort of in a trance.
K. Did the beam grab hold of your arm or did it grab hold of
your body... what does the beam do to you?
D: It just brought me up in the ship.
K: Did you feel a funny sensation as you were going up?
K: Were you frightened?
D: No, I was in a trance. The beam is bringing me in the ship
now. I see a monster.
At this point we proceed to Dr. M.’s questioning who probed the
appearance of the “monster”.6
M: Tell me all about the monster.
D: It has a scaly skin. It has holes for its nose and holes
for its ears and it has a slit on its face for a mouth. It's
M: How many monsters do you see?
M: What was there about the skin that made you think it was
D: It looked like a crocodile skin.
M: What did their backs look like? Did they have a crocodile
D: I never saw their backs.
M: Did they have any clothes on?
D: No. Just that sort of skin.
M: Were they smiling? Were they happy?
D: No, they didn’t show any expression.
M: Tell me everything that’s happening now.
D: They put me on a sort of a cot. He’s looking at my
M: How many are looking at you?
M: Can you tell me something more about their face?
D: It’s sort of scary. It’s round.
M: How many hands do they have?
M: What are they like?
D: They’re like...real rough.
M: How many fingers do they have?
M: Do they have a thumb as well?
M: How big are these beings?
D: About six feet.
M: What are they wearing?
D: It looks like they’re not wearing anything. They have
a brown sort of scaly-like skin.
M: How many feet do they have?
D: Two. There’s nothing on their feet.
M: How many toes do you see on their feet?
The following are selected portions of David’s recollection of
the apparent anatomical examination.
K: Are they saying anything to you?
D: I can’t understand. It’s a... it’s a strange language.
K: He’s not speaking in English?
K: Imitate the sound these beings are saying.
D: Espbezeebzzpsbzzebsp (sounding much like a bee hive
or a high-voltage electric current).
K: How many beings are doing this?
D: Just one.
K: And who’s he doing it for?
D: He’s telling the others.
K: And what is he doing while be is saying this?
D: He’s looking at my body. He’s studying it. He took my
K: You mean all your clothes? Your shoes, your socks, your
K: Your underwear?
D: Yes! (Visibly upset)
K: Your shirt?
D: Yes! (Almost hysterical)
K: And he left your jacket on.
D: No! (Angrily) He’s lifting my head up. His hands are coming
for my head. He’s lifting it up. He looks at my hair, my
eyes, my nose.. .(Heavy breathing at this point as he
relives the terrifying experience)
K: Keep on.
D: He’s studying me and then after they finish studying me,
they put my clothes back on. They move me onto a different
David then describes what is evidently the most terrifying part
of his ordeal.
M: All right David, now what is happening?
D: They’re bringing me... through a hallway into another room.
M: What does the other room look like?
D: It has all sorts of bright lights in it.
M: What else do you see?
D: There’s another table there. They put me on that table.
M: What’s going on now? You’re on the table. (David hesitates,
breathing heavily, as if fearful to re-enact the next
events. After being comforted by the psychologist, he
D: They put this other thing over me.
M: What other thing? What does it look like?
D: It’s a gray-ish colour and they just throw it over me and
then this great big, huge, orange-coloreds light comes down
and is shone on me. Then one of them took sort of a needle.
M: What’s the needle look like?
D: It’s gray, it’s small. He sticks It in my arm.
M: Were you awake all the time when you were in this room?
M: Did they give you anything to eat or drink?
D: No. I was sort of in a trance. I felt numb.
The final portion of the session is once more conducted by Dr.K.
K: And what goes on now?
D: And then we go through the computer room into a sort of a
hallway. And then that orange beam shows up again and I’m
back down on the ground and I hear the high-pitched sound
coming from the spaceship.
K: High-pitched? Could you hear it?
K: Well if you could hear it, perhaps you might be able to
imitate it for us.
D: Eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee!!!! (high-pitched, shrill sound resembling
a trumpet, or a sound similar to blowing through a blade of
K: It is that loud?
K: Does the sound frighten you?
K: What do you do now?
D: I start to run home. And it seems as if it’s chasing me.
And I run faster. I’m just about at my house and it goes
straight up and disappears. I ran in the house, and tore
upstairs and jumped across the bed. My sister she went up
after me and asked me what had happened and I said,
"Something was chasing me", and I told her the story.7
1 B. Ann Slate, 'Contactee Supplies New Clues to UFO Mystery',
Saga UFO Report, Vol. 3, No. 1 (April 1976), p. 26.
2 Taped interview with David Seewaldt conducted by W.K. Allan,
Calgary, November 28, 1967. Courtesy of W.K. Allan.
3 Ann Slate, op. cit.
4 John Magor, Our UFO Visitors (Vancouver: Hancock House,
1977), p. 166.
6 Ann Slate, op. cit. p. 27.
7 Tape recording of hypnotic regression session conducted by
Dr. K. Calgary, August 1968. Courtesy of W. K. Allan.
UFOs and Military Installations
Since 1947, the year that marks the beginning of the modern era
of UFOs, a sizable number of sightings have occurred in the
vicinity of military installations. The appearance of these
alien craft has not only been confined to conventional Canadian
Forces Bases and stations. Strategic installations, such as key
Command Bases and Control Centers of the North American Air
Defense Command (NORAD), haves also become the target of UFO
Predictably, information about such sightings generally remains
restricted. However, some of it has managed to surface over the
years. A report about a farmer in Saskatchewan observing a
glowing, circular craft drifting noiselessly over his wheat
field may hardly raise an eyebrow among military mandarins, but
an unconventional craft which invades restricted air space,
hovers momentarily over the base, and then disappears at
bullet-like speed cannot be ignored!
In several instances, jet interceptors were sent up to pursue
the UFOs. However, in every known case, the UFOs managed to
elude the aircraft. (See Chapter 7, 'Military Pilot
Sightings.') Two of the more important UFO approaches, one over
North Bay (Ontario) Air Force Base in 1952, the other over St.
Hubert (Quebec) Air Command Base in 1959, are considered
milestones in shaping the subsequent official attitude toward
UFOs, as both sightings resulted in changes to policy that
ultimately led to the escalation of UFO research and UFO-related
Information on these 'known' sightings usually comes from public
disclosures, from revelations by ex-servicemen or through the
release of previously classified documents. But, despite these
disclosures, many observers feel that this is only a trickle of
information, the mere tip of the iceberg. Part of the difficulty
in gaining access to UFO-related material from military sources
is due to provisions contained in both the National Defence Act
and the Official Secrets Act. Simply stated, any military or
civilian personnel found guilty of disclosing unauthorised and
illegal information are subject to jail terms of up to fourteen
For this reason, few officials care to comment on classified
matters, and are even less likely to discuss UFOs.
Understandably so, when one considers that virtually every
military document is automatically classified as 'RESTRICTED',
'CONFIDENTIAL', 'SECRET' or 'TOP SECRET'. The government’s
'Green Paper',' which dealt with the proposed legislation
concerning public access to government documents, recently
recognised the 'excessive' use of these classifications.3
Although, as early as 1954, the Defence Department determined
that unidentified flying objects did not pose a threat to
national security, the majority of UFO-related documents have
Nevertheless, from the frequent reports of prolonged UFO
presence, it would appear that military installations must be of
special interest to these unknown visitors. Admittedly, it may
mean entering into the nebulous world of speculation, but I do
believe some possible reasons for their presence might include:
assessment of our offensive strength (jet, missile, nuclear fire
power); testing the effectiveness of our defence systems in
responding to alien craft; monitoring national and NORAD-linked
communications channels; cataloguing installations as part of an
overall survey of manmade structures; and sheer curiosity.
Regardless of the possible cosmic or extraterrestrial intentions
which may lie behind these appearances, our military
wise men insist that, since 1968, they have stopped
investigating UFO sightings (a mandate currently in the hands of
the National Research Council). This means highly irregular
unidentified objects are actually allowed to violate military
security regulation. If that is the case, then it represents a
blatant disregard for the philosophy that created NORAD in the
first place. On the other hand, if Our military intelligence
agencies are actively investigating UFOs, presumably in
collaboration with their U.S. counterparts, why the secrecy?
1 Richard H. Hall, ed., The UFO Evidence (Washington, D.C.:
National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena. 1964).
2 Official Secrets Act., R.S., C.198, sl. Section 15 (1)
Chapter 0-3. p. II. (Ottawa: Queen’s Printer).
3 The Honourable John Roberts, Secretary of State. Legislation
on Public Access to Government Documents. (Ottawa: Queen’s
Printer, June 1977).
4 Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) Briefing on UFOs, November 15,
1967. Directorate of Operations. Herzberg Institute of
Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences Section National Research
Council, Non-Meteorite Sightings File, DNO 222. (Ottawa).
North Bay Air Force Base,
North Bay, Ontario
January 1 and April 12, 1952
As one of the five NORAD Control Centers in North America, North
Bay Air Force Base is currently Canada’s most important military
In 1952, two separate UFO sightings Over the base by veteran
RCAF airmen left top military and scientific officials
completely baffled. -The first incident occurred on the evening
of. January 1, New Year’s Day. RCAF Warrant Officer W.I. Yeo, a
master telecommunications technician with sixteen years service,
and Sergeant D.V. Crandell, an instrument technician, were out of
doors when they spotted a luminous disk-shaped craft streaking
across the night sky.
In a front page headline story, the Ottawa Journal re. ported:
The saucer appeared to be at great height, probably outside
the earth’s atmosphere. It appeared to be moving at
supersonic speed. Yeo and Crandell said they timed the object
for eight minutes and forty-three seconds and watched it move
roughly parallel to the Earth! They said it changed direction
slightly at times, “zig-zagging and climbing and diving
without a sound.”
And according to the Toronto Globe and Mail:
W.J. Yeo, who said that he was familiar with guided missiles,
besides all conventional aircraft, claimed the object was
definitely not an aircraft, a balloon or a me-
teor. "Frankly, I don’t know what it was and, for lack of
better words, we called it a flying saucer."2
At that time the Air Force declined to comment, in an apparent
attempt to downplay the sighting. A few months later, however, a
second sighting triggered a flood of statements by government
scientists thereby confirming official recognition of the
It was about 8:30 PM on April 12, 1952, when two servicemen
spotted a bright amber disk maneuvering over the airfield. The
witnesses, Warrant Officer E.H. Rossell, an aircraft maintenance
superintendent with thirteen years in the service, and Flight
Sergeant Reginald McRae were driving from the married quarters
at the time of the sighting.
The two said the disk came from the southwest, moved across the
airfield, stopped, and then took off in the reverse direction!
It climbed at an angle of 30° at “terrific speed” and
Following this sighting, statements calling for stepped-up
investigations into the phenomenon were expressed by such
notable authorities as Dr. 0. Solandt, chairman of the Defence
Research Board; Dr. Peter Millman, astrophysicist, and Dr. C.J.
Mackenzie, chairman of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB)
and former president of the National Research Council. "At the
moment, we are as mystified as anyone else", said Dr. Solandt.
"We are keeping our minds open and studying the information that
becomes available."4 Dr. Millman commented:
We can’t laugh off these observations... We can’t discover
any conventional explanation which would cover the reported
behaviour of these objects. Whilst caution is advisable, we
must keep an open mind about them.5
Dr. Millman dismissed the suggestion that the object could have
been a meteor, since the average meteor is visible for only a
split second. No known celestial object can perform a mid-air
direction reversal and then accelerate upward at bullet-like
AECB Chairman C.J. Mackenzie echoed the views of his colleagues:
It seemed fantastic there could be any such thing. At first,
the temptation was to say it was all nonsense, a series of
optical illusions. But there have been so many reports from
responsible observers, such as airplane pilots, that they
cannot be ignored. It seems hardly possible that all these
reports could be due to optical illusions.6
The sightings led to further revelations. In an unprecedented
move, the Defence Research Board voluntarily disclosed it had
actively probed similar UFO occurrences since June 1947, in
collaboration with RCAF intelligence. Even more surprising was
the admission that in the majority of cases, the Board had been
The controversy also triggered the creation of a
cross-ministerial committee, known as Project Second Storey to
monitor existing government UFO research and establish new
policy guidelines. (See Chapter 12, 'UFOs and the Canadian
Government'.) Many critics feel Project Second Storey was
ultimately instrumental in 'covering up' covert UFO research
between 1954 and 1966.
1 Ottawa Journal, April 16, 1952.
2 Toronto Globe and Mail, April 16, 1952.
3 Ottawa Journal, op. cit., p.1.
7 Ottawa Journal, April 17, 1952.
St. Hubert Air Command Base,
St. Hubert, Quebec
April 12, 1959
As in the case of North Bay Air Force Base, several UFO
sightings had also been registered over the Quebec Regional
Mobile and Air Command Base at St. Hubert, eight miles east of
Montreal. In describing the most notable of these incidents,
Toronto Star reported:
Air Force authorities were baffled today by a mysterious
unidentified flying object that showed up as a red ball of light
over Canada’s key air defence establishment near Montreal, and
disappeared north at a speed faster than sound!1
The object was first observed at about 8 PM by control tower
personnel. Several hundred other airport officials and local
residents watched in awe as the noiseless, red, luminous craft
hovered over the airfield at an altitude estimated be.tween
three and seven thousand feet. Incredibly enough, while it
hovered over the air base, the object did nor register on
control tower radar screens. Then, just as suddenly as it bad
appeared, the craft took off northward toward Montreal, “faster
than any jet interceptors at the Air Defense Command base are
capable of flying”2
Descriptions of the craft ranged from "a black ball with a red
light on it" to "a long red cigar".3 The witnesses unanimously
agreed that what they had seen was totally unconventional.
Trevor T., who spotted the craft in northern Montreal, described
A large sphere hanging in the sky to the southwest. At first
it appeared to be standing still, then slowly moved away out
And Claude M., who viewed the object with ten other neighbours
It resembled a large-ten-foot-wide ball. There appeared to be
a yellow light inside. There were small jets of fire coming
from inside as the object passed over the field.5
Mr. Mercier said the object appeared intent on landing in a
nearby field, but after hesitating for a few minutes it shot
away at high speed.
Government officials were forced to reject every possible
conventional explanation. One St. Hubert spokesman was quoted as
saying, "It was a genuine UFO as far as we are concerned."6 The
Toronto Star account of the sighting stated that the government
weather bureau at Dorval International Airport considered the
theory that the mysterious object,
... might have been a weather balloon which was sent aloft an
hour earlier than the mysterious object was spotted. But a
spokesman said the balloon was white and carried a white, not
The sighting prompted comments from Wilbert B. Smith, former
Superintendent of Radio Regulations Engineering for the
Department of Transport (DOT), who had headed Project Magnet,
the DOT-sponsored investigation into UFOs between 1950 and 1954.
Based on his extensive research, he claimed such objects
appeared red when stationary and changed to orange and white
when moving. They were either round or cigar-shaped, up to 150
feet long. "My personal opinion is that they are spacecraft."8
Visibly disturbed by the incident and by the disclosures made by
military personnel, the RCAF quickly adopted a U.S. intelligence
reporting procedure known as JANAP 146 (D).9 By imposing heavy
penalties on personnel who released such UFO-related material,
this move was designed to silence further disclosures once and
for all. (See Chapter 12, 'UFOs and the Canadian Government'.)
1 Toronto Daily Star, April 13, 1959.
5 La Presse, April 13, 1959.
6 Toronto Daily Star, op. cit.
9 Richard H. Hall, ed., The UFO Evidence (Washington, D.C.:
National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1964),
Canadian Forces Maritime Command Base,
Esquimalt, British Columbia
Canada’s principal maritime defence outpost on the west coast is
the Maritime Command Base at Canadian Forces Base Esquimalt, on
the southern shores of Vancouver Island. In late September 1968,
numerous local residents were treated to several sightings of
brilliant objects meandering over the base.
The principal witness, the late Hermanus Voorsluys, an amateur
astronomer from Victoria, was the first to spot the UFO, high
above Esquimalt harbour.
It was an orange glow about 20° above the horizon. It moved
up slowly from the south and hovered for a while, then it
turned a fiery red-orange and pieces of what looked like
waste material fell from it and floated toward the ground.
After this happened, the glow be-
came much duller and suddenly went out as it turned on
like a light bulb.1
After watching repeat performances on ensuing evenings, Mr.
Voorsluys decided to share his experience with his neighbour,
Reginald Neal, a former police officer. One night, after
watching the craft drop the fiery substance, the two men drove
to a beach where they believed the material landed. Even though
their search proved futile, they were confronted with yet
It was a low bass-like vibrating noise. We could feel and
hear this sound but it was impossible’ to tell where it was
coming from, no matter where we looked. It sounded like it
was coming from all over the area.2
Then, on September 29, accompanied by family members and
neighbourhood friends, the two men succeeded in taking several
photographs of the object. One shot taken by Mr. Neal revealed a
central craft resembling a toy top, surrounded by four smaller
luminous objects. He stated that:
The four smaller objects appeared to drop from the leading
one and after a zig-zagging descent, returned to the level of
the parent body, where they then disappeared.3
In the photo reproduced here, a fifth object beneath the cluster
can be seen descending from the “mother craft.” (The shot was
taken with an Exacta SLR camera with a 135-mm lens and
Dynachrome ASA 25 film, with an F3 setting, exposed for eleven
All photos were submitted for analysis to the Defence Research
Naval Laboratory in Victoria where one official remarked that it
was "the best UFO shot" he had ever viewed. In the Canadian
Forces debriefing form, Neal wrote:
It certainly was not a heavenly body, as it changed course,
moved at various speeds, changed colour from a blue white to
a deep orange, and once turned deep red, and generally came
to rest for periods of time from a
few seconds to several minutes. The distance was too great
to make an estimation of shape.4
An even more thorough analysis of the four photos was conducted
at the National Research Council in Ottawa. While inconclusive,
the report implied that it was probably a manmade object. The
NRC official wrote:
Unfortunately, I am unable to come to a definite conclusion on
the basis of what evidence appears on your photos. One thing I
am fairly certain of, however, the detail shown in the object
observed is probably due to slight motion of the camera, and not
to true detail in the object observed. The other images, which
may be stars or lights on the horizon, show evidence of the same
structure. I would think that what you photographed was a point
source of light which confirms your visual observations. Its
intensity, relative to the stars, would suggest that it was
either a flare, an experimental balloon with a light, or
possibly an experimental aircraft.5
Subsequent verification by researchers revealed that neither
balloons nor flares had been released during the time of the
sightings. Nor could the experimental aircraft suggestion be
taken seriously, in view of the totally unconventional
structural characteristics and flight maneuvers demonstrated by
Brian Cannon, a Winnipeg-based researcher who later examined the
case, came to the conclusion that the object had been positioned
almost directly over a new high-voltage transmitter at the
Esquimalt Base. (See Chapter 7, 'UFOs and Energy-Generating
Sites.') He also felt that the maritime activities at the base
may have added to the attraction. The sightings reported by the
Victoria group took on considerable credibility when commercial
aircraft pilot James R. McLean revealed having seen a similar
object while flying over Victoria one night. The descriptions
1 Canadian UFO Report, Vol. 1, No. 5 (September-October 1969)
2 Ibid., p. 6.
3 Ibid., p. 5.
4 Ibid., p. 4.
5 Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics Planetary Sciences Section
National Research Council, Non-Meteoritic Sightings File,
Military Pilot Sightings
Since the late 1940s, and as recently as April 1975,1 military
pilots have occasionally had breathtaking encounters with a
variety of unusual craft over Canadian air space. These
sightings have involved British, American, Scandinavian and,
naturally, Canadian military personnel.
Although evidence is available to confirm these sightings, they
are not mentioned in the annual reports of the Department of
National Defence. Like UFO appearances over military
installations, these pilot sightings generally remain
classified, as do most national military and NORAD-related
activities. From the few incidents known to researchers, there'd
appear to be two categories of such military pilot sightings -
random encounters and deliberate UFO chases.
Random Encounters. Random encounters normally occur during
routine flights and appear to be accidental in nature.
Maneuvering a fair distance away, the unidentified machines
normally look like disk- or cigar-shaped objects. Their
unorthodox structure and unusual aerodynamic capabilities clearly
suggest that they are intelligently controlled. Frequently, they
have approached and followed military aircraft, presumably for
the purpose of surveillance. Some pilots have been shaken by the
experience whereas others have found it a “once in a lifetime”
opportunity to examine closely these fascinating machines. It
may be comforting to note that no incidents of overt aggression
or hostility have so far been recorded during any of these
Deliberate UFO Chases.
In the late 1940s and early 1950s, when UFO sightings were still
a novelty, many people suspected these craft to be of Soviet
origin. As a result Canadian and U.S. military officials felt
compelled to launch interceptors to chase them. It soon became
apparent, however, that these flying objects could not possibly
be the product of Stalinist technological wizardry. But this
only heightened the general consternation. What are they? Where
do they come from? What do they want? All these questions
remained unanswered. To military mandarins on both sides of the
border, the obvious solution was to capture one of them, because
as strategists they recognised the military as well as the
political advantages such a capture would represent.
To this day, no conclusive evidence has been found to indicate
whether or not any of these attempts have succeeded. Part of the
uncertainty stems from stories by a growing number of top level
military and civilian witnesses who today claim to have
investigated UFO crashes and their retrieved occupant casualties
as far back as the late forties.2 After twenty-nine years of UFO
research, author-investigator Leonard Stringfield has compiled a
number of witness testimonies confirming no less than a dozen
such incidents. The U.S. Air Force has denied all such charges.3
As far as we now know, the capture strategy was a complete
fiasco in Canada. In every known case, the pilots were mystified
by the elusive craft's seemingly effortless high-speed evasive
tactics. A tortoise chasing a road-runner would probably be a
fair analogy. These escapades were also costly in terms of human
lives. Although there are no known fatal crashes in Canada,
several have -occurred in the United States.4 Whether they were
the result of direct retaliations by UFOs or were caused by the
planes' accidental exposure to some form of lethal magnetic
field remains a mystery.
Even more baffling are some incidents over the Canada/U.S.
border, which ended in the disappearance of both the
interceptors and the UFOs.5 They literally vanished into thin
air, as if 'energised' into another dimension (a concept
popularised by the science-fiction TV series 'Star Trek').
As in the United States, UFO chases over Canada were certainly
not isolated incidents. In his investigative book0 Aliens From
Space, Major Donald I. Keyhoe (USMC Ret.) maintains that:
Though jet pursuits are the usual method for capture
attempts, at least one country has tried a different plan. In
1954, U.S. Air Force Intelligence learned that Canada had set
up a top-secret project, after Royal Canadian Air Force
pilots bad failed to bring down a UFO. Hoping to lure aliens
into landing, the Defence Research Board established a
restricted landing field near its experimental station at
Suffield, Alberta. All RCAF and commercial- pilots were
banned from the area. But there was nothing to indicate that
the restricted field was reserved for the alien machines and
none came near the area. Even if the aliens had known, they
might not have risked landing, after hundreds of earlier
chases by the RCAF.6
The project was kept secret until July 1967, when the then
Canadian Defence Minister Paul Hellyer revealed its existence,
claiming that the site had not attracted UFOs. He did not
elaborate further on the operation except to state that it had
been discontinued following the conclusion that UFOs did not
pose a threat to national security.7
Despite these revelations by the minister and USAF Intelligence,
the Department of National Defence today denies that such a
project ever existed. According to National Defence Headquarters
(Ottawa) Public Information Officer, Captain Douglas Caie: “We
have no record of any such project. From the information I have,
we never had one.”8
This leads me to consider two possibilities. One, the project
existed but is now being downplayed for fear that disclosures
could generate questions that might uncover some current
secret UFO-related research. Two, while discussing other
UFO-related DRB activities in the early 1 950s, Defence Minister
Hellyer's comments were misinterpreted by the press.
Based on Major Keyhoe's impeccable credibility and my yet
uptarnished belief in basic journalistic ethics, I tend toward
the cover-up theory. It seems to me that the Ottawa Journal
would not print so explosive a story without double checking it
beforehand to ensure that it wasn't fabricated.
In many ufological circles, there is now a growing belief that
some RCAF pilots have successfully filmed and photographed UFOs
during pursuits, using easy-to-operate special gun-movie cameras
which were customarily aboard the older F-86 Sabre jets and the
current CF-1O1 Voodoos. Although the RCAF denies the existence
of such photographic evidence. it seems unlikely that in the
course of these pursuits, no film footage was ever obtained.0
In fact, if we are to believe one witness, the RCAF is said to
possess an impressive collection of glossy close-up photos of a
wide assortment of UFOs. This statement comes from rancher Bert
Gammie of Green Lake, British Columbia, who in June 1964 was
treated to a brief sighting of an enormous UFO as it circled
above his car. The spherical craft, dull metallic in colour,
apparently had a series of exhaust vents at one end that emitted
peculiar multi-coloreds gases. Mr. 6ammie reported the sighting
to the RCAF in Vancouver. Shortly after, he was visited by two
senior air force officers, one of whom he knew personally.
The pair brought with them a bulky portfolio of photographs
which he was asked to study. To his surprise, Gammie found
himself looking at a set of glossy prints of UFOs, many
of them showing the craft in fine detail... Asked if any
of the photos resembled what he saw, Gammie said some were
similar but none fitted the description exactly... the
officer told Gammie that if their visit received any
publicity, the air force would deny they were ever there!10
In the final analysis, we are regrettably faced with the
possibility that while the general public is being served UFO
tidbits in the form of mediocre television programming like
NBC's defunct 'Project UFO', a select group of military officials
in Ottawa are feasting their eyes on 'the real thing'.
1 Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences
Section, National Research Council, Non-Meteoritic Sightings
File, N75-041, (Ottawa).
2 Leonard H. Springfield, Situation Red: The UFO Siege (New York:
Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1977), p. 179-86.
3 Leonard H. Springfield, 'Retrievals of the Third Kind', MUFON
UFO Journal, No. 128 (July 1978) The Mutual UFO Network, p. 8.
4 David R. Carlson, 'The Air Force and the UFO'. Aerospace
Historian, Vol. 22, No. 4 (Winter 1974) p. 212.
5 Richard H. Hall, ed. The UFO Evidence (Washington, D.C.:
National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1964),
6 Donald I. Keyhoe, Aliens From Space (Toronto: New American
Library of Canada Limited, 1974), P. 78.
7 Ottawa Journal, July 20, 1967.
8 Telephone conversation with Captain Douglas Caie, August 25,
10 Canadian UFO Report, Vol 3, No. 5, p. 14.
Fifty Miles Northeast of Gander,
The Gander region of central Newfoundland became the scene of a
dramatic random encounter in the fall of 1956. On that occasion
both the crew and passengers aboard a four-engine U.S. Navy
Super Constellation transport sighted a disk-shaped craft as big
as a football field.
As the incident was viewed by an extraordinarily large number of
military witnesses, it is now considered one of the most
credible in UFO files. Over thirty pilots, navigators and flight
engineers on their way home from special duty in Europe were
aboard the transport. At the controls was veteran Navy pilot,
Commander George Brent (name changed to protect the identity of
the officer).' In a decade of service, he had crossed the
Atlantic more than two hundred times, but this crossing was to
be his most memorable.
About fifty miles northeast of Gander Airport, Brent noticed a
cluster of lights below his aircraft. Thinking they came from a
village, he called Lieutenant Alfred C. Friedman, his navigator,
to confirm be was still on course. "It can't be land", was
Friedman's reply.2 Just then, all the lights except one dimmed and
appeared to be spreading out. The one bright light was headed up
toward the transport, seemingly on an imminent collision course.
Within seconds, the object now clearly visible as a huge
flying disk with a glow around the rim reached the plane's
altitude. To the stunned men in the cockpit, it seemed to hit
them head on. Then it tilted sharply and shot to one side.8
It bad swung around, was drawing abreast, pacing them
at about one hundred yards. For a moment he had a clear
glimpse of the monster.
Its sheer bulk was amazing; its diameter was three to four
times the Constellation's wing span. At least thirty feet
thick at the centre, it was like a gigantic dish inverted on
top of another. Seen at this distance, the glow along the rim
was blurred and uneven. Whether it was an electrical effect,
a series of jet exhausts or light from openings in the rim,
Brent could not tell. But the glow was bright enough to show
the disk's curving surface, giving a hint of dully reflecting
Though Brent saw no signs of life, he had a feeling they were
being observed. He held to a straight course, fighting an
impulse to dive away. Gradually, the strange machine pulled
ahead, tilting its massive shape upward. It quickly
accelerated and was lost against the stars.4
Having recovered from shock, Brent contacted Gander Airport to
ask whether any other traffic had been registered on the radar
screens. “We had something on the scope near you,” he was told
by an official, “but we couldn't get an answer.”5 After landing
at Gander, all the crew members were thoroughly interrogated by
U.S. Air Force Intelligence officers.
From the start, it was plain they accepted the giant-disk
sighting as fact... How close did the object come? What was
its size... estimated rate of climb... any electrical
interference noted... what happened to the other luminous
The crew members unanimously agreed that what they had seen was
a craft measuring between 350 and 400 feet in width, which had a
metallic appearance, and was definitely under intelligent
control. Based on the estimated time of ascent—between five and
eight seconds—it had accelerated at a speed of 2,300 mph,
surpassing this speed on departure.
When co-pilot Lieutenant Peter J. Mooney asked the interrogating
officer what U.S. Air Force Intelligence had learned about UFOs,
he was told:
"Sorry, I can't answer any questions."
"Why not?" asked Mooney, "After a scare like that, we've got
a right to know what's going on!" The officer shook his head.
"I can't answer any questions," he repeated.7
As soon as the crew member reports were completed they were
flashed to five top-ranking U.S. Defence commanders. The
witnesses were then flown to their destination at Patuxent Naval
Air Station in Maryland, where they were again questioned by
officers of Naval Intelligence and Air Technical Intelligence.
According to Major Keyhoe:
Later, a government scientist (supposedly from the CIA)
showed Brent UFO photos - one portraying a disk like the one
over the Atlantic.8
Aside from revealing the high-level military interest in UFOs,
the ensuing investigations also demonstrated that Intelligence
personnel were under strict orders to keep all information
confidential, even when it involved senior Navy officers who bad
seen UFOs. This case again confirmed the existence of secret
U.S. Air Force photos, presumably obtained during jet pursuits,
and clearly demonstrates the U.S. military establishment's
disregard of its Canadian counterpart, despite joint NORAD
agreements. Even though the sightings had occurred in Canadian
air space, Canadian defence authorities were evidently by-passed
in the initial investigations.
1 Donald I. Keyhoe, Aliens From Space (Toronto: New American
Library of Canada Limited, 1974), p. 78.
2 Donald I. Keyhoe, Flying Saucers: Top Secrets (New York: G.P.
Putnam & Sons, 1960) p. 16.
3 Donald I. Keyhoe, Aliens, p. 79.
4 Donald I. Keyhoe, Flying Saucers, p. 18.
5 Ibid., p. 18.
6 Ibid., p. 18.
7 Ibid., p. 19.
8 Donald B. Keyhoe, Aliens, p. 79.
Lake Superior, Seventy Miles
Northeast of Keweenaw Point
November 23, 1953
One of the most puzzling and disturbing UFO incidents ever to
leak from U.S. Air Force secret files deals with the mysterious
disappearance over Lake Superior of a U.S. Air Force F-89 jet
interceptor, while in pursuit of a UFO.
Reminiscent of some of the disappearances recorded in the
so-called Bermuda Triangle, no trace was ever found of either
the aircraft or the UFO. They both had literally vanished from
the face of the earth.
Information of this baffling case was originally leaked by U.S.
Air Force officials to none other than the former director of
the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena
(NICAP), who has over the years written several books condemning
U.S. secrecy in UFO matters.' The case Was released to him as
part of a script for a USAF radio program entitled 'Look to the
Skies!' which was scheduled for broadcast on closed-circuit
radio station, KLRH, at Lackland Air Force Base Hospital. The
script opened with these startling words: "The question now is
not 'If' but 'Why' and 'Where Do They Come From?'"2 Clearly we
can intercept this as an indication that the U.S. Air Force
acknowledges the reality of UFOs. Citing that the Lake Superior
case had been officially authenticated, the radio script
It was the evening of November 23, 1953, and wintry darkness
had settled over Michigan. At an isolated radar station, Air
Defence operators were watching their scope in a routine
guard against possible enemy attack.3
It went on to describe the sudden appearance on radar screens of
an unknown object flying over the restricted area of Soo Locks,
south of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario.
Following standard procedure, USAF personnel immediately
scrambled an F-89C all-weather interceptor from Kinross Air
Force Base to investigate the mysterious intruder. Piloting the
plane was Lieutenant Felix Moncla, Jr., with Lieutenant R.R.
Wilson as radar observer in the rear cockpit. Guided by ground
radar, the jet raced westward across Lake Superior at a speed
exceeding five hundred mph. Within minutes it had cut down the
gap and would soon be picking up the object on its short-range
radar screen. Just as the F-89 appeared to be closing in on the
target, the ground radar men watched the two merge and disappear
from the screen! In the words of one stunned radar officer: "It
seems incredible, but the blip apparently just swallowed our
F-89."4 Moments later, the radar controller hurriedly radioed
search and rescue authorities in the hope that the two airmen
would have had
time to bail out.5 As the search got underway, Lieutenant Robert
C. White of the Air Force press desk confirmed the mysterious
disappearance. His statement was followed by one from Truax Air
Force Base to Associated Press:
The plane was followed by radar until it merged with an
object seventy miles off Keweenaw Point in upper Michigan.
Kinross Air Force Base spokesmen said the missing plane was
equipped with two rubber rafts and that each officer wore a
The Chicago Tribune ran the AP story in its early edition, under
the heading “Jet, Two Aboard, Vanishes Over Lake Superior,” but
deleted it from its later editions. In the following days,
scores of American and Canadian planes and boats criss-crossed
the lake over hundreds of square miles in search of the missing
craft. No trace was ever found of the two airmen, the jet, or
the UFO. -
Soon after, the U.S. Air Force issued a statement that the
so-called UFO had been identified by the F-89 pilot as an
off-course Canadian airliner, and that the jet had subsequently
crashed into the lake after the pilot had been stricken with
vertigo (disorientation). This explanation quickly came under
fire from Canadian airline officials who denied having any of
their aircraft in the area at the time.7 Expert pilots also
dismissed the explanation stating that: “Moncla could have
switched on the automatic pilot until the vertigo passed; also
Wilson could have taken over temporarily.”8
It soon became apparent that attempts were being made to cover
up the UFO connection when, by some curious bureaucratic
bungling, U.S. Air Force officials were caught in the act of
divulging highly contradictory information:
As customary, the Air Force sent two officers to the families
of the lost airmen to give them official messages of
sympathy. . . . Explaining the accident, the Air Force
representative told Moncla’s widow that the pilot had flown
too low while identifying the supposed Canadian airliner and
had crashed in the lake.9
Due to a mix-up at headquarters a second USAF officer was sent
out to offer condolences to Mrs. Moncla. When she asked him if
her husband’s body could be recovered, he told her that there
was no chance as “the jet had exploded at a high altitude,
destroying the plane and its occupants!”10
After more than a year of obstinately adhering to the Canadian
airliner story, USAF suddenly altered its stance. Major William
I. Coleman, a Headquarters spokesman, revealed that the F-89 had
in fact intercepted an RCAF C-47.
This new explanation once again fell apart when, in response to
inquiries from NICAP officials, the RCAF Chief of Air Staff
spokesman disclosed that:
A check of Royal Canadian Air Force records has revealed no
report of an incident involving an RCAF aircraft in the Lake
Superior area on the above date.11
Later, NICAP received an even more emphatic denial from the
RCAF, confirming that the C-47 had flown exclusively over
Canadian territory. Furthermore, its flight plan would have been
known to U.S. radar station operators, who would have had no
difficulty in identifying the Canadian plane. As a final blow to
the USAF fairy tale, the C.47 was reportedly travelling eastward
from Winnipeg to Sudbury, whereas the UFO had flown in the
opposite direction - westward.12 To this day no trace of the
jet interceptor has been found.
1 Donald I. Keyhoe, Flying Saucers: Top Secret (New York:
Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1964), p. 221.
4 Ibid., p. 222.
5 Donald I. Keyhoe, Aliens From Space (Toronto: New American
Library of Canada Limited, 1974), P. 166.
6 Donald I. Keyhoe, Flying Saucers, p. 222.
7 Donald I. Keyhoe, Aliens, p. 167.
9 Ibid. 10 Ibid.
11 Richard H. Hall, ed. The UFO Evidence (Washington, D.C.:
National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1964),
Alberta - Montana Border
In 1971, nuclear physicist and ufologist Stanton Friedman
revealed details of yet another mysterious disappearance of a
military jet while in pursuit of a UFO.
The incident was initially described to him by a Mr. Y., a
former United States Air Force radar specialist, and one of the
principal witnesses. Mr. Y.’s credentials were indeed
impressive; after almost thirty years in radar operation and
interpretation, he had served all over the world, training both
military and commercial air personnel in the operation of
various radar systems. At the time of the sighting in early
1952, he was a radar operator at one of the five closely linked
U.S. Air Defence Command installations in Grand Falls, Montana
region, south of the Alberta border. The sighting was described
by Mr. Friedman in these words:
Mr. Y’s crew had been notified by Canadian radar
installations in the Calgary area that three UFOs were
heading south towards the United States at not too rapid a
pace. The radar picked up the UFOs and a United States Air
Force jet interceptor was scrambled from a base in eastern
Washington. Radio and radar contact were maintained with the
plane’s pilot as he was vectored toward the UFOs, which were
also under radar observation. The pilot, at sixteen thousand
feet radioed that be saw two of the UFOs! Shortly later, he
and his plane just disappeared! No wreckage was ever found,
though a search and rescue plane was immediately dispatched
and the radar people knew exactly where the plane had been at
the time it disappeared!1
Following this incident, interceptor fighter plane pilots were
ordered to keep a safe distance of at least ten miles from any
UFOs they pursued. They were also instructed to obtain as much
film footage as possible of the incident.2 Friedman wondered why
these films remained classified material. It is also interesting
that Mr. Y. was instructed to bypass the official U.S. Air Force
committee studying UFOs, known as Project Blue Book, when
reporting sightings. According to Friedman:
Because [Mr. Y.} was the only one of many operators in the
five groups to have Top Secret security clearance, it was his
responsibility to prepare the group 'overlays' from pictures
taken of the scopes at each installation and submit this
classified data to Air Defence Command (ADC) - not Project
Blue Book... No information was ever sent back to him, but on
occasion his reports were acknowledged or complimented.3
Friedman’s disclosure supports the contention long held by
critics that Project Blue Book was simply a USAF public
relations front set up to 'debunk' and discredit any UFO
sightings. It would appear that the 'meat and potatoes'
sightings were secretly investigated by ADC, while the easily
explained, non-controversial cases were left to Project Blue
Book and, in effect, the public.
1 Canadian UFO Report, Vol. 2, No. 3, p. L
2 Ibid., p. 13.
3 Ibid., p. 13.
Fort Macleod, Alberta
August 23, 1956
Although pilots manage to photograph UFOs from time to time, it
is rare that such incidents reach public attention.
One incident that did occurred on August 23, 1956, when RCAF
Squadron Leader Robert J. Childerhose and Flight Lieutenant
Ralph Innes were attempting to set a cross Canada speed record
with their F-86 Sabre jet.1 Over Fort Macleod in Alberta, at an
altitude of 36,000 feet, they spotted a bright luminous sphere
below, travelling parallel to their own aircraft. Before it
could disappear, Childerhose succeeded in photographing the
intensely brilliant oval-shaped object, which emitted a
plasma-like glow from its underside. The fact that the airmen
were successful in establishing a speed record of five hours
which remained unchallenged for over ten years almost came as an
anti-climax after their unusual mid-air encounter. Later, as a
civilian, Childerhose became an avid UFO investigator and he
contributed numerous articles on the subject to various
1 Toronto Telegram, January 2, 1965.
August 16, 1968
Flying over Regina, Saskatchewan on August 16, 1968, the
eight-man crew of a Canadian Forces Hercules C-130E observed a
peculiar cigar-shaped craft of unidentified origin, as it
crossed their flight path at 2:51 AM during a routine flight
from Namao Air Force Base, north of Edmonton, to Rivers Air
Force Base in southwestern Manitoba. The incident was
described in an unclassified report to Canadian Forces
Headquarters in Ottawa:
Observed by seven man crew and by Captain through
twelve-power field glasses. Appeared as elongated sphere or
dirigible-shaped with five or six rectangular-shaped dark
patches on side. No gondola or tail. Aluminum or similar
surfaces reflected the sun. No contrail from UFO, although
Air Canada Flight 851 contrail observed continuously from 2
AM to 3 AM. UFO was visible to naked eye of crew for about
one and a half minutes, then it shrank rapidly in size and
disappeared to the southwest very, very rapidly. It
reappeared faintly twice in the next five minutes to four
crew members, probably due to reflected light.1
The captain advised the Winnipeg RCAF Centre of the sighting and
also requested that U.S. Control in Montana be notified.
It is not known whether the object registered on the Hercules
radar screens or on ground-level radar. But this case is
noteworthy because it involves eight reliable specialists, who
were unanimous in their account of what they had viewed. Also,
the reported Zeppelin-like shape, the unusual patches along the
fuselage, as well as the high-speed velocity, conclusively ruled
out the possibility of a misidentified conventional craft.
1 Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences
Section, National Research Council, Non-Meteoritic Sightings
File, N68-044, (Ottawa).
April 21, 1952
Shortly after noon on April 21, 1952, hundreds of people in
southern Ontario reported spotting a "dark, cylindrical object",
travelling at high speed and high altitude, emitting a
distinctive vapour trail.1 The craft was first sighted over
Toronto, but within minutes, London Airport officials saw it
flying overhead. Local military officials immediately set out to
investigate. According to London Free Press:
...Fighter aircraft from No. 428 Squadron attempted
to intercept the plane, but it quickly left them behind.
The Mustang fighter pilots pushed their craft to speeds of
450 miles an hour in the futile chase.’
The incident occurred exactly a week after a disk-shaped UFO had
been observed over North Bay Air Force Base. The sighting had
triggered statements from public officials confirming the
government’s recognition of the UFO enigma.2 In this instance,
however, RCAF Headquarters in Ottawa stated that the object was
a British Canberra bomber, on a high-speed flight from Montreal
to Omaha, Nebraska. The aircraft, one of the fastest at that
time, reportedly landed at Offut Air Force Base in Omaha at
1:05 PM Eastern Standard Time.8
Most military personnel who had witnessed the sighting disagreed
with the official RCAF statement. Wing Commander A.D. Haylett,
Officer Commanding No. 420 City of London Rescue Squadron, was
of the opinion that the object was travelling about two thousand
miles per hour! He stated:
"I’m pretty firm in the opinion that it couldn’t have been an
aircraft. Not at that speed. I’ve never been a believer in
flying saucers but I’m pretty sure now there’s something
going on around this planet that we should be paying lots of
Another RCAF officer, who requested anonymity, doubted that the
Canberra, flying at top speed with a strong tail wind, could
even approach a speed of a thousand miles per hour.
The RCAF failed to explain why the order was given to scramble
jet fighters and to intercept the unidentified craft.
Presumably, the instructions came as a result of fruitless
efforts by military officials to establish contact with the UFO.
Normally civilian air traffic would respond to identification
requests from the military. Furthermore, the reported time of
sighting over Toronto would not have corresponded with the
passage of the Canberra over the city. The craft was spotted
over Toronto shortly after noon, while the Canberra reportedly
arrived at Omaha less than one hour later. To accept the RCAF
explanation, the Canberra would have had to cover the
thousand-mile distance between the two cities in less than
an hour (at a speed exceeding a thousand miles per hour). But
the Canberra’s maximum cruising speed is six hundred miles per
hour. The British bomber would therefore have bad to be over
Toronto between 11:00 and 11:30 AM, or fortyfive to sixty
minutes before the passage of the unidentified craft.
More evidence supporting the UFO theory came from other people
who had spotted UFOs over Toronto on that same day. The London
Free Press reported:
One resident reported seeing about fifty lights in
V-formation moving rapidly from southeast to Northwest. He
said the lights were dim orange and appeared to be at great
height. He heard no sound.
The David Dunlap Observatory on Toronto’s outskirts said it
had no record of the lights. They might have been meteors,
observatory officials said, since they are prevalent at this
time of year.5
1 London Free Press, April 21, 1952.
3 Ottawa Citizen, April 16, 1952.
4 London Free Press. April 21 1 952
Goose Bay Air Force Base, Labrador
December 15, 1952 and September 4, 1968
Goose Bay Air Force Base in Central Newfoundland has been a
veritable 'hot spot' of UFO activity. Over the years, dozens of
incidents were witnessed by a number of Canadian and U.S.
The two incidents described here - one a UFO pursuit - clearly
demonstrate the irregular and highly advanced maneuvers that
have become characteristic of most sightings.
The first incident dates back to December 15, 1952, when the
crews of a USAF T-33 jet trainer anti an F-94B interceptor
spotted a brilliant red and white object, seemingly motionless
in the sky, at an altitude of fifteen thousand feet. After
fixing the target on their radar screens the pilots of both
aircraft set out in pursuit of the object, straining their own
craft to maximum speeds of 375 knots (431 mph).1 During the
half-hour chase, the elusive UFO seemed to be playing a game of
cat and mouse, literally leading the poor jets around in
circles. As Major Donald Keyhoe reported:
The radar in the fighter got a lock on the target that,
although at an azimuth reading coinciding with that of.
ground radar crews, was regarded as too brief to be
acceptable by Air Force Intelligence, and so was dismissed as
a mechanical malfunction - as far as the F-94B fighter’s
radarscope was concerned.2
Tiring of the joyride, the UFO suddenly straightened out and
shot away at breathtaking speed. Faced with this potentially
newsworthy occurrence, U.S. Air Force officials dismissed the
incident, stating that the mysterious object was none other than
the old favourite standby - the planet Venus. Even though the
fighter’s radar readings corresponded with those of ground
radar, military authorities had the audacity to explain the
incident as a radar malfunction which had caused both screens to
scan the planet Venus.
One wonders what the two pilots must have thought when they
heard that a scarlet and white 'planet' had led them in
spaghetti-like pursuit for over thirty minutes before streaking
away into the wild blue yonder!
Almost sixteen years later, on September 4, 1968, two U.S. Air
Force pilots, flying in the vicinity of Goose Bay AFB, spotted
an unidentified spherical craft headed in a southerly direction.
During the five-minute sighting, it performed maneuvers that
left the two airmen completely astounded. Although lacking in
detail, a report from Goose Bay. Air Force Base to Canadian
Forces Headquarters describes some of these maneuvers:
Approximately round, silver metallic in colour, no sound and
no vapour trail. Appeared to be one-half the size of a jet in
flight between thirty-three and forty-one thousand feet.
Speed was approximately the same as a jet. Object crossed
high-flying jet track behind jet (ours). Stopped. Did two
3600 turns. Continued for one to two minutes and stopped
again. Object disappeared from view at approximately 30°
above the horizon and was one-half size in relation to first
observation. All local facilities checked. Results negative.3
This report is typical of most declassified military documents,
and the data is, to say the least, fragmentary. It does not
specify what type of aircraft the two servicemen had been
flying, or whether the UFO bad registered on their radar. Did
its presence affect the operation of the on board instruments?
Were attempts made to film or photograph the object and if so
what were the results? These are just a few of the questions
that to date have remained unanswered under the pretext of
preserving our national security.
1 Richard H. Hall, ed., The UFO Evidence (Washington, D.C.:
National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1964),
2 Donald I. Keyhoe, The Flying Saucer Conspiracy (New York:
Henry 1-kit & Company. 1955), p. 277.
3 Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences
Section, National Research Council, Non-Meteoritic Sightings
File, N68-N17, (Ottawa), Ontario.
UFOs and Energy Generating Sites
In some quarters, one of the most disturbing aspects of the UFO
phenomenon is the concentration of sightings in the immediate
vicinity of energy-generating installations. This apparent UFO
interest in power production centers has been noted in virtually
every corner of the world. Hundreds of witnesses from all walks
of life claim to have observed an assortment of unconventional
aerial craft over hydro, nuclear and thermal (fossil fuel)
Frequently, these sightings have coincided with inexplicable
power disruptions which many observers have attributed to the
presence of these enigmatic craft. (See Chapter 9, “E.M. Effect
and Power Blackouts”.) Curiously, virtually every known sighting
has occurred at night, or in the early morning hours. This fact
alone strongly suggests that UFOs (whether manned or not) prefer
to conduct their presumed monitoring activities when the risk of
detection and possible retaliation are least likely.
What then might be the possible motives behind these seemingly
clandestine activities? Without going into sensationalist
speculation, some of the more plausible reasons might include
assessing our energy-producing activities, assessing the
environmental impact of energy-production and possibly tapping
our electrical energy.
Assessment of Energy Production Activities. Although the
appearance of UFOs date back to pre-biblical times, the so-called
modern era of sightings was coincident with the reconstruction
period immediately following World War II. This turning point in
history marked our fateful entry into
the nuclear age. To many, this single leap by human kind into
self-destructive capability seemed to have triggered the
widespread appearance by these phantom craft.
The concentration of sightings along high technology corridors
has solidified the belief that the faceless entities behind the
UFOs may be engaged in surveying our progress in harnessing
energy sources and, in particular, nuclear energy. In view of
the fact that UFO sightings have centred around nuclear power
production and missile installations, we can assume that 'they'
have recognised the dual application of this energy. Perhaps
sensing the delicate balance between peaceful and military uses,
their interest may lie in periodically surveying strategic sites
to detect any new developments that might upset the existing
equilibrium. (India’s recent transformation of nuclear
applications is a case in point.)
If, in fact (and admittedly this is highly-speculative), 'they'
envisage us to have a common destiny, then their concern about
our potentially apocalyptic Doomsday machines is well-founded.
Assessment of Environmental Impact. Contrary to what some
hydroelectric authorities would have us believe, electricity
production is often responsible for widespread environmental
damage. Consider Hydro-Quebec’s recent attempt to improve its
image with the mass media slogan, "Nous sommes propre, propre,
propre" ("We are clean, clean, clean"). While electricity itself
may be termed clean, non-polluting energy, its generation
inevitably creates harmful ecological side effects. There seems
to be mounting evidence that UFOs are interested in assessing
the extent of this damage to the environment.
In several UFO appearances over these facilities, unknown
'objects' have reportedly been released by the craft into nearby
lakes and forests. The prevalent theory is that these 'objects'
may be some form of probe or remote sensor designed to sample
and monitor the quality of air, water, soil and vegetation in
the immediate vicinity of nuclear generating plants. It would
seem that the visitors recognised the potentially catastrophic
This environmental concern, if that’s what it is, may reflect
our visitors’ interest in evaluating trends in environmental
damage to the earth, for the purpose of projecting potential
hazards to the rest of the solar system and galaxy.
Tapping Man-made Electrical Energy. UFOs have frequently been
spotted hovering over or flying along high voltage transmission
lines. Some witnesses have reported hearing a distinctive bum,
resembling a generator, coming from these UFOs. This has led to
speculation that the mysterious craft may actually be involved
in draining some of our energy reserves.
One such case which vividly illustrates this possibility
occurred outside Ottawa, near Hammond, Ontario, in April 1969.
Three witnesses were driving along a rural road when they were
suddenly confronted with a pinkish saucer-shaped craft,
estimated to be thirty feet in diameter. It was hovering above
the high tension wires along the road. In the words of one of
the startled witnesses: "It then followed along the wires,
rising and falling with them, seeming to draw power from them."
If, by some sophisticated induction procedure, UFOs do possess
the technology to siphon off some of our 'electric gold', it
stands to reason that hydroelectric utilities would have records
of these sudden power losses. Whether they do or not remains a
secret. If, and J do stress if, such unexplained losses have
been registered, might this not partially account for the recent
escalation in the cost of electricity to the consumer?
On the other hand, the motives may be purely altruistic and the
reverse may be taking place. Realising the impending energy
crunch, they may be supplying power to our dwindling reserves
via the transmission lines. This possible scenario might explain
some of the power failures seemingly caused by sudden
inexplicable power surges. (See Chapter 9, 'E.M. Effect and
1 Ottawa Citizen, April 24, 1969.
Pickering Nuclear Energy Generating
Plant, Pickering, Ontario
December 31, 1974/February 4, 1975
Ontario Hydro operates a total of seventy-eight energy
generating stations, three of them nuclear fuelled. Ontario Hydro
is the principal power utility in the province. The Pickering
Nuclear Generating Plant, east of Toronto, is the second-largest
electrical energy producing installation in the province and
one of the world’s largest nuclear generating facilities. In
recent years, Pickering has become the focal point of persistent
UFO attention. More than, any other known incidents, the
Pickering sightings have clearly demonstrated UFO preoccupation
with scanning and surveying the operations of nuclear generating
The most intensive period of this type of activity—some call it
spying—stretched over a four-week-period beginning on New Year’s
Eve 1975. Three security guards stationed inside the plant were
preparing to greet the New Year when their attention was
suddenly diverted to a bizarre sight. Over Lake Ontario, just
south of the plant, they saw a cluster of brilliant red spheres.
In a front-page account in Ontario Hydro’s publication,
'Hydroscope', Dave Percy, one of the guards, stated:
One of the things moved in from the lake and hovered over
Number 3 and 4 reactor buildings. It was bright red and
seemed to pulsate. Comparing it with the size of the reactor
buildings, I would say it was about thirty feet across.1
At this point, the security men alerted fire fighter Mike Dorian
who noted that the object "hovered over the station for six or
seven minutes, then an explosion-like flash occurred and the
object took off."
Oddly enough, at the time of the sighting, Reactor Number 3 was
not in operation. It had been shut down five months earlier,
following the discovery of heavy water leaks in 19 of the
reactor’s 390 pressure tubes.2 While it would be highly
speculative to suggest that the UFOs were specifically
monitoring the malfunctions, the fact that the disk-like craft
hovered directly over Reactor 3 tends to reinforce that
A month after the New Year’s Eve incident, a half dozen similar
craft again made an appearance over Pickering. The vessels,
described as “balls of light” varying in colour from bright red
to almost white, remained in the area for over two hours.
According to security man Mike McKenna, stationed at the
plant’s east gate on Brock Road, the objects ap-
peared to be a number of miles away and looked to be about
the size of a softball. "But", he explains, "when you don’t
know how far away something is, you can’t tell how big it is
and vice versa."3
Two of the luminous craft then moved in from the lake and
hovered over the service centre of the plant. After remaining
motionless for about half an hour, the craft abruptly departed,
shooting straight up into the sky at rocket-like speeds.
Understandably, the three security men were somewhat reluctant
to discuss the sightings, possibly for fear of public ridicule
or even managerial sanctions. In the words of Dave Percy: "We
took an awful lot of ribbing. We thought they were going to
carry us off to [the hospital in] Whitby."4
Four nights later, several Ajax and Pickering area residents
were treated to a dazzling acrobatic display by a dozen
multicoloured UFOs once again maneuvering near the nuclear plant.
The witnesses included a Durham regional police constable, three
Pickering ambulance drivers, and Andy Parks, music director of
radio station CHOO in Ajax. They were "damn sure" the plant
was besieged by UFOs for nearly eight hours! In describing the
movements of the silent red, green, yellow and pink craft, Andy
Parks, who holds a private pilot’s license stated that they were
"floating around, zipping this way and that". He maintained that
"no planes move or pulsate like that!"5 At the same time he also
swore that Oshawa Flight Control tower officials had confirmed
the presence of the 'unidentified' objects. But on the following
day, the same airport officials denied ever having seen any.
1 Ontario Hydro, Hydroscope, Vol. 12, No. 6 (February 14, 1975)
Toronto: p. 1.
2 Hydroscope, Vol. 11, No. 42 (December 6, 1974) p. 1.
3 Hydroscope, (February 14, 1975) p. 1. op. cit~
5 Toronto Sun, February 8, 1975.
Douglas Point Nuclear Generating
Station, Douglas Point, Ontario
September 11-17, 1967
Within weeks of going into operation, Canada’s first full-scale
nuclear power station became the scene of a week-long rash of
UFO sightings. Located between Port Elgin and Kincardine,
Ontario, on the eastern shores of Lake Huron, the
200,000 kilowatt Douglas Point Generation Station began
producing electricity in August, 1967.1 Judging by numerous
reports from credible witnesses, we are left with the impression
that the mysterious disk-shaped craft must have been involved in
monitoring not only the operation of the plant but also the
water quality of Lake Huron in the immediate vicinity of Douglas
Point. The Toronto Telegram reported:
Port Elgin, Ontario—This village has a fully-fledged flying
saucer mystery on its hands but nobody wants to talk about
it. At least seventeen people have seen a UFO over Lake Huron
in the past week here in Bruce County, about 180 miles
Northwest of Toronto. One sighting rated an entry in the
official log of the Douglas Point nuclear generating station
of Ontario Hydro. Samuel Horton, superintendent of the Hydro
station about ten miles south of Port Elgin, said between six
and thirteen people at the plant sighted a saucer-shaped
object last Monday, Sept. 11, 1967. The log entry reads: “On
Monday, September 11, at 15:30 hours, (3:30 PM), a UFO was
observed passing over the station in an easterly direction.”
Witnesses said they thought the object was part of an
orbiting spacecraft until it seemed to hover over the lake
about one mile and a half out and then dropped something into
the water. One plant employee said he and others saw a
similar craft return two nights later and for the next five
nights search for the dropped object. One witness said he saw
the craft hover near the station. Two others said they saw
sparks coming from it over the lake. Selfridge Air Force Base
[across the lake] did not investigate and made no radar
A similar report in 'Hydroscope' went on to say that plant
employees were reluctant to openly discuss the sighting, because
as one said, "We don’t want people to think we’re nuts!"2
While reports of UFOs ejecting small objects are not uncommon,
this case is unique in that the craft returned in an apparent
effort to retrieve the object. This suspected attempt may
indicate that the object was some form of device designed to
gauge the emissions from the nuclear plant.
Nuclear generating plants are notorious for producing two types
of emission by-products which, when uncontrolled, can have a
devastating environmental impact. One such by-product is solid
radioactive waste in the form of lethal plutonium which requires
elaborate storage facilities. According to Ontario Hydro:
Solid wastes are buried underground in concrete tile holes or
stored in steel-reinforced concrete trenches at special sites.4
Environmentalists have long argued that these special containers
are potentially vulnerable to long-term deterioration and
geological shifts. The resulting leakage of these lethal wastes
would ultimately filter down into lakes and rivers, setting oil
an ecological chain reaction of catastrophic proportions.
The other by-product, in the form of heated water, is directly
released into lakes or rivers bordering nuclear generating
facilities. All nuclear generating stations require vast amounts
of water for cooling purposes. In the cooling process, the water
temperature is raised by about 20° Fahrenheit, before being
released back to its original source.5 The long-range effect of
this treated water on a wide spectrum of aquatic life is now the
focus of worldwide concern.
Clearly, this theory of possible UFO environmental concern is
well-founded. It is equally possible, of course, that this
presumed gesture of 'cosmic humanism' may be far less noble. The
'drop-off' exercise may simply have been a method of collecting
water for personal use. A less appetising possibility is that
the discarded container may have held garbage, or yet,
biological wastes. After all, the American astronauts who landed
on the moon left behind more than just flags and instruments.
1 Ontario Hydro, Bruce Nuclear Power Development, PRD 6409/20M/
3, 76, p. 1.
2 Toronto Telegram, September 18, 1967.
3 Ontario Hydro, Hydroscope, Vol. 4, No. 3 (September 29,
4 Ontario Hydro. Hydro and the Environment, PRD A6404-1OM,
Chalk River - Deep River, Ontario
February 8, 1967
The Chalk River region in northeastern Ontario, 160 miles west
of Ottawa, is one of Canada’s major energy producing and
experimental centers. Within a twenty-mile radius are the
Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD) station, the Chalk River
Nuclear Laboratories, and Des Joachims Hydro Generating System,
Ontario’s fourth largest hydro-electric station.1
Over the years, area residents have periodically reported the
presence of unidentified craft in the vicinity of these
installations. The most intensive period of UFO activity
occurred on February 8, 1 968, when fourteen witnesses,
including eight Ontario Provincial Police constables, were
treated to an unforgettable display of aerial manifestations.2
On that evening the presence of a circular multicoloured craft
disrupted one family’s dinner and apparently interfered with
their television reception.3 This particular sighting took place
over the W.J. McCarthy farm, three miles south of Deep River,
across from the Des Joachims Hydro Generating Station. The
Ottawa Citizen reported:
Miss Mary McCarthy, sixty-five, a retired CPR wire operator,
said her sixteen-year-old nephew, Lee Elliott, one of the six
children of Mrs. Dan Elliott, who also lives at the farm, had
first sighted the object from the supper table.4
There, on a hill, about a quarter of a mile away from the farm
was a circular craft with a large core of dazzling pulsating
yellow lights in its centre. From this core, red lights appeared
to be pulsating outward toward the rim of the craft, resembling
the pulsations of an intricate multicoloured neon sign. According
to Miss McCarthy:
When the object was spotted at 6:43 PM, the television set
went on the blink. When the object disappeared about forty
minutes later, the television reception was restored.
I was more curious than scared, if the snowmobile was
working, I would have gone to investigate.5
For two of Mrs. Elliott’s children, Francis, eight, and Jamie,
three, the ordeal was a frightening and tearful experience, but
the older sisters, Margaret, thirteen, and Cathy, twelve, began
drawing sketches of the object, reproduced here. Ironically, the
children were arguing about flying saucers just as
sixteen-year-old Lee spotted the UFO outside: "I had just said I
did not believe this stuff about the police seeing them."6 This
reference was made to the broadcast reports that eight OPP
officers had viewed UFOs earlier that same morning near Killaloe
Station and Eganville, both located about sixty miles south of
Chalk River. One of the objects was described in the OPP
... very bright, then dimmed to a red tinge in the low sky.
Hovered over barn for five minutes, then rose in height.
Moving very fast, then stopped. Glowed brightly, then
dimmed with red tinge again. Viewed for forty-five minutes.
No pickup on radar, nor sighting by Station Foymount
In an attempt to defuse the controversy generated by the
clay-long sightings, spokesmen at the Petawawa Canadian Forces
Base, seventeen miles east of Chalk River, were quick to dismiss
the sightings as misidentified "flares from a plane."8 One
wonders why they didn’t dare question the testimonies of the
eight OPP officers. The local press reported:
"The Canadian Forces Base here at Petawawa has solved the
mystery of the unidentified flying object seen by residents
Thursday night in the Pembroke area. Captain Ken Parks, an
information officer at the base, said planes were shooting
flares in the area at, the same time as residents spotted the
object. A number of persons reported seeing a bright blinding
light ringed with small red lights."9
When was the last time you saw a sixteen-foot-wide circular
flare with a built-in multicoloured light show?
1 Ontario Hydro, Hydroscope, Vol. 6, No. 4 (February 7, 1969).
2 Ontario Hydro, Power From the Ottawa, PRD A9394 19.5M.
3 Ottawa Citizen, February 9, 1968.
6 Ottawa Journal, February, 1968.
7 Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences
Section, National Research Council, Non-Meteoritic Sightings,
File N68-012, (Ottawa).
Duncan, British Columbia
March 7, 1969
A UFO sighting on Canada’s west coast in 1969 again shows UFO
interest in energy generating facilities, but also demonstrates
another rarely reported phenomenon occasionally associated with
UFOs - the psychic or paranormal dimensions.
On the evening of March 7, a strange case of apparent UFO
'mind-reading' took place in the town of Duncan, on the east
coast of Vancouver Island. At about 8:30 PM, Mrs. William
Marshall, her daughter and her daughter’s friend— the latter
both University of Victoria students—were driving to a store
near the Marshall home, when they spotted a bright red light
crossing the sky. At first they thought it might be a NASA space
capsule carrying astronauts, but when the craft stopped and
hovered momentarily before moving in the opposite direction,
they became intrigued.
When they returned home, Mrs. Marshall’s husband and her mother
joined in watching the mysterious vessel. According to Mrs.
Marshall, the object:
... appeared to be looking for something, speeding up and
then slowing down, almost to a standstill. It passed over
Mount Prevost, and turned east until it was over the large
B.C. Hydro generating station [Georgia Thermal Generating
Plant] about four or five miles north of Duncan. By seeing
the lights, we were able to ascertain that the UFO hovered
over the plant. It hovered over the generating station for
about fifteen minutes, and then returned over Mount Prevost
again in a westerly direction for a time. It again turned and
came straight towards our house, and as it passed over us we
could see quite plainly its shape as it was flying at a much
lower altitude than previously, and its lights threw their
gleams onto the object. It was round in shape, and we could
plainly see it rotating. It had four lights, one green, one
red, one yellow and the other white. After passing slowly
over our house, it hovered around for a few more minutes,
then speeded up and headed rapidly in an
eastern direction towards where I believe Vancouver is
situated from here. I timed bow long the UFO was in this area
- forty minutes.1
It seems highly unlikely that the passage of the UFO over the
Marshall residence was purely coincidental. There are hundreds
of homes within a three- to four-mile radius of the Georgia
Generating Plant, any one of which could have been the target of
the UFO fly-by. The fact that the craft descended directly
toward the location of the witnesses and then "hovered around
for a few more minutes" suggests an act of surveillance. It
would seem that the UFO, presumably manned, had detected that
its presence was being observed by members of the Marshall
The following day, one of Mr. Marshall’s fellow workers, Ernie
Anderson of Duncan, also reported having sighted the craft the
previous evening. As further confirmation, a local radio station
carried an account of several sightings of a similar craft on
that same night over Vancouver.
1 Canadian UFO Report, Vol. 1, No. 3 (May-June 1969) p. 4.
The E. M. Effect and Power Blackouts
The next time your car stalls, your television set goes haywire
or the city you live in is suddenly plunged into darkness, look
up at the sky. You may spot a UFO!
Hundreds of incidents have been reported all over the world in
which UFOs have been suspected of being instrumental in
triggering electrical disruptions. This is commonly known as the
electromagnetic, or the E.M. effect and internal combustion
engines, household appliances, lighting systems, radios,
television sets and even power networks have at one time or
another all apparently succumbed to this mysterious phenomenon.
Recent studies by physicists point to some form of high
frequency electromagnetic radiation (microwave radiation) as a
likely explanation for the EM. effect.' What remains unexplained
is whether these disruptions are deliberate or accidental. One
prevalent theory is that although the electromagnetic fields
emitted by UFOs appear to inadvertently play havoc with the
normal flow of electrical currents, they are not generally
viewed as deliberate acts of sabotage, hostility or even
mischief. Another possibility, previously explored here is that
the suspected siphoning off or distribution of electricity by
UFOs may, as a side effect, produce power failures. We cannot,
however, rule out the disturbing possibility that, in cases
involving large-scale power blackouts, some UFOs may be
deliberately testing the strength and obvious vulnerability of
our power transmission systems.
UFOs are apparently notorious for causing three types of
disruptions - internal combustion engine failure - household
appliance outages and large-scale power blackouts.
Internal Combustion Engine Failures
The E.M. effect has caused failures in all types of electrically
sparked engines, with the exception of diesel engines. This,
fact supports the theory that the disruptions are electrical or
electromagnetic in nature.2 Automobiles, trucks, buses,
tractors, snowmobiles, lawn mowers and even aircraft have at one
time or another been silenced by a passing UFO. The most
frequently reported E.M. effects usually involve motorists
driving along relatively remote rural roads. Their cars may
suddenly lose power or their engines may seize completely. As
they look up there is a strange-looking craft, usually
disk-shaped, hovering at low altitude. This is followed by
strong static on car radios. At night, the headlights may dim or
extinguish completely. in every known case, the electrical
systems resumed normal operation following the departure of the
Household Appliance Outages The E.M. effect disrupts household
appliances in different ways. Television sets are the hardest
hit with reported interferences ranging from distorted and
blurred images to dimming and/or loss of audio.3 Evidently, the
problem is not one of total power loss, since in all cases the
sets were partially operative. In rarer instances, electric
clocks, toasters, washers and houselights went 'on the blink'
whenever a UFO passed overhead. To a lesser extent, plug-in and
battery-operated radios have also been temporarily silenced by
the EM. effect. While most of them failed completely, some
reportedly emitted static, pulsations and 'shrieking', as well
as peculiar Morse Code type beeps, dots and dashes. This has
Large-scale Power Blackouts The reported concentration of UFOs
over electrical generating and transmission installations has
often resulted in unexplained power failures. Is there a direct
relationship? The most widely accepted explanation is that the
magnetic fields accompanying UFOs produce in
-creased power flows that overload transmission lines, trip
circuit breakers and set up a chain reaction of uncontrolled
Two of the most prominent blackouts, during which UFO tampering
has been suspected, were the massive 'Northeast Blackout' in
November 1965 and a hushed-up power disruption on Ottawa's
Parliament Hill in May 1969.
1 James M. McCampbell, 'Ufology: New insights from Science and
Common Sense' (Belmont. Ca.: Jaymac Company. 1973). p. 52.
2 Ibid., p. 51.
3 Ibid.. p. 55.
4 Ibid., p. 57.
The Great Northeast Blackout
November 9, 1965
On November 9, 1965, the northeastern region of the United
States and Canada was abruptly plunged into blackness. The
worst blackout on record came to be known as the 'Big
The facts are well known. At 5:16 PM, at the height of the
evening rush hour, electrical power to one-sixth of the
continent's population was suddenly cut off, trapping millions
of people on expressways, in elevators and in office buildings.
Altogether, thirty million people in eight U.S. states and in
the province of Ontario were affected by the disruption.' In
Ontario the blackout was confined to the eastern portion of the
province - from Timmins in the north, across to Cornwall in the
east and south toward Sarnia. Windsor, Ottawa and Sudbury were
the only eastern centers to escape the blackout.2 Yet within
three hours power was restored to most parts of the province.
Mass media coverage naturally focused on the human aspect of the
blackout and to a lesser extent, on the delay in determining the
cause of the breakdown. There was, however, an even more
dramatic story. UFOs had been reported in the vicinity of
strategic hydro installations at the time of the blackout. The
impressive number of credible sightings led many researchers to
consider the possible role these craft may have played in the
power collapse. The researchers included the late Dr. James E.
MacDonald,3 a physicist at the University of Arizona; former
NICAP director Major Donald E.
Keyhoe; and astronomer Dr. J. Allen Hynek, the current director
of the Center for UFO Studies.
Immediately following the breakdown, the U.S. Federal Power
Commission and the Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Commission
launched a full-scale investigation into the cause. At first, it
was reported that the trouble originated with a mechanical
breakdown in a high voltage line between Buffalo and Niagara
Falls. According to the Globe and Mail:
The report turned out to be false. Then a substation near
Syracuse was reported to be the cause of the failure, but
repairmen found it in perfect condition.4
Finally, six days after the blackout, Ontario Hydro engineers
traced the trouble to the mammoth Sir Adam Beck No. 2
Generating Station at Queenston, Ontario, north of Niagara
It seems that just prior to the blackout, power was flowing from
Sir Adam Beck No. 2 into Ontario, then across the border via
Cornwall into New York State. In graphic terms, power was
flowing clockwise in a loop around Lake Ontario. At 5: 16 PM, a
backup relay on one of the six lines linking Sir Adam Beck to
the rest of the province mysteriously tripped the line's circuit
breaker, which acts much like a household fuse. In quick
succession the cut-off power jumped to the other five lines,
causing an overload that tripped the circuit breakers on these
lines as well. A veritable tidal wave of electricity - million
kilowatts - flowed in the opposite direction into New York
State.5 Inexplicably, the relays on the New York lines failed
to isolate and contain the overload. Within seconds, the entire
grid of thirty-one interconnected power utilities of CANUSE
(Canada-United States Eastern grid) had broken down.
Although experts could pinpoint the origin of the blackout, they
were baffled by the cause of the relay malfunction and the
failure of the protective systems to contain the overload, In
the words of Ontario Hydro's system supervising engineer, Jim
Harris: "It's incredible! I would have said this was impossible
if I hadn't seen the evidence."6 The mystery deepened when it
was discovered that the relay had not in
fact, malfunctioned, but had merely reacted to a sudden surge of
power from an unknown source. As stated in the final report of
the Us. Federal Power Commission: "The precise cause of the
backup relay energisation is now known."7 Where did the
unexplained surge of power come from? To this day that question
has remained unanswered.
Or has it? Although inconclusive, one answer might lie in the
findings of the late Dr. James E. McDonald who contended that
the magnetic fields accompanying UFOs can create sudden power
surges in transmission lines as the craft flies overhead.8 In
theory, these power surges could produce blackouts- of massive
Since the 'Big Blackout', McDonald's theory has gained
considerable support in the light of strong evidence confirming
widespread UFO activity on that fateful evening. The Syracuse
Herald-Journal was inundated with calls reporting more than one
hundred sightings in the Syracuse area. One of the first came
from Syracuse Deputy Aviation Commissioner, Robert C. Walsh, who
was flying over Syracuse at the time of the blackout.9 Despite
the darkness, be managed to land safely at Hancock Airport.
Standing on the runway, with some airport officials, he suddenly
noticed an enormous circular ball of light, drifting overhead.
"It appeared to be one hundred feet in the air and fifty feet in
diameter."10 It rose for several seconds, then suddenly
disappeared. Moments later, a bewildered Walsh and his
companions watched an identical device ascending over the
airfield, before mysteriously "blinking out", as did its
predecessor. Unlike the known high-speed plunges of fireballs,
these craft moved upward at moderate speed - clearly under some
form of intelligent control.
At the same time, the mysterious craft were also being observed
overhead. Veteran flight instructor Weldon Ross and his student,
James Brooking, were approaching the darkened airport when they
spotted a second fiery object below. The giant craft, estimated
at well over one hundred feet in diameter, appeared to be
positioned directly over the Clay substation, a strategic
installation that channels power from
Niagara Falls to New York City.1 It was the same substation
where hydro investigating teams bad initially pinpointed the
origin of the blackout.
In a relentless pursuit of a possible UFO-blackout relationship,
Herald-Journal reporters succeeded in uncovering even more
explosive evidence. In a front page story seven days after the
blackout, the paper carried photographs of the mysterious red
craft taken by Mr. William Stiliwell, a sexton at St. Paul's
Episcopal Church. He described what he had observed through a
"The centre was rotating, around and around and around. It
came from the direction of DeWitt and shot. off at an angle
and then went back the way it came."12
He had watched the glowing object for as long as two hours
before it streaked away.
While investigating teams continued to dig for the mysterious
cause of the power failure, press coverage of a possible UFO
connection gained momentum. In a strongly worded editorial, the
Indianapolis Star urged:
"The answer is fairly obvious - unidentified flying objects! It
is one angle the multi-pronged investigation should not
Support for the UFO possibility intensified as news of other
sightings became known. In New York City, twenty minutes into
the blackout, witnesses in the Time-Life Building spotted a
peculiar glow in the sky over darkened Manhattan. According to
Major Donald Keyhoe:
"It appeared to come from a round object hovering over the
city. This was twenty minutes after the lights began to go
out. Several photographs were taken by a Time magazine
photographer, one of which appeared in the November 19th
Although clearly visible in the photograph, Time editors failed
to make any reference in their photo caption to the
spindle-shaped craft. Journalistic over
sight or deliberate omission? The only hint of any usual aerial
activity came in a facetious reference to a Soviet satellite:
Some New Yorkers, claiming that they had seen a satellite
pass over at the moment the lights failed, argued that the
Russians had done it again.15
But UFO investigator and author, the late Frank Edwards
disagrees with both the UFO and the Soviet satellite
The spindle-shaped thing could have been a UFO - but it
certainly wasn't. It was nothing more than an optical ghost, the
result of reflections between the elements of an air-spaced
While disputing the validity of the Time photo, Edwards strongly
supported the contention the UFOs were somehow involved in
activating the blackout. In fact, while conducting his own
investigation into the cause of the blackout he discovered that
U.S. military authorities had been well aware of the UFO
presence, at least forty-five minutes prior to the power
This startling disclosure came from two commercial pilots, Jerry
Whitaker and George Croninger, who were flying over Tidioute,
Pennsylvania, when they spotted two disk-shaped "shiny objects"
overhead. Even more surprising was the sight of two military
jets chasing the mysterious craft. Moments later, one of the
disks put on a "burst of speed" and quickly outdistanced its
pursuers. While watching the fast-disappearing UFO, the dazed
pilots lost sight of the other object, which had presumably
departed in the same manner.
The most spectacular UFO revelation, however, came one day prior
to the release of the 'official' explanation when, speaking
before a nationwide television audience, NBC commentator Frank
McGee announced that a private pilot had spotted "a round,
glowing object near the Niagara Falls power plant." 18
Associated Press picked up the story and numerous newspapers
subsequently carried it. The following morning, a
well-documented article appeared in the New York Journal
American blaming UFOs for the disastrous power-grid breakdown.
Any further media focus on the UFO connection was brought to an
abrupt halt, however, with the release of the 'broken relay'
explanation. Despite mounting evidence, the Federal Power
Commission bad predictably chosen to side-step the possible UFO
connection. This omission was eventually confirmed by Dr. James
E. McDonald who, as a respected scientist, was allowed to
interview certain FPC officials.
"They admitted they had the Syracuse and Niagara Falls
reports, also most of the others on that night. But they
wouldn't discuss the UFO possibility... No matter what they
believed, I think they were convinced the facts shouldn't be
given to the public, and that's why they agreed to the
'broken relay' story. At any rate, it was obvious they were
Under the circumstances there seems to be a strong possibility
that Canadian authorities were also involved in the cover-up.
Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Commission investigators, having
become aware of the UFO reports, collaborated with the FPC by
exchanging information that eventually led to the 'broken relay'
explanation.20 Furthermore, this explanation had apparently
been pre-arranged and was released simultaneously, in both
countries.21 The Ontario Hydro press statement similarly
neglected to include UFOs as the possible cause for the
One reputable American ufologist went so far as to point an
accusing finger at the late Lester B. Pearson, then Prime
Minister. Major Donald Keyhoe contends that:
"To shift attention from the UFO explanation, the 'broken
relay' story was invented. Since this could be construed as
blaming Canada, the Premier must have been convinced it was
best for both countries not to disclose the true
If that was the case, then it represents one of the most
shocking deceptions ever perpetrated - —leaving the heads of
thirty one utility companies and thirty million people to grope
in the dark in more ways than one!
1 Time (November 19, 1965), Canadian Edition, p. 24.
2 Ibid., p. 23B.
3 John G. Fuller, Aliens in the Skies: The New UFO Battle of the
Scientists (New York: G.P. Putman and Sons, 1969), p. 85.
4 Toronto Globe and Mail, November 16, 1965.
6 Ontario Hydro, Hydroscope, Vol. 2, No. 40 (November 19, 1965)
7 James M. McCampbell, Ufology: New Insights from Science and
Common Sense (Belmont, Ca.: Jaymac Company, 1973), p. 57.
8 James B. McDonald, Statement prepared for the Hearings before
a Committee of the U.S. Federal Power Commission.
9 Frank Edwards, Flying Saucers: Serious Business (New York:
Bantam Books, 1966), p. 147.
11 Donald E. Keyhoe, Aliens From Space (Toronto: The New
American Library of Canada Limited, 1973), p. 172.
12 Frank Edwards, op. cit., p. 148.
13 Donald E. Keyhoe, op. cit., p. 176.
14 Ibid., p. 172.
15 Time, op. Cit., p. 28A.
16 Frank Edwards, op. cit., p. 149.
18 Donald E. Keyhoe, op. cit:, p. 177,
19 Ibid., p. 182.
20 Toronto Globe and Mail, op. cit.
22 Donald E. Keyhoe, op. cit., p. 180.
March July 1969
The national capital region of Ottawa-Hull has, over the years,
become the scene of widespread UFO activity. The most dramatic
sequence of sightings occurred in early 1969 when UFOs were
spotted directly over Parliament Hill and the prime minister's
residence on Sussex Drive. In one case, which was never
reported, the Parliament Buildings were struck by a mysterious
power blackout moments after a UFO had been reported overhead.
The flurry of sightings began on the evening of March 4. First
to spot a craft was RCMP Constable R. V. M., who at the time was
stationed near the Privy Council door. He stated:
At 7:45 PM, an object was seen from Parliament Hill, going
through the sky at a terrific rate of speed, heading from
south to north. This object stopped and appeared to hover in
the sky over Hull. It gradually moved in a Northwest
direction and at 9:34 PM disappeared from view. It appeared
to be round in shape and much smaller than the moon in size.1
Six other RCMP officers stationed at various locations on
Parliament Hill watched the same object. They notified National
Defence authorities at Royal Canadian Air Force Uplands Base
and, to their surprise, RCAF Captain H.R.W. told them that “he
would not be taking any action concerning the object.”2
Thirty minutes later, RCMP Constable R.J.S. was startled by the
appearance of two UFOs hovering above Sussex Drive, between the
prime minister's residence and Government House, the
governor-general's residence. According to the witness:
At approximately 10:00 PM, while on foot patrol from the
police lodge at Government House to the Prime Min-
ister's residence, I noticed two rather bright flashing
red lights in the sky. At first glance, I assumed they were
aircraft, but could hear no sounds of engines. One of these
lights proceeded east and was lost from view within a minute
or less, while the other one travelled in a westerly
direction. These lights were first seen directly overhead at
a point slightly inside the gates to Government House and
were very bright red. No definite shape could be
distinguished nor was there any type of trail visible behind
Two other RCMP constables stationed on Parliament Hill also
spotted the mysterious red craft overhead. As soon as it
appeared it shot straight down toward the river as if on a
suicide crash course. Just before impact, it suddenly changed
direction and shot back up, performing an extraordinary
The object shone like a star, was small and had no
discernible shape. Just before it disappeared, there appeared
to be an orange brown trail.4
Three months later, on the evening of June 5, three Parliament
Hill RCMP constables together with three young tourists were
mystified by a peculiar luminous craft hovering over the Ottawa
River behind the Parliament Buildings. It was 10:12 PM. They
watched as the vessel emitted a dazzling array of lights,
changing from red to green to red to white.5 Within minutes, the
attraction in the sky became the subject of grave concern to
security officials on Parliament Hill. According to the RCMP:
At 10:10 PM, all the lights on Parliament Hill - East, West
and Center Blocks - went out. Mr. L.T. of Ontario Hydro was
notified, but he said the cause could not be ascertained at
With Parliament Hill totally blacked out, attention focused on
the unidentified craft which was now moving eastward, with an up
and down ping-pong-ball-like trajectory. It finally settled
above Eastern Hull and Pointe Gatineau across the river from the
Prime Minister's residence. There it remained
stationary for about five minutes, with its lights blinking on
and off. About ten minutes later,
"it proceeded west of Hull at an altitude of approximately a
thousand feet and came across the river in the Ottawa area
and disappeared from view behind high buildings of Wellington
Street at about 10:35 PM. All this while, the object was of
no discernible shape."7
Twenty minutes later, the same witnesses spotted a bright
luminous object due south of Ottawa. This time, it was
accompanied by a smaller craft five hundred feet below it.
According to the onlookers, it was difficult to determine
whether this was the object they had seen before. The two craft,
now in the vicinity of the RCAF base at Uplands Airport,
continued to float about for another fifteen minutes before
The apparent inaction by federal defence forces regarding both
these UFO visitations demonstrates the government's indifference
to a potentially serious situation. From all accounts, no
military jet interceptors were scrambled in response to the
presence of these unidentified and visibly 'alien' craft over
We can only speculate whether this seeming indifference by the
government is based on bureaucratic myopia, disbelief in RCMP
reports or an open admission of helplessness. Whatever the
answer, the Department of National Defence continues to maintain
its policy of silence, referring all UFO inquiries to the
National Research Council, which admits that it does not
actively solicit or investigate UFO reports.8
It is equally disturbing that neither the sighting nor the
blackout received noticeable press coverage. A check of
subsequent editions of the Ottawa Journal and the Ottawa Citizen
failed to reveal any reference to either event. Whether this
omission was intentional or accidental does not alter the fact
that while two potentially explosive events were taking place,
the public was left virtually in the dark.
The scrutiny of Canada's national capital region by UFOs was not
over, however. Six weeks later, on the morning of July 20, Ms.
Manque D., a resident of Hull, Quebec, and an employee of the
National Research Council, was going to
work across the river, when she suddenly noticed a bright oval
Resembling a gigantic watermelon, the orange craft hovered above
her momentarily before zooming noiselessly across the Ottawa
River. To her astonishment, the craft stopped directly above the
Parliament Buildings. It remained stationary for several
minutes, then with a burst of speed it was gone from sight. Soon
after, the National Research Council switchboard was swamped
with telephone calls from people in the area who had also
witnessed the sighting. One of them was a Hull police officer.
NRC scientists, however, chose not to conduct an investigation
because they felt they bad insufficient information.
1 Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences
Section, National Research Council, Non-Meteoritic Sightings
File, N69-077, (Ottawa).
2 Ibid., N69-077.
3 Ibid., N69-078.
4 Ibid., N69-077.
5 Ibid., N69-104.
6 Ibid., N69-104.
7 Ibid., N69-104.
8 UFO-Quebec, Vol. 1, No. 7 (1976), p. 12.
9 Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, op. cit., N69-128.
The Province of Quebec
July 20 - 23, 1971
On July 23, 1971, most of Quebec was struck by a massive power
blackout that chiefly affected the two major urban centers -
Montreal and Quebec City. Quebec UFO researcher Claude MacDuff
is convinced that this disruption, as well as several other
outages during the same period, can be directly related to the
presence of UFOs.1 This case is somewhat reminiscent of the 'Big
Blackout' since in both instances widespread UFO sightings were
followed by shaky 'official' explanations.
The disruption began at about 8:26 PM Daylight Saving Time.2 It
was relatively short-lived; by midnight power had been restored
to most areas. Following the failure, spokesmen at Hydro-Quebec
could not immediately account for the mysterious breakdown.
After six days of silence, Quebec residents were finally given
the 'official' explanation. Mother Nature was singled out as the
likely culprit. According to the morning tabloid 'Montreal
The blackout which paralyzed a large sector of the province
of Quebec on July 23, 1971, might have been caused by
lightning damage to a 750 kilowatt power
line. After careful analysis of the causes that may have
activated the relay systems, Hydro-Quebec concluded that an
'arc drop' coinciding with the lightning bolt must have
caused a false signal that triggered the relays. The
simultaneous cut-out of service from three lines of 735,000
volts caused the general blackout.3
This story did not impress Claude MacDuff who categorically
denied the lightning explanation based on evidence that:
"during that same period, no regional storm or thunderstorm
was registered in the area where the main electric power
stations, or even substations are located... and no precise
indication was given as to the exact location of the station
damaged by lightning.
MacDuff pointed to the numerous UFO sightings during the week
preceding the blackout, some in the immediate vicinity of hydro
transmission stations. Specifically, be referred to a
well-documented incident over the Manicouagan hydroelectric
complex shortly before the outage of July 23.4 This massive
installation, located 240 miles northeast of Quebec City,
consists of five dam sites that generate a substantial part of
the province's electrical energy.
The pattern of sightings appeared to have been concentrated
along the Saint Lawrence River corridor, from Manicouagan and
Rimouski, south through the Montreal region, and stretching
toward Ottawa-Hull. Two days before the blackout, round,
flashing craft had been observed in the Rimouski region which
lies across the river from the Manicouagan complex. These
sightings had received considerable attention in the province's
most prestigious newspaper, the Montreal-based Le Devoir, which
reported in its July 23 edition that:
Several round unidentified objects, continuously pulsating,
were observed in the sky from various locations in the
Rimouski area, causing some consternation with the local
The phenomenon, sighted Tuesday night, July 20, 1971, at
Rimouski, St. Odile, Sacré Coeur and Bic, was described by
many witnesses as rotating, fire-red in colour with green and
blue rays flashing around. The most ac-
ceptable hypothesis is that the objects could have been
artificial satellites of earthly origin, seen under special
conditions, but this has been rejected by the Chairman of the
Physics Department at the Centre d'Etudes Universitaires de
Rimouski. Michel Campagnat stated that such satellites cross
the sky in an arc in ten minutes and cannot in any way be
geo-stationary, as in the case of the sighted objects.5
Since it wasn't a plane, helicopter, satellite, weather balloon
or meteor, what was it?
On that same evening, a woman living on a farm outside St.
Hyacinthe, forty miles east of Montreal, watched as two dark
circular craft with red rotating lights hovered over her potato
field and then suddenly disappeared. The next morning, her
husband found two eleven-foot-wide circular patches of crushed
and burned potatoes exactly where the two UFOs had hovered the
night before. Investigators from UFO-Quebec inspected the
patches and concluded that "the object topped at a height of
about fifteen feet, and burned a circular area with some form of
radiation or energy."6
In conclusion, then, the massive power blackout coincided with
widespread and very credible eye-witness reports of UFO
sightings, some near key hydroelectric generating sites. Added
to this is yet another questionable 'official' explanation.
While no direct proof is available linking the blackout to the
sightings, there is sufficient circumstantial evidence to
suggest seriously the possibility of the blackout being
UFO-related. The 'jury' is still deliberating...
1 Claude MacDuff, Le Procès des Soucoupes Volantes (The Trial
of the Flying Saucers), (Montreal: Editions Quebec-Amerique,
2 La Presse, July 24, 1971.
3 Montréal-Matin, July 29, 1971.
4 Claude MacDuff, op. cit., p. 129.
5 Le Devoir, July 23, 1971.
6 Official UFO, Vol. 1, No. 6 (February 1975).
September 20, 1972
The province of Quebec has had more than its share of encounters
with airborne craft of unknown origin. On September 20, 1972, a
night-time sighting near Mont Rougemont, twenty-five miles east
of Montreal, again coincided with widespread power disruptions
believed to be attributable to UFOs.1
This sighting involved one of the largest UFOs ever reported and
it draws attention to the attraction UFOs seem to have to
communication installations. In addition, attempts by the
principal witness to communicate with the massive craft were met
with dramatic and hair-raising response.
On that September night, Mr. G.P. (identity known to UFO-Quebec
investigators) was driving home toward Rougemont. It was about
00:45 AM and silhouetted against the bright moonlit sky he could
see massive Mont Rougemont, one of the many mountains that dot
the landscape of the Eastern Townships.
About two miles from the intersection that led to his residence,
he noticed a peculiar flying ball of dazzling light on his left.
The luminous sphere appeared to be headed toward the lower
slopes of the mountain and was now moving in a peculiar up and
down pendulum-like trajectory. As he watched, he was overwhelmed
by the dimensions of the spherical craft which be estimated to
be well over 350 feet in diameter (the height of a thirty-five
storey building). A thin, luminous wedge-like ring encircled the
gigantic mass, giving it a striking resemblance to the planet
Saturn. Just above the ring, a series of oval 'windows' or
'portholes' were emitting a brilliant white light that
illuminated the entire craft.
Hoping to get a better look, he stopped his car on the side of
the road, roughly half a mile away from it. He left the motor
running and stepped out of his vehicle to view the object which
was now slowly drifting past two communications installations -
one a Canadian National-Canadian Pacific microwave relay tower,
the other a television transmission antenna. To add to the eerie
spectacle, the craft was moving in complete silence. As it
reached the base of the thousand-foot-high butte, it stopped its
swinging motion and began a slow vertical climb to the top of
the butte. From there, it hovered barely a few feet above the
Just then another car, a Volkswagen, pulled up behind and the
driver got out.2 She and her passenger were both trembling with
fear, visibly shaken by the unearthly sight. While exchanging a
few words with Mr. G.P. they kept their eyes riveted to the
vessel in the sky, which had now begun a slow colour
metamorphosis. Its bottom half had turned to blazing rosy red
and then changed back to its original metallic tinge. This
pulsating procedure was repeated at regular intervals,
creating a surrealistic image that gave the whole mountainside a
rose-coloreds, dream-like appearance.
This latest performance filled Mr. G.P. with awe. The driver of
the other car found this cosmic light show too much to bear and
with a moan of despair, she and her passenger jumped back into
the car and departed at full speed.
Alone again, he suddenly remembered reading about a UFO sighting
during which a woman had attempted to send signals to the craft
with a flashlight.3 He climbed into his car and began to flash
his headlights on and off - a move which "I was to deeply regret
later!" The reaction was instantaneous. With incredible speed,
the massive sphere plunged toward him as if on a head-on
collision course. Before he could so much as gasp in horror, the
blazing mass was overhead! He ducked but could feel the car
bounce from side to side as if struck by a hurricane. Then a
shrill suction noise blasted his ears - a nightmarish sound he
said be would never forget. Then... nothing. Total silence.
Emotionally drained and shaking like a leaf, be crawled out of
his car and glanced around. There was no sign of the craft. It
had disappeared. Slowly he regained his composure and he tried
to start the car which had previously stalled. But the motor
would not turn over. Only after several attempts did it start.
It was then that he realised his eyesight had become blurred.
This discovery only worsened his already nervous state.
He somehow managed to get home, but once there, he began to
replay the events in his mind. He couldn't fall asleep. He
stayed up all night, perplexed and stunned. When investigators
from UFO-Quebec visited him three days later, be still appeared
dazed. He consented to lead them to the site and together they
scaled the butte, hoping to find some evidence. After a thorough
search, all they could find were leaves which had turned brown.
This was inconclusive evidence, since it could easily have been
caused by the seasonal autumn discolouration. They did discover,
however, that the flight path of the UFO corresponded with a
major geological fault line. This apparently was a recurring
pattern, matching similar sightings in the area. Aside from the
stalling car engine, other E.M. effects soon came to light. Upon
questioning nearby residents, it was learned that reception on
several television Sets had been mysteriously disrupted at the
exact time of this reported sighting.
1 UFO-Quebec, Vol. 1, No. 1 (1975) p. 4.
2 Canadian UFO Report, Vol. 3, No. 1 (1974) p. 20.
3 UFO-Quebec, op. cit., p. 5.
UFOs and Radar Sites
That UFOs are interested in /'scouting' some of our strategic
military radar facilities is becoming increasingly apparent.
Personnel manning radar stations along the Distant Early Warning
(DEW) Line and Pinetree Line have often been mystified by the
visitations of UFOs in the vicinity of these defence outposts
which are off-limits to all but authorised personnel.
At the height of the Cold War in August 1957, the
two thousand-mile DEW Line began to operate on the northern
perimeter of the continent.1 Under U.S.-Canadian command, it
marked the birth of a joint defence agreement, better known as
the North American Air Defence Command (NORAD). Designed to
detect incursions into North American air space by enemy
aircraft and missiles, the DEW Line today comprises thirty-one
radar stations from Greenland to Alaska, twenty-one of which are
in Canada.2 Soon after, the older Pinetree Line which bad been
in operation since 1952, was incorporated into the NORAD plan.
It comprises a string of twenty-two radar stations on the
northern perimeter of border population concentrations.
As with most matters pertaining to NORAD, very little is known
about the operations of radar stations. It is therefore not
surprising that even less is known about radar-tracked UFO
sightings. Added to that, the northern DEW Line sites are in
remote, isolated tundra regions where few civilian witnesses
would observe a UFO presence. Not only are military personnel at
DEW Line sites sworn to secrecy about
their work, but members of the local indigenous Inuit population
probably would not trust a white man enough to inform him if
they had sighted a UFO.
A similar situation applies to stations along the Pinetree Line,
which largely are also located in fringe, rural areas. However,
alien craft have been known to appear over the few Pinetree
stations which are closer to urban concentrations. Radar
stations are then inundated with phone calls from local
residents inquiring whether the object had appeared on radar
screens. This public inquisitiveness usually puts officials in
the position of having to explain the sightings about which they
themselves often have no information. Official statements,
however, rarely recognise such phenomena as being genuine UFOs.
The objects are usually dismissed as meteors, satellites,
weather balloons or the planet Venus.
Quite often, an unexpected blip will show up on the radarscope
for which there is no visual sighting. This usually occurs
under conditions of darkness or low cloud cover, or where the
blip is at an extremely high altitude. Although unseen, these
blips usually display flight maneuvers characteristic of the UFO
phenomenon, ranging from prolonged hovering to bullet-like
accelerations well beyond our current flight capabilities.
Publicly, they are often dismissed as false targets detected by
radar screens. These can be caused by curved beams bouncing off
some ground object, dense nimbo-stratus rain clouds, or even the
mysterious slow-moving targets known as 'radar angels', of which
there have been no known visual observations.
The "false target" explanation has been openly challenged and
rejected by many prominent researchers, including NICAP’s panel
of science advisors, which stated:
that the radar-UFO reports, after all, were made largely by
experienced radar operators who were convinced they had
tracked something solid and unexplained... 3 Except for cases
of so-called "anomalous propagation" - false radar targets
caused by bending of radar signals - UFO targets on radar
constitute objective confirmation of the reality of
unexplained objects in the atmosphere.4
One of the most publicized UFO incidents that involve ra-
dar tracking is the controversial in New Zealand sightings. In
late December 1978 swarms of oval, luminous UFOs were observed
over New Zealand’s South Island by hundreds of witnesses
including pilots and members of a Melbourne, Australia
television crew. While the crew was filming the UFOs (ten were
seen at one stage), civilian aviation staff at Wellington
Airport in New Zealand were tracking corresponding targets
"other than airplanes"5 on their radar screens. According to
Wellington air traffic controller A. Causer:
"We now have recorded sightings by six pilots on three Argosy
aircraft over ten days and a host of radar sightings. There
is obviously some strange phenomenon and it needs to be
Despite the widespread visual and radar confirmation, however,
most official explanations attributed the UFOs to misidentified
natural phenomena that ranged from meteorites and the planet
Venus to bright lights from Japanese fishing vessels 150
kilometers away! Another possible explanation comes from W.H.
Lehn, professor of engineering at the University of Manitoba,
who in an interview with Barbara Frum, host of CBC Radio’s 'As
It Happens', suggested that the lights were caused by the
'Novaya Zemlaya Effect'. Better known as an 'Arctic mirage',7
this effect involves light bouncing off the boundary between a
warm and a cool air layer often over vast distances. According
to Professor Lehn, the light source in this case could have
originated with the distant Japanese fishing vessels. He does
admit, however, that: "I only managed to get about three
recorded sightings of it in past history in the last three
Recent photo interpretation of the film by optical physicist Dr.
Bruce Maccabee, nuclear physicist Stanton Friedman and Dr. S.
Allen Hynek has ruled out that the objects were "planets, stars,
balloons, meteors, other aircraft, secret military maneuvers,
radar angels, fishing boats or weather phenomena.'8
1 Windsor Star, September 10, 1977.
2 Canadian Forces Command and Location Map, Mapping and
Charting Establishment, Department of National Defence, 1916.
3 Richard H. Hall, The UFO Evidence (Washington, D.C.: National
Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1964), p. 76.
4 Ibid, p. 82.
5 Toronto Star, January 1, 1979.
6 Toronto Globe and Mail, January 2, 1979.
7 'As It Happens. CBC-AM Radio Network, Toronto, Ontario.
January 3, 1979. 19:30 Eastern Standard Time.
8 The UFO investigator, April 1979. National Investigations
Committee on Aerial Phenomena.
Goose Bay Air Force Base, Labrador
One of the earliest UFO incidents to be reported over a radar
installation served to demonstrate the advanced maneuverability
of these unusual craft. The 1948 sighting over Goose Bay Air
Force Base in Labrador also focused attention on the inability
of the Canadian and U.S. military hierarchies to explain the
A detailed account of the incident was given to NICAP in early
1961 by Major Edwin A. Jerome, a retired United States Air Force
Command pilot and one-time intelligence officer.1 As the world’s
largest non-profit UFO research organisations, NICAP has over the
years been involved in serious - investigations under the
direction of a board of prominent scientific and academic
At the time of the sighting, Major Jerome was stationed at Goose
Bay, which then was used as the servicing and refuelling outpost
for all military and civilian air traffic crossing the North
Atlantic. He stated:
"It seems that a high-ranking inspection team was visiting the
radar facilities of this base... GCA (Ground Control Approach
radar) was a critical part of this picture, thus these
high-ranking RCAF and USAF officers, up to the rank of
General, as I recall.
While inspecting the USAF radar shack, the operator noted a
high-speed target on his scope, going from NE to SW. Upon
computation of the speed, it was found to be about 9,000 mph!
This incident caused much consternation in the shack, since
obviously this was no time for levity or miscalculations in
the presence of an inspecting party. The poor airman
technician was brought to task for his apparent
miscalculation. Again, the target appeared and this time the
inspectors were actually shown the apparition on the radar
screen. The only reaction to this was that obviously the
American equipment was way off calibration."
The party then proceeded to the Canadian side to Inspect the
RCAF GCA facility. Upon their arrival, the OIC (Officer in
Charge) related this most unbelievable target they had just
seen. The inspecting officers were appalled that such a
coincidence should happen. I was part of the meager reporting
machinery at the base and I was called in to make an immediate
urgent intelligence report on the incident. The prevailing
theory at the time was that it was a meteor. I personally
discounted this, since upon interviewing the radar operators on
both sides of the base they stated that it maintained an
altitude of 60,000 feet and a speed of approximately 9,000 mph.
To make the story more incredible, the very next day both radars
again reported an object hovering over the base at about 10 mph
at 45,000 feet! The 'official' story on this was that they were
probably some type of "high flying seagulls". You must remember
that all these incidents happened before the days of fast
high-flying jets and missiles and the now common altitude
1 Richard H. Hall, ed. The (UFO Evidence (Washington, D.C.:
National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1964),
2 Ibid, p. ii.
3 Ibid, p. 83.
Falconbridge Canadian Forces
Radar Station, Sudbury, Ontario
November 11, 1975
One of the longest and most controversial UFO sightings, ever
recorded by radar personnel happened in the Sudbury area in
northern Ontario. The appearance of unidentified craft on
November 11, 1975, prompted NORAD officials to send military jet
interceptors to investigate. Despite denials, this move clearly
exposed the government’s interest in exploring the phenomenon.
The Sudbury sightings coincided with an unprecedented week-long
flurry of UFO activity over key military installations in both
Canada and the United States.’
First to spot the objects were two Sudbury Regional Police
Constables, Bob Whiteside and Alex Keable. At about 5:00 AM,
while patrolling the streets of western Sudbury they spotted
four bright objects high up in the sky.2 Because of
the brilliance of the craft, no shape could be discerned, but
the officers agreed that the bizarre vessels, which produced no
noticeable sound, were definitely not conventional aircraft. One
object, brighter than the others, appeared in the southwest and
seemed to be bobbing up and down like a ping-pong ball; a second
one in the northeast remained stationary, while two others
In the western part of the city, meanwhile, Constable Gary
Chrapynski and Policewoman J.B. Deighton watched what were
presumably the same four objects. They saw light rays being
emitted which seemed to illuminate the clouds overhead. Viewed
through binoculars, one of the objects looked long and
cylindrical, similar in shape to a dirigible. Other police
officers stationed at various locations in a thirty-mile radius
around Sudbury also reported spotting various types of
pulsating, circular craft, noiselessly maneuvering in the early
At 6:15 AM, four officers at the Canadian Forces Radar Station
at Falconbridge, ten miles north of Sudbury, similarly reported
three unidentified targets on their Height Finder Radar and
Search screens.3 One appeared to be a very bright stationary
light at thirty thousand feet over the station, visible for
thirty seconds. Another, spherical in shape, appeared to be
rotating, while ascending and descending thirty miles south of
the station. This object apparently remained visible for over
two hours, while maintaining elevations ranging from forty to
seventy thousand feet. The third object appeared to be:
circular, brilliantly lit, with two black spots in the
centre, moving upwards at high speeds from 42,000 to 72,000
feet. No circular movement, viewed for fourteen minutes.
Major 0. took pictures, but it is not sure whether they will
That same Tuesday, a report in the Sudbury Star confirmed that
photographs of the mysterious objects bad been taken.
In Ottawa, National Defence Headquarters confirmed that four
people at the radar station, alerted by the police, saw three
bright circles with two black dots about
6:15 AM. The objects were photographed by the base staff.5
Later that afternoon, Star reporters were advised by the public
information office at Defence Headquarters in Ottawa that the
photos would soon be released to the press. This was
corroborated by Falconbridge radar station personnel, who
indicated that the developed prints would be available the
following (Wednesday) morning.
When contacted the next morning, the station’s commanding
officer, Major Oliver, made the following surprise announcement:
There have been no photographs taken, nor any messages sent to
Ottawa that mentioned photographs! He said he had investigated
and had found "no one bad grabbed a camera."6
This sudden reversal was in direct conflict with statements
issued earlier by Defence Headquarters. What’s more, the Ottawa
statements confirming the existence of the photos were based
primarily on the Telex report sent from Falconbridge to Defence
Headquarters, which specifically stated: "Major 0. took
pictures, but it is not sure whether they will turn out."7 Even
more bizarre is the mystery of why, for a period of over
twenty-four hours, Defence Headquarters and the National
Research Council as well as Sudbury Star reporters were led to
believe that the (non-existent) photos would be released - to
the public! Was this an intra-departmental communications
breakdown, or a last-minute coverup?
We may never know the reasons for the apparent secrecy, but
there seems to be no doubt that UFOs were indeed present over
Sudbury that morning. In fact, the objects were still in the
neighbourhood six hours later, when NORAD officials decided to
send up jet interceptors. The Sudbury Star reported that: "the
fighters were scrambled from the U.S. Air Force base at
Selfridge, Michigan, at 12:50 PM local time."8
This was eventually confirmed by Captain Rudy Miller, public
relations officer at the 22nd Division of NORAD in North Bay,
who stated that the two F-106 interceptors of the United States
Air National Guard Squadron "reported to have a lock on the
object. The only thing the pilots reported
encountering were sun reflections on ice crystals in the clouds.
It cannot be disputed that the pilots may indeed have observed
sun reflections off cirrus clouds. What remains questionable is
whether these reflections could account for the many reported
sightings. The NORAD explanation clearly overlooked the fact
that seemingly geometrical maneuvers were observed both visually
and on radar by a variety of qualified witnesses.
Perhaps the most original explanation came from Dr. Ian
Halliday, research officer at the Herzberg Institute of
Astrophysics at the National Research Council, who commented
that in all probability what the officers had seen was Venus or
Venus rises around 3 AM high in the southeast and is still
bright and high in the sky after sunrise. Jupiter is also
bright and sets about 4:30 AM.10
As to the sightings registered on radar, Dr. Halliday ventured:
as near as we can tell, it is a coincidence. This sort of
thing is not uncommon on radar. They just happened to see one
at the same time,11
Meanwhile, area residents continued reporting sightings for the
next few days.
More than three years later, the entire matter surfaced again
with the release of previously 'TOP SECRET' documents by the
U.S. Air Force and the U.S. Defence Department. The documents,
released under provisions of the U.S. Freedom of Information
Act, following the successful court action by Citizens Against
UFO Secrecy (CAUS) of New York, indicate that the UFO presence
over military installations was far more widespread than
initially reported. These disclosures were confirmed by National
Research Council (NRC) officials in Ottawa on January 19,
According to Research Officer Dr. Bruce McIntosh of NRC’s
Planetary Sciences Section of the Herzberg Institute
of Astrophysics, Canadian jets were scrambled to intercept UFOs
on at least two occasions during the week-long wave of
sightings. It seems that on the night of November 6, six days
prior to the Sudbury occurrence, unidentified targets were also
spotted on the radar screens at the North Bay NORAD Command
base, seventy miles east of Sudbury. As in the Falconbridge
case, the prolonged presence of the targets on the radar screens
prompted officials to send up Canadian interceptors later that
morning. Nothing was found, according to Dr. McIntosh.13 During
the same period, Canadian interceptors were again scrambled to
intercept a UFO that was approaching the Canadian border after
it had hovered over the missile launch area at Loring Air Force
Base in Maine. The documents gave no indication whether or not
the Canadian plane spotted the UFO. The U.S. records also reveal
exten.sive UFO activity over other nuclear missile launch sites
and bomber bases along the Canadian border in Maine, Montana and
Once again, NRC downplayed the North Bay sighting. One possible
explanation proposed by Dr. McIntosh was that the layers of high
density ice crystals could reflect radar beams Onto aircraft
over the horizon, creating a false radar signal. He also
suggested that Venus, “sticking out like a sore thumb,”4 could
have accounted for the sighting.
1 Toronto Star, January 20, 1979.
2 Sudbury Star, November 11, 1975.
3 Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences
Section, National Research Council, Non-Meteoritic Sightings
File, N75-147 (Ottawa).
5 Sudbury Star, op. cit.
6 Sudbury Star, November 15, 1975.
8 Sudbury Star, November 12, 1975.
9 UFO-Quebec, Vol. 1, No. 7, p. 12.
10 Sudbury Star, November 14, 1975.
12 Gratti, Art. 'Saucer-Eyed Spies' UFO Update, OMNI Magazine,
June 1979. Volume .1, No. 19. OMNI Publications International
Ltd. New York, p. 32.
13 Toronto Star, January 20, 1979.
14 Ibid., p. 2.
Sioux Lookout Canadian Forces
Radar Station, Sioux Lookout, Ontario
November 27, 28, 1968
In late November 1968, the Sioux Lookout region of northwestern
Ontario was plagued with a rash of UFO sightings which prompted
John Reid (L-Kenora-Rainy River) and the former
Federal-Provincial Relations minister, to raise the. issue of
public access to UFO information in the House of Commons. His
interest in the matter stemmed from disclosures that these
sightings had occurred in the immediate vicinity of the Sioux
Lookout Radar Station on the Pinetree Line. Here are excerpts
from John Reid’s remarks as recorded in the House on December
Shortly after my last visit to Sioux Lookout, I was told by
telephone, and in person, that there had been a large number of
sightings there. An article appeared in the town’s paper, the
Daily Bulletin (November 29th),: which I should like to quote to
bear out my claim that there have been extensive sightings in
For the last two evenings, several people in town have sighted
an unidentified flying object over Pelican Lake. Last night’s
sighting was observed by quite a few people outside Jim’s Coffee
Bar on Front Street at about 6 PM. The only information we could
gather from the observers was that it was "a big light in the
sky, which kept changing colour". No idea as to its shape or
maneuverability was given. About two months ago, at least five
people saw a UFO. Four on a return trip from Dryden, Ontario
spotted a green light in the sky near the Turkey Trail, white
another person in town saw the same phenomenon about two hours
earlier over Pelican Lake.
Both descriptions tallied on checking them out and the UFO was
described as a flat circular object of bright greenish hue,
which appeared to be pulsating. It was travelling at
conventional speed for an airborne object and glided down behind
the tree line out of sight.l
That brings me to the point of my question, Mr. Speaker. We do
have this very extensive facility at Sioux Lookout that is
operated by the Department of National Defence, Surely if
anything was in the sky over that period, records would be kept
by this most efficient establishment... Therefore, I would like
to ask the parliamentary secretary whether he could release some
of this supposedly confidential information for the benefit of
the Canadian public. The Christmas holiday season is fast
approaching, but I do not want to receive the answer from the
Parliamentary Secretary that it was Santa Claus trying out his
reindeer in anticipation of Christmas.2
In response, Defence Parliamentary Secretary D.W. Groos
confirmed that strange lights had been reported but bad not been
picked up by radar screens at Sioux Lookout. He failed to specify
whether the radar system was operating at the
time, or even whether the system was designed to pick up
low-flying or hovering objects. Instead he forecast that on
there probably will be some unidentified flying objects
picked up by that radar station... There is some evidence
that these will eventually be identified as a space vehicle
propelled by eight unknown objects.3
1 Sioux Lookout Daily Bulletin, November 29, 1968.
2 House of Commons Debates, December 12, 1968: (Ottawa: Queen’s
Printer), p. 3900-3901.
3 House Of Commons Debates, op. cit., p. 3901.
Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line
1956 to 1967
Only a very limited number of DEW Line sightings have ever
managed to surface. In an excellent appraisal of the UFO
dilemma, in 'Science, the Public and the UFO' (Bray Book
Service, Ottawa, 1967), ufologist Arthur Bray, a former pilot
and retired Royal Canadian Navy Lieutenant-Commander, describes
a particularly detailed incident that occurred in the autumn of
1956 at an unspecified 'site' on the DEW Line. At the time, the
principal witness, Donald Oliver of Halifax, was working with
Maritime Central Airlines as an aircraft mechanic.
It was in the early hours of an October morning. Another
mechanic, Donald MacDonald of Prince Edward Island, and I
were attending our aircraft and getting them ready for flight
in the morning. There were no flights scheduled that night
and there was not a thing in the sky, not even a weather
balloon. The sky was clear. We were just standing there
talking when there was a loud report like a Cannon going off
and the sky seemed to light up in a really brilliant way.
Then we saw it. It was like a green ball flashing at high
speed over the runway. It came over the runway parallel like
a plane on a fly past about 250 feet up. When it reached the
south end of the runway it veered sharply eastward’ and rose
very steeply, picking up speed. As it did so, it seemed to
take on a fluorescent colour, like a fiery ball. It was really
It all happened so quickly. In a couple of seconds it had
disappeared. I couldn’t say how big it was - it just looked
like a large ball. We reported it immediately to
the control tower where we were met with laughter. But an
hour or so later they sent for us and said they had received
reports from two other sites, of vapour trails from an
unidentified flying object flying constantly at very high
The initial account of this sighting appeared in the Halifax
Mail-Star on April 15, 1959. Curiously enough, two days earlier,
most Canadian newspapers had featured a front-page Canadian
Press story describing a UFO sighting over Air Defence Command
Headquarters at St. Hubert, Quebec. (See Chapter 6, 'UFOs and
Military Installations'.) Whether this was a coincidence or not,
one can only speculate, but in view of the similarities between
the two sightings, I am inclined to believe that the St. Hubert
disclosure prompted both Mr. Oliver and the Halifax Mail-Star to
publicise the DEW Line sighting.
In 1964, the Washington-based UFO research organisations, NICAP,
revealed information regarding another DEW Line sighting, this
one in November 1950.2 According to NICAP, the UFO descended
from the maximum altitude range of the radarscope (DEW Line
radar range is classified), moved horizontally at about 575 mph
over a distance of one hundred miles, before ascending
vertically. Unfortunately, this report from the Calgary NICAP
Subcommittee provides no description as to the, structural or
aerodynamic characteristics of the UFO.
Finally, on August 24, 1967, officials stationed at the Cape
Perry DEW Line Site, on the shores of the Beaufort Sea, were
baffled by a large spherical object which drifted slowly
overhead for some time. The object was also spotted by witnesses
aboard a light aircraft (Registration CF-OZS) flying in the
vicinity of the site.
According to the Cape Perry report, the craft was described as:
Translucent, silver and round, about the size of a baseball
held at arm’s length. Looked like a large soap bubble. No
trail, no sound, 25° angle from surface directly west of
Site, appears to be moving very slowly
southward. Object not painting on DEW Surveillance Radar.3
The 'bubble' remained in the Cape Perry vicinity for over ten
hours! The fact that it had not registered on DEW Line radar
eliminated several possible explanations, including weather
balloons or experimental craft of Soviet origin. It is unlikely
that the Soviets could produce a noiseless craft with a built-in
radar detection scrambler that could totally stump sophisticated
NORAD instruments. It is even more unlikely that the Soviets
would conduct open surveillance at low altitudes over a period
of ten hours!
1 Arthur Bray, Science, the Public and the UFO (Ottawa: Bray
Book Service, 1967), p. 165.
2 Richard H. Hall, ed., The UFO Evidence (Washington, D.C.:
National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1964),
3 Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences
Section, National Research Council, Non-Meteoritic Sightings
File, N67-029, (Ottawa).
Civilian Pilot Sightings
Most commercial air flights are uneventful. Occasionally some
turbulence might distract the passengers, but if we exclude the
rare occurrences of sky-jacking, mid-air births, high-altitude
coronary arrests or even mechanical malfunctions, air travel can
be downright boring.
If we are to believe a growing number of eye-witness reports,
however, the UFO factor can now be added to the list of possible
events that passengers might encounter while travelling by air.
In fact, civilian airline pilots may now hold the distinction of
being the most prolific UFO spotters on earth. There is growing
evidence that the majority of these pilots have, in the course
of their flying careers, come across intelligently controlled
phenomena for which there is no explanation. This comes as no
surprise if we consider that; unlike most other professions, air
crews spend the best part of their working lives scrutinising
celestial conditions. Yet, as in other countries, only a limited
number of Canadian mid-air UFO encounters have reached public
Several factors have contributed to the secrecy that surrounds
such events. Commercial air travel is a lucrative and highly
competitive industry, and most airlines shy away from the
harmful publicity that might surround them if exaggerated tales
of mid-air UFO sightings were to come to light. Perhaps,
however, a well-promoted UFO incident might spark an
unprecedented boom in airline ticket sales. After all, today’s
air traveller is an entertainment-hungry individual raised on
Arthur C. Clarke, Flash Gordon, Apollo missions, 'Star Trek',
'Star Wars', 'Close Encounters' and 'Battlestar
Galactica'. Besides, close to 60 per cent of western society
believe in the existence of UFOs.’
Most airline pilots would be hesitant about publicising their
UFO experiences, because they do not want to jeopardise their
advancement within the company. Predictably, most airlines are
quick to emphasise that their pilots have no explicit directives
prohibiting disclosures of such matters; in fact, they stress
that pilots who encounter UFOs may submit anonymous in-flight
'Incidents Reports'. Because such reports are for internal use
only and confidential in nature, however, it is at the airline’s
discretion whether or not they are released to the public.
Another possible reason for the silence surrounding UFO
sightings stems from the fact that pilots are concerned about
maintaining professional integrity. They generally shy away from
controversy, especially in situations where their credibility
and judgment may come under public scrutiny. Air Canada pilot,
Captain Norm B., formerly with the Canadian Air Line Pilots
Association, probably best expressed the view of most members of
his profession when he stated:
"I think it’s a natural reluctance on the part of the pilots
not to release anything until it’s been thoroughly
investigated... the vast majority of pilots would be very
hesitant to run to the media until something bad really been
One notable exception to this image of the cautious,
tight-lipped professional is CP Air Captain Robert Millbank.
Following his UFO experience over the Peruvian coast in December
1966, Millbank emerged as one of the most vocal witnesses in the
annals of ufology. Because of his willingness to speak openly
about his encounter, the incident quickly gained international
It occurred in the early morning hours of December 30, while
Millbank and his co-pilot, John Dahl, were at the controls of a
DC-8, en route from Lima, Peru, to Mexico City. It was about 2
AM. and all the passengers were asleep. Suddenly, against the
background of the night sky, they noticed two steady white
lights on their left. Puzzled, Millbank summoned the other three
crew members - the navigator, the
purser and a pilot trainee. As they watched it soon became
evident that the lights were headed toward their aircraft.
In the written report filed with aeronautical authorities in
Mexico City, Millbank described what happened next:
"Then I noticed that one of the lights was pulsating and
changing in intensity. Then, we noticed two beams of light
coming from the lights and shining upward in a V-shape. The
two main lights seemed to be descending and they levelled off
alongside our aircraft. At one time, the object shot out a
trail of sparks, like a rocket.
I tried to convince myself that this object was only another
aircraft, or a satellite re-entering the atmosphere, but it
was pretty obvious that it was neither of those.
Then it seemed to be edging closer to us, and we could see a
string of lights between the two white lights. It levelled
off at our left wing tip and, in the light of the full moon,
we could see a shape between the two lights, a structure
which appeared to be thicker in the middle. It stayed there
for a couple of minutes and then disappeared behind our
From the growing number of reported incidents, it appears that
there are two types of UFO mid-air encounters - the random,
distant fly-by and the close-range inspection.
The Random, Distant Fly-by
The random, distant fly-by is the more common of the two, and
normally lasts a short time only. Usually, peculiar-looking
luminous craft are seen flying by at night, a fair distance away
from the observer. Some of their maneuvers include 'on-the-spot'
hovering, jerky, wave-like trajectories and bullet-like
accelerations. On the surface it does not appear as if any
surveillance by these UFOs was taking place, yet we cannot
exclude the possibility that they may be engaged in some form of
sophisticated remote inspection.
The Close-Range Inspection
The close-range inspection is less frequent. These sightings
consist of a rendezvous in which a disk- or cigar-shaped craft
will take up a fixed position alongside an aircraft and remain
there, sometimes for
hundreds of miles. The majority of these encounters do not
appear to pose a threat to the safety of the aircraft occupants,
but in some cases pilots have been forced to take drastic
evasive actions to avoid collisions with UFOs which displayed
highly dangerous maneuvers.
1 Toronto Star, October 23, 1973.
2 Telephone conversation with Captain B., December 13, 1977.
3 Frank Edwards, 'Flying Saucers; Here and Now!' (New York:
Bantam Books, 1968), p. 114.
One Hundred Miles Northeast of
June 29, 1954
One of the earliest close-range inspections ever recorded left
twenty witnesses, including seven crew members, aboard a BOAC
Stratocruiser completely mesmerised.
The event occurred on June 29, 1954, about a hundred miles
northeast of Sept-Iles, Quebec, four hours after the plane had
left New York en route to London. After landing in England, the
pilot, Captain James Howard, revealed details of the sighting to
London’s Sunday Chronicle:
"I bad taken off from Idlewood airfield in New York at five
o’clock and was headed northeast across the St. Lawrence
River. It was about 9:05 PM Labrador time and we were about
twenty minutes’ flying time northeast of Sept-Iles, when I
first sighted the thing."1
The 'thing' appeared as a "dark blob” in the distance, with a
cluster of smaller objects around it:
"It was something like an inverted pear suspended in the
As the stunned pilot watched, the cluster of circular craft
dodged about the central craft, all the while maintaining a
straight-line formation around the 'mother craft'.
"Sometimes there were three stretched out in front and three
behind. Sometimes five stretched out in line ahead and only
During the entire eighteen-minute sighting, the objects
tained a course parallel to the plane at a distance estimated at
about five miles away.
Co-pilot Lee Boyd of Fillmore, Saskatchewan, was convinced the
strange formation was not of earthly origin:
"Whatever they were, they were intelligently controlled and
maneuvered. I don’t think any science on this planet could
have produced them."4
As a veteran pilot who had flown more than a half a million
miles, Boyd’s statements could not be taken lightly, especially
since the other five crew members, who had also observed the
spectacle, supported his remarks.
To rule out the possibility of experimental aircraft, Captain
Howard had radioed Goose Bay Air Force Base to confirm that no
other air traffic had been registered in the area. At Howard’s
request, Goose Bay agreed to sent up a jet fighter to
Meanwhile, the crew was witnessing a startling turn of events:
the 'mother craft' was changing shape!
"It turned into what looked like a flying arrow - an enormous
delta-winged plane turning in to close with us!"5
It seemed to grow in size as if it were coming closer to the
plane, and then it changed shape again, this time becoming
flattened and elongated. Finally, the large craft shrank to its
original size while the smaller 'satellites' continued their
curious 'leap-frog' maneuvering.
Within minutes, the fighter plane pilot radioed that he was
twenty miles away from the craft at a higher altitude. The
captain confirmed that the strange formation was still keeping
pace with his plane.
All of a sudden, the smaller craft stopped their acrobatics and
appeared to merge with the 'mother craft'. Then, with a
tremendous burst of speed, the large craft shot away and, within
seconds, completely disappeared! The swift departure left
observers wondering whether the presence of the jet fighter had
been detected, If so, the UFO occupants, if there were any, must
have chosen to avoid an undesirable mid-air confrontation. After
landing at Goose Bay, the entire crew of the BOAC Stratocruiser
was questioned by U.S. Air Force Intelligence. In conclusion,
Captain Howard stated:
"It was a solid thing. I’m sure of that. Maneuverable and
controlled intelligently—a sort of base ship linked somehow
with those smaller attendant satellites. . . . It must have
been some weird form of spaceship from another world!6
This sighting soon became a classic. Fascinated by the curious
incident, the late Dr. James E. McDonald, a physicist at the
University of Arizona, decided to conduct his own detailed
investigation. At the astronautics conference of the Canadian
Aeronautics and Space Institute, held in Montreal in March 1968,
Dr. McDonald revealed some of his findings in a public address:
"No meteorological-optical phenomenon (assuredly not a
sundog) could reasonably account for the reported phenomena.
The Stratocruiser was cruising at about 240 knots (276 mph)
at 19,000 feet on the southwest edge of a high-pressure
centre over Labrador, scarcely meteorological conditions
favourable to ball lightning or any other electrical
disturbances; and visibility was described by Captain Howard
as 'perfect'. To suggest a natural 'plasmoid' of any sort
could keep pace with an aircraft at 240 knots for eighteen
minutes and ninety miles seems entirely unreasonable on a
number of grounds: the speed and motions categorically rule
out meteors; the peculiar maneuvering of the smaller objects
and curious shape changes of the larger object suggest no
conventional explanation. It was First Officer Lee Boyd’s
impression that the smaller ones merged into the larger prior
to departure, again defying obvious explanation.
At that time, Howard had 7,000 flying hours; he is still
flying with BOAC. In a recent interview, be corroborated
details of the 1954 press accounts and even added interesting
additional points. The distance of the objects precluded
seeing any structural details, if any had been present; it is
the performance characteristics and the pronounced
shape-changes that mark this well-authenticated sighting as a
puzzling UFO case for which no adequate explanation has ever
1 Richard H. Hall The UFO Evidence (Washington, D.C.: National
Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1964), p. 126.
4 Toronto Globe and Mail, July 2, 1954.
5 Richard H. Hall. op. cit., p. 126.
One Hundred and Sixty Nautical Miles
Northeast of Churchill, Manitoba
October 23, 1972
On October 23, 1972, the crew and passengers aboard a Wardair
jet came face to face with an awesome cigar-shaped craft at
twenty-two thousand feet. The jet was en route from Churchill,
Manitoba, to Yellowknife, seven hundred miles to the northwest.1
Forty-year-old Captain Darryl Brown was piloting the Grumman
CF-COL jet, which took off from Churchill at 5:50 PM. Forty
minutes into the flight, as the sun was setting on the northern
tundra, the pilot noticed what first appeared to him as a bright
comet approaching from the west. He quickly abandoned this
theory, however, as the object came closer, revealing a
bullet-like profile adorned with a cluster of multicoloured
As this 'flying cigar' began to crowd the plane, the crew was
overwhelmed by its dimensions. It appeared to be much larger
than any man-made craft, including a Boeing 747. Perhaps out of
the need to share this moving experience with others, Captain B.
notified the fifteen passengers aboard and shut off the interior
lights to enhance the viewing of the vessel which was by now
dwarfing the jet.
About a dozen circular 'portholes' or 'windows' strung along the
base of the craft were now discernible while a series of yellow
and red lights flashed on and off overhead. The rear of the UFO
was enveloped in a fog-like cloud, behind which orange sparks
were seen shooting out.
The craft took up a position about 2,500 feet in front of the
jet and in perfect alignment with its flight path. Suddenly, the
aircraft was bathed in a beam of light, coming from what was
presumably the front end of the 'cigar'. It was so bright that
it was possible to read inside the previously darkened cockpit.
Suddenly, as the three-man crew watched in horror, the giant
craft stopped in mid-air directly in front of the jet! Before
Captain Brown could take evasive action, the 'cigar' quickly
moved over to the right. That was when the pilot
courageously decided to follow the fast-disappearing craft.
Unfortunately, it was quickly obscured by a dense layer of fog
which seemed to have appeared from nowhere. The UFO had vanished
and any renewed attempts at tracking it down failed.
Because existing meteorological conditions were not conducive to
the formation of such fog layers at that altitude, we cannot
rule out the possibility that the fog layer may have been a
smoke screen produced by the UFO as an escape device. The fact
that the substance enveloped the rear of the craft tends to add
weight to the escape device theory.
During the sighting, the crew noted that the radio had gone
dead. After the mysterious craft departed, radio transmission
returned to normal. (See Chapter 8. 'The E.M. Effect and Power
Blackouts'.) Following the incident, Captain B. stated:
"My personal opinion is that the craft was extraterrestrial.
Why would the object approach at close quarters to inspect
us? I can’t speculate for what reasons, except possibly due
to curiosity on their part."2
1 UFO-Quebec, Premier Trimestre, Numéro 9 (1917) p. 13.
and Eastern Townships
July 12-15, 1974
Another recent close-range inspection, this time over Sudbury,
Ontario, almost ended in a mid-air collision between a Canadian
Pacific Airlines jet and an enormous cigar-shaped UFO. The
sudden appearance of the silvery craft forced the pilot of CP
Air Flight 52 to dive evasively to avoid a crash. The event
occurred around 9 AM on July 15, 1974, while the jet was en
route from Montreal to Vancouver. One of the passengers, Mr.
R.F. (identity known to investigators of UFO-Quebec), later
disclosed that immediately following the near-accident, the
captain told the passengers:
"Sorry about that. We had to take action because there was an
unidentified flying object ahead. You can see it if you look
out to the right side of the aircraft, to the north.1
The passengers watched in amazement as the large object
appearing slightly transparent, continued to pace the jet for
another five minutes before disappearing. "It wasn’t there
anymore", said passenger R.F. He continued:
"The Captain said he had been in contact with Ground Control
but they knew nothing about it. It had not been on their
radar screen at all. He said it might have been a balloon but
he did not know. There was just no record of anything like
this very big object on our course."2
In the ensuing investigation, Wido Hoville of UFO-Quebec
discovered that numerous Sudbury area residents had called the
Sudbury Airport Weather Office to report seeing the craft. Asked
what he thought the object was, the weatherman suggested it
might have been a Defence Department altitude balloon launched
in Manitoba. But a check with the Defence Department and with
meteorological records for that date eliminated the possibility
that the balloon could have been in the Sudbury area at the
time. The balloon theory was also dismissed by a flight
debriefing officer at Montreal’s Dorval Airport, on the grounds
that the pilot would have been notified by either the Defence
Department or the Transport Department weather office. Also,
according to Hoville, the balloon would have registered on the
aircraft radar screens. The mysterious craft did not.3
This incident coincided with a rash of other sightings. in both
Ontario and Quebec. Sixteen hours earlier, campers near
Daveluyvile, Quebec, south of Quebec City, saw a large
triangular craft, described as "brilliant" and "silvery",
hovering over their campsite.4 The object appeared to be
rotating on its own axis, while maintaining a fixed position at
an altitude of about four thousand feet. After about three hours
of noiseless maneuvers, the craft finally drifted away to the
southeast. Asked about its size, campsite owner Roger Côté, a
medical technician, compared it with a fifty-cent piece held at
arm’s length.5 At roughly four thousand feet, this would
indicate that the object was well over two hundred feet in
diameter. When police officials later 'identified' it as a
weather balloon, Mr. Côté flatly rejected this explanation.
About an hour later, the pilot of a Scandinavian jet, Captain
K., was flying over Charlevoix, on the eastern outskirts of
Quebec City, when he spotted what was presumably the same craft
moving in a southwesterly direction.6 It appeared to be
travelling toward Montreal, along the St. Lawrence River. This
sighting, which occurred near Valcartier Mobile Command Base,
was relayed to military authorities at the NORAD Air Command
Centre at North Bay Air Force Base. A report of this and several
subsequent sightings were in turn filed with the National
In the same report we learn that Commander W.C.B., flying a
military jet to Burlington, Vermont, from Quebec City, also
spotted the same craft. He described it as "triangular in shape,
stationary and estimated to be at forty thousand feet."7
His aircraft, was flying at thirty-five thousand feet, thirty to
forty miles southeast of Quebec City. During both sightings, the
radio transmission and reception sites at Canadian Forces Base
Bagotville and Canadian Forces Station Mont Apica experienced
strong interference. CFB Bagotville is one hundred miles north
of the capitol. There is no direct evidence linking the presence
of the UFO to the radio interference, but it is significant that
the difficulties occurred while the military jet was in close
proximity to the mysterious triangle. Equally significant is the
fact that the interference registered on a frequency of 121.5
megacycles—the universal distress frequency.
The most controversial piece of evidence came from Drummondville
photographer Jean Roy who had shot six photos of the giant
craft.8 They clearly show the movements of a luminous
bell-shaped object. However, it is not known what type of camera
was used or whether the negatives were subjected to
Equally nebulous is the source of a rumour that the object had
been a high altitude weather balloon. Radio stations reporting
this explanation attributed these statements to officials of La
Sûreté du Quebec (SQ), the Quebec provincial police force,9
which vehemently denied the charges.
To round out this UFO marathon, a disk-shaped UFO had also been
observed by military and airport officials over Sudbury. Two
days earlier, Private W.V. and Corporal A.L., of Canadian Forces
Falconbridge Radar Station, saw a multicoloured oval disk moving
southeast of the station.10 This same craft was also tracked by
Ministry of Transport radar screens at the Sudbury Airport
weather office.11 At the same time, ‘Mrs. K.K. of Sudbury also
confirmed sighting the oval disk, which she described as "orange
under, blue on top, and a ,white stripe with a blue cross on
it."12 She claims to have filmed the UFO with her movie camera!
1 Canadian UFO Report, Vol. 3, No. 4 (1975) p. 7.
4 UFO-Quebec, Vol 1, No. 2 (May-June-July 1975) p. 12.
6 Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences
Section, National Research Council, Non-Meteoritic
Sightings File N74-052, (Ottawa).
8 La Parole de Drummondville, Vol. 49, No. 31 (July 31, 1974)
9 Ibid., p. 1.
10 Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, op. cit., N74-050.
11 Ibid., N74-051.
12 Ibid., N74-049.
Windsor - Southern Ontario
December 12, 1957
Sightings by commercial and private pilots are often observed
simultaneously by ground witnesses. One such incident occurred
in southwestern Ontario, east of Windsor, on the evening of
December 1957. Hundreds of witnesses, including Essex and Kent
County police and an airline pilot, were mystified by the
circular object that streaked across Lake Erie in the direction
of Windsor. It was believed to be the same as the one sighted
over Cleveland moments earlier.
One of the first to spot it was Captain J.A. Miller, who was
pilo.ting Trans-Canada Airlines (now Air Canada) Flight 239 from
Toronto to Windsor. In a front-page story in the Windsor Star
the following day, Captain Miller described the saucer as: an
oval, whirling, orange flaming disk, flying at about two
thousand feet and moving at a terrific rate of speed.1
It apparently stayed alongside his plane for several minutes
before swinging toward Lake Erie, where it disappeared "in a
cloud of orange smoke." The pilot thought that the craft had
dropped toward the plane with what be called "planned accuracy",
from a higher altitude. Although the incident was
brief, there is no doubt that the craft bad been attracted to
the plane for a specific purpose.
In an apparent move to downplay the event, TCA officials
reported that none of the forty passengers aboard the aircraft
had mentioned seeing the saucer. However, it was not specified
whether any of them had ever been questioned.
Miller’s story received support from many credible witnesses.
For over half an hour, police radios had crackled with accounts,
including those by police officers who excitedly reported
spotting the UFO. The same Star article stated that:
"Provincial police in Chatham and Ridgetown were insistent
that this was the real thing. Police also reported that
motorists along county highways stopped to observe the
strange and fascinating gyrations of the oval object."2
When Ontario Provincial Police Constables Ted Wickens and John
McPherson were dispatched to Blenheim, where Mrs. Robert Moore
reported watching the saucer overhead, both confirmed
seeing the craft. One of the officers later commented:
"We can’t say too much, but there have been enough
responsible persons sighting the saucer and we figure this
time it’s for real."3
1 Windsor Star, December 13, 1957.
Government and UFOs
Governments around the world have been hard-pressed to deal with
the post-World War II phenomenon of UFOs. Canada is no
exception. But this country can at least boast of having
initiated progressive UFO research policies and over the last
thirty years, it has demonstrated varying degrees of interest in
this multifaceted phenomenon. No less than five different
departments - the Departments of National Defence and Transport,
the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the National Research Council
and Agriculture Canada - have at one time or another attempted
to grapple with it. The highlights of these efforts can best be
summarised in the following three statements.
First, after years of predominantly secretive research into
UFOs, the Canadian government, as other world governments, has
never found a shred of evidence to conclusively disprove their
existence.. On the contrary, with the official conclusion the
UFOs do not pose a threat to national security, and that they
warrant further scientific scrutiny, military and scientific
researchers have recognised the reality of the phenomena.'
Second, the evolution of Canadian UFO policies appears to be
closely linked to and seemingly influenced by the prevailing
American trends to respond to the UFO presence.2
Third, the Canadian government has done little to dispel
speculation that the Department of National Defence is to this
day collaborating secretly with its U.S. counterpart in studying
1 Chief of Defence (CDS) Briefing on Unidentified Flying
Objects, November 15, 1967. P. 3. Directorate of Operations,
Department of National Defence. From the Non-Meteoritic
Sightings File, DND 222. Herzberg Institute of
Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences Section, National Research
2 Leonard H. Stringfield, Situation Red: The UFO Siegel (New
York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1977), p. 160.
Department of National Defence
Defence Research Board
On Thursday, April 17, 1952, Canadians were stunned by the
front-page Ottawa Journal revelation that the Department of
National Defence (DND) had been investigating UFOs from as early
as 1947. The majority of sightings left top military and
scientific officials, as they frankly admitted, totally
"baffled".l This disclosure came in the wake of the furour and
consternation caused by the reappearance five days earlier of
UFOs over North Bay Air Force Base in Ontario. (See Chapter 6,
'UFOs and Military Installations'.)
The explosive headline story also shed light on the origins of
reported sightings in Canada: "The first report of a flying
saucer over Canada was one given by an Ottawa resident on June
26, 1947."2 This date marked the birth of what has become known
as the 'modern era' of the UFO presence in Canada. It was then
that a series of military investigations into the celestial
mystery was launched. Ironically, this Canadian UFO 'premiere'
came only two days after the widely publicized UFO encounter by
Idaho commercial pilot, Kenneth Arnold, who was credited with
having coined the phrase "flying saucers".3 Arnold's historic
airborne encounter with nine disk-like craft is generally
regarded as the cornerstone of the modern UFO era in America.
Since 1947, Canadian military response to the persistent UFO
presence can best be described as a mish-mash of reactionary
attitudes and crisis-oriented policies that have varied from
genuine interest and openness to disinterest and blatant
secrecy. In retrospect, the twenty-one years of official
military scrutiny can be broken down into the following distinct
June 1947 - April 1952
Very little is known about the embryonic stage of military
interest in UFOs. The only known disclosures pertaining to the
period from 1947 to April 1952 are contained in the
above-mentioned Ottawa Journal expos& The article stated that,
since June 1947, the Intelligence Branch of the Royal Canadian
Air Force has collaborated with the scientific research arm of
the army, the Defence Research Board (DRB), in assessing the
growing number of reported UFO encounters.4 By early 1952, over
thirty well documented cases had been subjected to rigourous
analysis. Aside from a few which could easily be explained as
misidentified natural phenomena, most of them left the experts
April 1952 - 1956
Following the furour over the North Bay revelations, DRB Chairman
Dr. O.M. Solandt urgently convened an interdepartmental
committee ten days later to outline strategies aimed at tackling
the enigma. Aside from representatives from DRB and the Defence
Services (army, navy and air force), the committee also included
such notable figures as astrophysicist Dr. Peter M. Millman and
Wilbert B. Smith who headed the UFO study sponsored by the
Department of Transport, known as Project Magnet.5
Named Project Second Storey (PSS), the committee acted as the
coordinating and advisory body for those government departments
which were directly or remotely involved in UFO investigations.6
Under the chairmanship of Dr. Millman, PSS drew up a
comprehensive questionnaire which was distributed to personnel
of both the Defence Services and the Department of Transport. In
this way, PSS members were fed a steady flow of fresh nationwide
UFO reports. But in the eleven months that followed, the
committee made no significant progress in unravelling the UFO
mystery. Therefore, instead of intensifying research efforts,
PSS began to phase out its activities and by March 9, 1953, it
had reached the questionable conclusion that:
"evidence to date did not seem to warrant an all-out
investigation by the Canadian Services... For the present at
least, it was considered unnecessary for this
Committee or any other section of DND to undertake a detailed
analysis of the reports received to date.7
Although PSS continued to exist in name only until 1957, its
meetings became less frequent and to all intents and purposes
the government seemed to have washed its hands of the thorny UFO
problem.8 Rather than release the PSS findings, military
strategists adopted a policy of secrecy, parallelling the trend
initiated two months earlier by the American military
establishment in response to recommendations by the Robertson
Panel of Scientific Consultants. This CIA-sponsored panel
consisted of five hand-picked scientists who concluded that UFOs
posed no "direct physical threat to national security",
recommending that they be "stripped" of their "special status"
and the "aura of mystery" they may have acquired.9 Subsequent
leaks to the public about military pursuits of UFOs, including
several tragic mishaps, threatened to put the Robertson Panel
findings into serious jeopardy. In an effort to contain further
leaks, the U.S. Air Force quickly moved to tighten security on
all UFO-related activities.10
Information about attempts by the Royal Canadian Air Force to
capture UFOs was also kept from the general public, as was the
establishment of the UFO landing site at DRB Suffield
Experimental Station. (See Chapter 7, 'Military Pilot
Sightings'.) To this day, it is unclear what factors
precipitated the secrecy. Some of the more plausible reasons
might be the reliance on blueprinting U.S. policies, the fear of
causing mass panic, the Canadian government's inability to
effectively explain the phenomenon to the public or the
suspicion that UFOs might be enemy craft, possibly of Soviet
origin. While all these factors could have contributed to the
secrecy scenario at one time or another, I am inclined to
believe that the military establishment was primarily afraid to
be placed in the position of explaining a phenomenon that defied
Because of this emphasis on secrecy, much of the UFO activities
by the military between 1952 and 1966 have remained
obscured under security classifications. It was not until July
1967, during a major nationwide UFO wave, that the veil of
secrecy was partially lifted. Confronted with demands for
government action, Defence Minister Paul Hellyer set out to
reassure the public that the DND was looking into the matter. At
the same time, he made the surprise revelation about the
existence of the DRB landing site.11
Nine months later, in March 1968, the transfer of UFO
investigative responsibility to the National Research Council
brought about a further release of UFO files, Even though the
documents focused primarily on DND findings between August 1965
and 1968, they did contain certain information about the
pre-1965 era. One of the documents - an internal brief to the
Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) from the Directorate of Operations
(DOPS) - brought to light the extent of U.S. influence on
Canadian military attitudes toward UFOs. According to the brief
dated November 15, 1967, a Canadian scientific committee
(unspecified, although presumably Project Second Storey) again
concluded the UFOs posed no threat to national security, thereby
echoing the findings of the U.S. Robertson Panel.12
The 1968 declassifications also revealed that some of the less
sensitive military activities of the 1950s, which included the
Project Second Storey findings, were given the less restrictive
'CONFIDENTIAL' security classification.13 It was not until
February 16, 1978, that DND's Directorate of History took the
bold step of declassifying these documents. While some may
conclude that the government's proposed 'freedom of
information'14 policy was instrumental in having these documents
released, it is my belief that government officials recognised
they could no longer maintain a contradictory position on the
UFO question. It would be absurd to withhold UFO-related files
on the basis of national security, while at the same time
officially proclaiming they did not threaten national security.
Predictably, the documents that covered the period between July
3, 1947 and March 8, 1961 proved to be of little value. For one
thing, the files have been 'sanitised', meaning the names and
addresses of UFO witnesses and investigating authorities have
been deleted. For another, documents on UFO sightings sent to
DND through RCMP channels were withheld at the request of the
RCMP.15 Furthermore, records of numerous major sightings were
missing, while those that had been released were, at best,
fragmentary. Among the cases omitted was the first incident ever
to be investigated by government officials: the June 26, 1947,
sighting over Ottawa. Also visibly absent were the recurring UFO
incidents over Goose Bay (Labrador) Air Force Base between 1948
and 1952. (See Chapters 7 and 10, 'Military Pilot Sightings' and
'UFOs and Radar Sites')
In addition, documents covering the three and a half years
between December 1954 and June 1958 are missing.16 Are we to
conclude that there were no UFO sightings during that period? On
the contrary. The crucial and most revealing interdepartmental
correspondence between top-ranking military strategists involved
in orchestrating UFO policies could not be located either.
Furthermore, the files contained no references to RCAF attempts
to down a UFO or the ensuing DRB landing site.
To close out this period of 'transition', we learn from the
November 15 CDS brief that: "at one time, UFO reports were
forwarded to Air Defence Command (ADC) for investigation."17
While no dates are given, it is believed the period covered is
1953 to 1957. In 1961, the 1953 date was confirmed by Defence
Minister Douglas S. Harkness when he wrote to a NICAP member:
"As of 1953, the Air Office Commanding Air Defence Command is
charged. with the military investigation of Unidentified
Flying Object reports.
Information compiled by the RCAF pertaining to this matter
(UFOs) is not available to the public."18
1956 - Early 1960s. The period from 1956 to the early 1960s
marked the intensification of the Cold War and the subsequent
emergence of NORAD. With sophisticated radar outposts monitoring
the perimeter of the North American continent for hostile,
suspicious or unidentifiable airborne craft, UFO reports
naturally became subject to even greater secrecy.
But the bubble burst on April 12, 1959, when a red disc-like UFO
was spotted over Air Defence Command Headquarters at St. Hubert
Air Force Base, east of Montreal! The sighting was subsequently
confirmed by military authorities. (See Chapter 6, 'UFOs and
Military Installations'.) These embarrassing leaks led to
further tightening of security measures in an effort to
eliminate any further unauthorised disclosures. Soon after, RCAF
Group Captain L.C. Dilworth, a spokesman for the Chief of Air
Staff, wrote to a NICAP member:
The RCAF has recently implemented the JANAP 146(D) procedure for
the reporting of vital intelligence sightings. (UFOs
included)... Needless to say, the RCAF, in concert with American
Forces, is interested in all such reports, and evaluation is
done on a systematic basis. While the outcome of individual
evaluations is not made public, you may rest assured that any
threat to the security of Canada or the United States will be
reflected in appropriate military plans.19
Under the JANAP 146(D) provisions, any person (military or
civilian) reporting a UFO sighting through official channels is
subject to prosecution under the Canada Official] Secrets Act of
1939 if convicted of unauthorised transmission or disclosure of
such a sighting.20 As a deterrent, JANAP 146(D) and its
successor, JANAP 146(E) (amended it March 1966), were effective
in preventing additional UFO leaks.
By the early 1960s, Air Defence Command opted out of the UFO
business, and Canadian Forces Headquarters (CFHQ) in Ottawa took
over the responsibility to investigate
sightings. Officially, the "no threat to security" was once more
dragged out as the reason behind the transfer.21
Early 1960s to March 1966. This era of military UFO research
from the early 1960s to March 1966 was characterised by
stepped-up attempts at defusing the entire UFO controversy. Not
only was secrecy further entrenched, but government officials
went so far as to state that all UFO sightings could be easily
explained. On July 22, 1963, in the House of Commons, in
response to questions from Liberal Member of Parliament Leonard
'Red' Kelly about Canada's current UFO research activities, the
government spokesman replied:
While it is not the policy of the department (of National
Defence) to deny the public information about Unidentified
Flying Objects, such reports are not produced in published form.
Investigations to date have classified the sightings as either
man-made objects, of which we are aware, or as natural
phenomena, well known in scientific circles, but unfamiliar to
the general public.22
These statements were in direct contradiction to the November
1967 brief addressed to the Chief of Defence Staff which
At that time, the Director of Intelligence co-ordinated DND
action on UFO reports. Correspondence held on CFHQ UFO files
also indicated that Dr. J.C. ArnelI, who was at that time the
Scientific Deputy Chief of Technical Services, was an active and
interested participant in dealing with UFO matters.23
Clearly, the DND was interested in studying manifestations of
UFOs and not natural identifiable celestial objects. To this
day, their findings have not been released.
The CFHQ participation in solving the UFO mystery came to an
abrupt end in March 1966 when, for reasons unknown, another
transfer of responsibility took place, this time to the
Directorate of Operations (DOPS).
March 1966 - March 1968. The phase of military UFO research
between March 1966 and March 1968 coincided
with Canada's most intensive period of UFO activity up to that
point. It also marked the beginning of more intensive attempts
by the military to solve the UFO riddle.
The transfer to DOPS had barely been consummated when Southern
Ontario was struck by extensive UFO activity. During a week-long
flurry, which appeared to have spilled over from Michigan,
scores of unidentified craft of every conceivable shape and
colour were observed by hundreds of onlookers from Windsor to
Toronto. Witnessing these sightings were such diverse observers
as Metropolitan Toronto police officers and air traffic
controllers, as well as Canadian Heavyweight Boxing Champion
Accompanied by his wife and cousin, Chuvalo watched a
saucer-shaped craft for over four hours on the evening of March
29, 1966. He declared: "It was a blinking light, mainly red and
blue, but it didn't move at all."25 Chuvalo's sighting came only
twenty-four hours after he had been defeated by Muhammed Ali in
the World Heavyweight Boxing Championship at Maple Leaf Gardens
But the most dramatic UFO incident involved Charles Cozens of
Hamilton, Ontario, who claimed to have touched the antenna of a
landed craft. (See Chapter 3, 'Physical Reactions to
This prolonged UFO presence, which had ben recorded earlier in
the United States, led former President Gerald Ford, then House
Republican Leader, to request a Congressional inquiry into UFOs.
Soon after, the U.S. Air Force set up the controversial Condon
Committee at the University of Colorado.
Evidently influenced by these developments, the DND introduced,
in October 1966, a special reporting procedure known as CFAO
71-6 (Canadian Forces Administration Order),26 which was aimed
at streamlining the transmission of UFO reports from Canadian
Forces Bases to Defence Headquarters. These reports were
received from a variety of sources, including law enforcement
agencies, military and commercial pilots and the public at
large. The directive applied only to UFO reports deemed to be of
an 'UNCLASSIFIED' nature, that is, the less sensitive sightings.
'juicy' ones, those of military interest, were protected from
public exposure through the sanctions of the JANAP directives.
During this two-year DOPS tenure, incoming UFO reports were
first divided into two general categories: fireball-meteorites
and non-fireball meteorites (UFOs).
To differentiate between common celestial debris and genuine
unidentified craft, the Defence Director of Scientific
Coordination (DSC) was routinely called in to assist DOPS staff
in conducting the initial breakdown.27 Reports dealing with
fireball-meteorites were forwarded to the National Research
Council Meteorite Centre for evaluation, while the UFO cases
were broken down into three further categories.
Reports containing information that warranted further
investigation were given a Class A designation, while those of
lesser importance or of little predictable value were designated
Class B and C respectively,28 Because of the fragmentary nature
of the majority of these reports, few sightings merited Class A
status. Out of 193 received in the ten and a half months,
between January 1 and November 15, 1967, only nine met Class A
requirements. Out of these nine, six were judged to contain
evidence confirming the presence of a craft of inexplicable
origin, while the remaining three could not be dismissed as
natural identifiable phenomena.29 Collectively, these nine cases
represented some of the most convincing sightings recorded
anywhere, including the July 1967 Warren Smith photos (Chapter
1, 'The Photographic Evidence',); the Shoal Lake tree-top damage
(Chapter 2, 'UFO Landings and Physical Traces'); and the Falcon
Lake UFO landing (Chapter 3, 'Physical Reactions to Sightings'.)
As the number of serious, newsworthy UFO incidents increased in
late 1967, so did the public demand for military accountability.
Combined with parliamentary questioning, this led the military
establishment to look for alternate ways of coping with the
Unable on the one hand to disprove the existence of UFOs, but
unwilling to go so far as to officially admit their existence,
Canadian military authorities again took a page out
of the American UFO experience. Inspired by the Condon
Committee, DND officials decided to refer the entire UFO hot
potato to a recognised scientific agency - this time, the
National Research Council. In a news release dated January 8,
1968, NRC announced that its Space Research Facilities Branch
would soon be:
"acting as a clearing house to determine whether there
was any scientific reason which would warrant further
investigation of UFO reports."3'
One reason cited for the transfer was the 'detrimental' and
'disruptive' effect on DND personnel created by the increased
workload of UFO investigations.82 In my opinion the transfer was
simply a buck-passing exercise to avoid further embarrassment to
a government already perplexed by its inability to come to grips
with the phenomena. Since the implementation of the transfer in
March 1968, the DND has fervently reiterated that it no longer
conducts UFO-related research, and that this responsibility now
rests solely with the NRC. To this day, any sightings referred
to DND are automatically channelled via Telex to the Herzberg
Institute of Astrophysics in the Planetary Sciences Section of
On the other hand, there seems to be increasing evidence that
the military has not altogether abandoned its interest in UFOs.
As revealed in the NRC Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, the DND
periodically transmits information on certain sensitive UFO
occurrences, via Telex, to its U.S. counterpart at NORAD
Headquarters in Colorado Springs, and NORAD Regional
Headquarters at McCord Air Force Ease in Washington State.34
Transmitted as 'RESTRICTED' material under the U.S./Canada
CIRVIS/JANAP directive (Communications Instructions for
Reporting Vital Intelligence Sightings), these reports have also
been channelled to local strategic military installations, such
as NORAD Regional Headquarters at North Bay Air Force Base,
North Bay, Ontario, DND Air
Command in Winnipeg, as well as National Defence Headquarters in
One such 'RESTRICTED' CIRVIS report - a suspected UFO landing
outside Grande Prairie, Alberta - was transmitted from Canadian
Forces Station Beaverlodge (Alberta) to all the above mentioned
locations as recently as January 21, 1976.36 Essentially, this
means that the DND. through its participation in NORAD, is
collaborating with its U.S. partner in collecting and
transmitting such 'RESTRICTED' UFO reports.
Admittedly, this apparent NOR AD-generated report-sharing does
not conclusively prove current DND involvement in UFO research,
On the other hand, a deliberate laissez-faire policy toward UFOs
seems highly unrealistic. To ignore the consistent presence of
unidentified and potentially hostile craft over strategic
military installations would represent an unthinkable violation
of the mandate and the philosophy inherent in NORAD.
1 Ottawa Journal, April 17, 1952.
3 Curt Sutherly, 'First American Pilot to Report UFOs', Sage
UFO Report, Vol. 3, No. 6 (March 1977).
4 Ottawa Journal, op. cit.
5 Project Second Storey, 'Minutes of a Meeting to Discuss
'Flying Saucer' Sightings',' April 22, 1952. Defence Research
6 Ibid., Summary Report, November 21, 1953.
7 Ibid., “Minutes of the Meeting,” March 9, 1953., p. 2.
8 Weekend Magazine, Vol. 7, No. 27 (1957) P. 22.
9 Leon Davidson, “Flying Saucers: An Analysis of the Air Force
Project Blue Book Special Report No. 14,” Report of the
Scientific Panel on Unidentified Flying Objects. H.P.
Robertson, Chairman, January 17, 1953 (Saucerian
Publications, January 1971).
10 Donald E. Keyhoe, “Flying Saucers: Top Secret”. Doubleday &
Co. Inc. New York. 1964. p. 42.
11 Ottawa Journal, July 20, 1967.
12 Chief of Defence (CDS) Briefing on Unidentified Flying
Objects, November 15, 1967. p. 3, Directorate of Operations,
Department of National Defence. From the Non-Meteoritic
Sightings File, DND 222. Herzberg Institute of
Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences Section, National Research
13 Project Second Storey, op. cit., April 24, 1952.
14 The Honourable John Roberts, Secretary of State. 'Legislation
on Public Access to Government Documents', (Ottawa: Queen's
Printer, June 1977).
15 Telephone conversation with Senior Research Officer P.A.C.
Chaplin. Directorate of History, Department of National
Defence. Ottawa. February 17, 1978.
18 Department of National Defence UFO File, HQ 940.105-Vol. 2
Directorate of History, Department of National Defence,
17 CDS Briefing on UFOs, op. cit., p. 4.
18 Richard H. Hall, ed. The UFO Evidence (Washington, D.C.:
National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1964).
19 Ibid., p. 118.
20 Canadian-United States Communications Instructions for
Reporting Vital Intelligence Sightings. Ibid JANAP 146. The
Joint Chiefs of Staff Joint Communications-Electronics
Committee Washington 25, D.C. February 1959, p. 134.
21 CDS Briefing on UFOs, op. cit., p. 4.
22 The House of Commons Debates July 22, 1963, p. 2448.
23 CDS Briefing on UFOs, op. cit., p. 4.
24 Toronto Star, March 29, 1966.
25 Toronto Telegram, March 31, 1966.
26 Reporting of Unidentified Flying Objects, CFAO 71-6,
s-1605-71-6 V 2000-4 (DOPS). Issued 7 October 1966. Department
of National Defence (Ottawa).
27 CDS Briefing on UFOs, op. cit., p. 9.
28 Ibid., p. 10.
29 Department of National Defence, DOPS UFO File, January
1 - November 15, 1967. From the Non-Meteoritic Sightings
File, DND 24-222. Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics,
Planetary Sciences Section, National Research Council,
30 The House of Commons Debates, November 6, 1967. p. 3918. of
the American UFO experience.
31 Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences
Section, National Research Council, Non-Meteoritic Sightings
File, DND 209, January 8, 1968, (Ottawa).
32 CDS Briefing on UFOs, op. cit., pp. 24-25.
33 A.G. McNamara, 'UFOs - What Are They?' Journal of the
Canadian - Air Traffic Control Association, Vol. 8,
34 Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, NRC N76-011, op. cii.
January 21, 1976.
Department of Transport
One of the first scientists to suggest that UFOs represented a
probable by-product of advanced extra-planetary technology was
Wilbert B. Smith. a radio engineer with the Canadian Department
of Transport (DOT). Recognised today as the pioneer of UFO
research in Canada, he was instrumental in generating
DOT-sponsored UFO research in 1950 which yielded some startling
At the time, Smith was head of DOT's Broadcast and Measurements
Section. As a world expert in electromagnetism and
telecommunications, he had little difficulty in convincing
his superiors to examine what in effect was his personal
fascination with the UFO phenomenon.1 It was at a North American
broadcasting conference in Washington in early 1950 that he
first proposed to his superior, DOT Deputy Minister John
Baldwin, the need for government-spon-
sored UFO study.2 The dramatic increase in the volume of
nation-wide sightings during the ensuing months added
considerable support to his proposal.
Despite mass media's sensationalist portrayal of the UFO
phenomenon, public acceptance at that time was surprisingly
high. According to a poll taken in July of 1950 by the Canadian
Institute of Public Opinion,
Half of the adult population of Canada believed that these
mysterious disks are not just imagination and that they are
not just a natural phenomenon.3
By December of that year, Smith was given the green light by
Commander G.P. Edwards, then Deputy Minister of Transport for
Air Services, to go ahead with a UFO study which came to be
known as Project Magnet.4 Authorised by DOT engineers to draw on
UFO reports from across Canada, Smith embarked on this
historical venture with the assistance of his colleagues from
within his own Broadcast and Measurement Section.
To this day many of the Project Magnet findings remain
classified material, with two notable exceptions - a small-scale
study of twenty-five 1952 sightings. released in May 1968; and
the public disclosure of an unprecedented instrument recording
of a suspected UFO over the Project Magnet sighting station at
Shirley Bay, ten miles west of Ottawa, in August 1954.
The 1952 study clearly demonstrated that the majority of cases
compiled in the eight-month period from May I to December 31
could not be explained as natural identifiable phenomena. Of the
twenty-five sightings analyzed, sixteen—or 64 per cent—were
either circular, elliptical, ring-like or cone-shaped vessels
unlike any known man-made craft.5 From this cross section of
nation-wide cases Smith was able to draw the following
They are a hundred feet or more in diameter; they can travel
at speeds of several thousand miles per hour; they can reach
altitudes well above these which would support conventional
aircraft or balloons; and ample power
and force seem to be available for all required maneuvers.
Taking these factors into account, it is difficult to
reconcile this performance with the capabilities of our
technology, and unless the technology of some terrestrial
nation is much more advanced than is generally known, we are
forced to the conclusion that the vehicles are probably
extra-terrestrial, in spite of our prejudices to the
Even though DOT had initially given Smith full authorisation and
co-operation, it soon became evident that his controversial
findings led to a downgrading of Project Magnet by subsequent
administrations. When portions of its report were declassified
on May 9, 1968. it became clear that the government had entirely
disassociated itself from both the mandate and the conclusion of
the project. This was spelled out in a disclaimer signed by Dr.
Peter Millman, then head of Upper Atmosphere Research of the
National Research Council, and former Chairman of the Project
Second Storey Committee:
I have been informed by the Department of Transport that
although Project Magnet was officially authorised by the
Department, work on this Project was carried out almost
entirely by Mr. W.B. Smith and was in the nature of a
spare time activity. The conclusions reached in this report
are entirely those of Mr. Smith and do not represent an
official opinion of either the Department of Transport or of
the Second Storey Committee.7
What may have triggered the demise of Project Magnet was Smith's
highly publicized instrument recording in August 1954, heralded
by the press as the worlds first.8 In the wake of the excitement
generated by his 1952 findings, Smith had received approval to
set up a UFO detection station at DOT's electronic establishment
at Shirley Bay. Open for operations in mid-December 1953, the
twelve-foot-square laboratory was equipped with an assortment of
sophisticated electronic equipment including a gamma ray
detector, a radio wave detector, an ionospheric recorder to
monitor activity and changes in the ionised layer of gases sixty
miles from the earth's surface, and a gravimeter, designed to
and gravity fluctuations in the atmosphere.9 Assisting Smith
were Professor J.T. Wilson of the University of Toronto; Dr.
James Wait, a theoretical physicist with the Defence Research
Board, and Dr. G.D. Garland, gravitational expert at the federal
Mines and Technical Survey Department.10
Once the station was in operation, Smith and his colleagues
instituted a twenty-four-hour vigil. Nothing unusual was
recorded until eight months later when on Sunday, August 8,
1954, at 3:01 PM, the station's alarm bells rang out signalling
that the gravimeter had been tripped. Fortunately, Smith was on
hand to observe the instrument activation.11 He dashed over to
look at it and:
the deflection in the line (drawn by an electronically
operated-pen) was greater and more pronounced than we have
seen even when a large aircraft has passed over. bead.
I ran outside to see what might be in the sky. The overcast
was down to a thousand feet, so that whatever was up there,
whatever it was that caused the sharp variation was concealed
behind the clouds. We must now ask ourselves what it could
Although the evidence was inconclusive, Smith was convinced no
known natural atmospheric phenomenon could account for the
Uncomfortable with the extensive press coverage sparked by the
incident, Department of Transport officials unceremoniously
discontinued Project Magnet two days later. This surprise move,
described years later by Smith as "premature",13 coincided with
a tightening of military secrecy on UFOs in the United States,
following repeated leaks about tragic mishaps and mysterious
disappearances of military pilots who had pursued UFOs.
It soon became apparent that Smith had been persuaded to
publicly downplay the Project Magnet findings. When he appeared
before the House of Commons Special Committee on Broadcasting on
May 17, 1955, be made the surprise admission that:
On the basis of our measurements, which were nil, we came to
the conclusion we had very little data of any nature to go
After that, Smith was still allowed to pursue his interests in
UFOs privately: but without DOT co-operation he was forced
to scale down his research. Prior to his untimely death in
1962, he restated his beliefs in an interview with Weekend
From the weight of the evidence, I think they come from outer
space. But I can't prove it. The best I have is data on which
you can put a probability figure . . look at this way, if a
stock promoter told you that there was a 60 per cent
probability that a certain stock would go up, I don't think
you'd invest with him. But if the weatherman told you there
was a 60 per cent probability that a hurricane was going to
hit your area, I think you'd hurry up and bring in the lawn
furniture. It's a question of viewpoint. You have to make up
your own mind how significant you think the matter is.15
The documents relating to the Shirley Bay operation have
remained classified to this day. The following classical case of
parliamentary 'double talk' took place in the House of Commons
on December 4, 1963, and demonstrates the government's
preoccupation with secrecy. Government spokesman Yvon Dupuis
(Parliamentary Secretary to the Secretary of State) responded to
questions from Harold Winch (PC-Vancouver East).
Winch: Is Canada co-operating with the special United States
program for investigation of unidentified flying objects
and if so, is this entitled 'Project Magnet'?
Dupuis: The United States program known as 'Project Magnet' is
not directed to the investigation of unidentified flying
Winch: Is 'Project Magnet' an un-publicised,. worldwide
operation, using specially equipped, super
constellations, non-uniformed pilots and civilian
Dupuis: 'Project Magnet' is a program conducted by
the naval oceanographic office of the U.S. Navy
concerned with the compilation of geo-magnetic data
covering all the oceans of the world.
Winch: Is any data available from 'Project Magnet' to the
Dupuis: It is understood that data obtained in 'Project Magnet'
in the form of geo-magnetic charts is available upon the
application to the Naval Oceanographic Office of the
1 Harry Tokarz. 'Canadian UFO Research-Tribute to a Pioneer'
Wilbert B. Smith, 'The UFO Pulse Analyser', Issue No. 1 (April
1977) p. 19.
2 Weekend Magazine, Vol.7, No. 27 (1957) p.4.
3 Ibid., p. 4.
4 Project Magnet Report, Radio and Electrical Engineering
Division, National Research Council. Released May 9, 1968.
(Ottawa), p. 1. Ibid., pp. 6-7.
6 Ibid., pp. 10-11.
7 Ibid., Note on Project Magnet Report, Forward.
8 Toronto Globe and Mail, August 10, 1954.
10 Sudbury Star, November 12, 1953.
11 Toronto Globe and Mail. op. cit.
12 Toronto Star, May 18, 1955.
13 Toronto Star, op. cit.
14 The House of Commons Special Committee on Broadcasting.
Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence. No. 8. Tuesday, May 17,
1955 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer).
15 Weekend Magazine, op. cit., p. 21.
16 The House of Commons Debates December 4, 1963, p. 5408.
The National Research Council
Since it took over responsibility for UFO investigation from the
Department of National Defence in February 1968, th6 Planetary
Sciences Section of the Hcrzberg Institute of Astrophysics at
the National Research Council (NRC) has acted primarily as a
compilation and recording agency and only peripherally as an
This fact was recently confirmed in a telephone interview I bad
with the bead of the Planetary Sciences Section, Dr. Allen G.
McNamara, who disclosed that since 1968 the NRC had received
between fifteen hundred to two thousand UFO sighting reports
classified as 'non-meteoritic sightings'. Of these, about one
hundred, or between 5 to 6.6 per cent were examined:
in what we would call some detail... checking data on
planets, satellites, analysis of position in the sky and
calculation of where this might be in respect to celestial
According to Dr. McNamara, "none have defied explanation."2
This estimate of the number of actively investigated cases is
much higher than the number specified by Dr. McNamara on the
August 15, 1976, edition of the CBC-Radio phone-in program
'Summer Switchboard', in which he stated:
"I don't know the specific number, but I suppose there were
at least two."3
Attempting to explain the low numbers of UFO investigations in
both instances, Dr. McNamara referred to the UFO research mandate
inherited by the NRC:
"Our responsibility was that the NRC would take over the
maintenance of a file of UFO reports and conduct any
investigations determined by the scientific merit they
appeared to have. There was no commitment to do anything
His interpretation of NRC activities falls short of the initial
intent by the military when they transferred responsibility to
the research agency. In a November 1967 brief from Chief of
Defence Staff it was recommended that:
The National Research Council accept the responsibility for
co-ordinating a scientific and objective investigation into
NRC's poor record can be explained by its apparent disinterest
in UFO matters. According to John B. Musgrave, Alberta
Provincial Director for the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON):
Although often believed or stated that this section is
actively engaged in UFO study, this branch is only interested
in these reports as potential sightings of meteorites. Hence,
all reports sent to NRC are classified as either 'meteoritic'
or 'non-meteoritic'. Needless to say, for their purposes, any
potential UFO sighting is part of their 'garbage-can' file.6
Musgrave's assessment of NRC's lack of interest remains
unchallenged. When asked what determines whether a UFO sighting
is investigated, Dr. McNamara replied: "anything that appears of
scientific interest with particular reference to
meteors of course." When asked if the priority would, then, be
meteorites and fireballs, he replied "Yes."7
As a result, it would appear that UFO reports deemed to be of
'scientific interest' receive, at best, a cursory evaluation.
The examples are plentiful. Some of these include the Shoal Lake
tree-top damage physical trace (June 18, 1967) and the case of
the disappearing UFO photos at the Falconbridge Radar Station
(November 11, 1975). Even more curious is the high number of UFO
incidents that have aroused only negligible response from the
NRC - the Montreal rooftop occupant landing (January 6, 1977),
the Pat McCarthy (Hamilton) UFO photos (March 18, 1975), the
Lake Baskatong UFO photos (March 11, 1978) and the UFO presence
and ensuing blackout over the Parliament Buildings in Ottawa
(June 5, 1969).
Several other important points came to light in the interview
with Dr. McNamara. First, all incoming UFO reports are initially
broken down into meteorite and non-meteorite classifications by
a data analyst "who had been trained to recognise these things".
Dr. McNamara does not personally check each sighting report as
it comes in.
Second, only one UFO-related ground marking case has been
investigated by the NRC. After a white granular material was
found near Stirling, Ontario, in May 1971, on a circular patch
of inhibited plant growth, samples were submitted by Toronto
ufologist Henry McKay to the NRC; scientists there referred the
matter to the Soil Research Institute of Agriculture Canada.8
Laboratory findings revealed the substance to be anhydrous uric
Third, subsequent physical trace cases were not looked into
since "on the basis of the previous one (the Stirling incident)
it could not be done again unless it Was paid for by the person
who bad requested it."
Fourth, the NRC has not requested UFO research funds from the
Treasury Board, nor does Dr. McNamara see "any justification for
Fifth, no one within the Planetary Sciences Section is involved
in analyzing UFO reports on a full time basis.
Sixth, allegations that the NRC has a secret UFO file is in Dr.
McNamara's words, "pure fabrication".
Seventh, the NRC has never submitted incoming UFO photos to the
digital computer photo evaluation experts at Ground Saucer Watch
in Phoenix, Arizona.
Eighth, the NRC claims not to accept any classified military UFO
reports. Nevertheless, “Restricted” CIRVIS/ JANAP reports not
destined for the NRC- and, in effect, not for public exposure,
have ended up in NRC flies. Dr. McNamara dismisses the bilateral
military research “collaboration theory” and believes the
misdirected transmission of such reports is purely accidental.
Meanwhile, significant UFO incidents remain unexplored, and
1 Telephone conversation with Dr. Allen 0. McNamara,
January 18, 1979.
3 UFO-Quebec, Troisième Trimestre, Num6ro 7 (1976) p. 13.
4 Telephone conversation with Dr. McNamara, op. cit.
5 Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) Briefing on Unidentified Flying
Objects, November 15, 1967. p. 26. Directorate of Operations,
Department of National Defence. From the Non-Meteoritic
Sightings File, DNO 222. Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics,
Planetary Sciences Section, National Research Council,
6 Leonard H. Stringfield, Situation Red: The T.JFO Siegel (New
York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1977), p. 160.
7 Telephone conversation with Dr. McNamara. op. cit.
8 N. Miles and S.P. Mathur '“Seasonal Incidence of Anhydrous
Uric Acid Granules in the Collision Zone of Two Fairy Rings',
Canadian Journal of Soil Science, No. 52 (October 1972) p.
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Allan, William K. A compendium of taped interviews with. UFO
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Friedman, Stanton T.,
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The UFO Society of Edmonton, research documents. Courtesy,
Weekend Magazine, Volume 2, No. 6. February 9, 1974.
Abductions of animals, 60, 74 witnesses 60, 75-76
Abee, Alberta, 49-52
Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO), 17, 40, 48, 76-77
Air Canada, 45, 154, 163
Alberta, 65, 105-107
Aliens From Space, 98
Allan, William K., 65-67, 82
American Astronomical Society, 2
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), 55
Annola, Sylvia, 49-52
APRO Bulletin, 17
Arnold, Kenneth, 166
Associated Press (AP), 104
Australia, 2, 142
Baskatong Reservoir, Quebec, 9-12, 183
Beaverlodge (Alberta), Canadian Forces Station, 176
Bennett, Tom, 27
Bermuda Triangle, 58, 102
Bissky, Squadron Leader, P., 40
Blaquière, Phillipe, 73
Boyd, Lee, 157, 158
Bray, Arthur, 150
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), 40
British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC), 156
Brown, Darryl, 159
Cadieux, Leo, 43, 45
Calgary, Alberta, 13-15, 80-86, 106
Canada, 1, 3, 5, 22, 73-74
Canada, Government of, Agriculture, Department of,
Soil Research Institute, 23, 165, 183
Atomic Energy Control Board, 90-91
CDS (Chief of Defence Staff), 14, 32, 169, 172, 182
CFAO (Canadian Forces Administration Order), 173
CFHQ (Canadian Forces Headquarters), 32, 46. 108, 111, 172
Defence Photo Interpretation Centre, 14
Defence Research Board, 46, 90, 98, 165-66, 169-70, 179
Defence Research Naval Laboratory, 94
DEW (Distant Early Warning Line), 140, 150-52
Directorate of History, 169
Directorate of Intelligence, 112
Directorate of Scientific Coordination, 173-74
DOPS (Directorate of Operations), 46, 169, 172-73
House of Commons, 19, 42, 45, 148, 172, 179-80
National Defence, Department of, 14, 33, 42, 88, 96, 102,
106, 132, 134, 143, 149, 161, 165-75
Air Defence Command, 170-71, 175-76
Headquarters, 98, 145-46, 176
National Health and Welfare, Department of, 41
National Research Council, 19, 33, 42, 89, 135, 141,
162, 165. 169, 174, 175, 181-84
Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, 43, 175, 181-84
NORAD (North American Air Defence Command), 62, 87-89, 96,
102, 140, 144, 152, 171, 175-76
Pinetree Line, 140-49
Privy Council, 43
Project Magnet, 93, 167, 177-81
Project Second Storey Committee, 91, 161-69, 178
RCAF (Royal Canadian Air Force), 40, 49, 89, 93, 98-99,105,
108-109, 132, 134, 168-71
RCAF Intelligence, 91, 166 RCMP (Royal Canadian Mounted Police),
24, 26, 40-43, 48, 132-33, 165, 169
Scientific Deputy Chief of Technical Services, 172
Transport, Department of, 161, 162, 165, 161, 176-71 180
Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute, 158
Canadian Institute of Public Opinion 177
Canadian Press, The, 30, 151
Cannon, Brian, 95
Cape Perry, Dew Line State (Yukon), 151
Carter, Jimmy, 2-3
CAUS (Citizens Against UFO Secrecy), 3, 147
CBC (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 40, 142, 182
CETI (Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence),
Bywakan Astrophysical Observatory, 57
CFCN-AM Radio, 66, 82
CIA (Central Intelligence Agency), 3, 102, 168
Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS), 2, 11, 22, 80, 127
Chapeau, Allummette Island, Quebec, 29-30
Chaput, Leo, Paul, 29-30
Chicago Tribune, 104
Childerhose, Robert, 1, 107
China Syndrome, 114
Churchill, Manitoba, 159-60
Chuvalo, George, 173
CIRVIS/JANAP (Communications Instructions for the Reporting of
Vital Intelligence Sightings), 93, 139, 171, 174, 175-76, 184
Clappison Esther, 65-67
Close Encounters of the Third Kind, 9, 36
'close encounter symptoms', 35-36, 39-40, 78
Condon Committee, 77, 173-74
Conway, Graham, 25, 28
Cooper, Gordon, 5
Cote, Roger, 161-62
Cozens, Charles, 44-45, 173
CP Air, 154, 160
Crandell, Sergeant D.V., 89
David Dunlap Observatory, 110
Deep River, Ontario, 120-21
Devoir, Le, 136-37
Donderi, Don, 12
Dorval Airport (Montreal), 62-63, 92, 161
Douglas Point Nuclear Generating Station, 117-19
Dreams, 77, 82-83
Dupuis, Yvon, 180
Edwards, Frank, 130
Environmental Damage, 114, 119
Esquimalt (British Columbia), Canadian Forces Base, 93-95
Extraterrestrial life, 5, 6, 19, 53-55, 57-59, 78-79, 88, 93
Fairy rings Marasmius oreodis, 23
Falcon Lake, Manitoba. 37-43, 174
Falconbridge, Canadian Forces Radar Station, 144-48, 163, 183
Flammonde, Paris, 3
Flying Saucers and the Straight-Line Mystery, 12
Ford, Gerald, 173
Fort Macleod, Alberta, 107
Fortney, Edward, 47-49
France, 2, 3
Freedom of Information Act, 3, 5, 88, 147, 170
Friedman, Stanton, T., 4, 5, 105-106, 142
Frum, Barbara, 142
Funk, Gilbert, 49-53
Gairy, Eric, 4
Gammie, Bert, 99
Gander, Newfoundland, 100-101
Gander Airport, (Gander), 101
Georgia Thermal Generating Plant, 122
Globe and Mail (Toronto), 89, 127
Gontovnick, Howard, 63
Goose Bay Air Force Base, Newfoundland, 110-11, 143-44, 157, 170
Government House, Ottawa, 132-33
Grand Falls, Montana, 106-107
Green Lake, British Columbia, 99
Ground Saucer Watch (GSW), 3, 7, 13, 15-16, 89
Guelph Daily Mercury, 19
Halifax Mail-Star, 151
Halliday, Dr. Ian, 147
Hamilton, Ontario, 7, 17-19, 44-46, 75, 173
Hamilton Spectator, The, 18, 45
Hammond, Ontario, 115
Harder, Dr. James, 76-78
Harris, Jim, 127
Hellyer, Paul, 98, 169
Horton, Samuel, 118
Hoville, Wido, 11-12, 63, 67, 73, 161
Howard, James, 156-58
Howe, William D., 45
Hull, Quebec, 134-36
Hunag, Dr. S.S., 57
Hydro-Quebec, 114, 135
Hydroscope, 116, 118
Hynek, Dr. J. Allen, 2-3, 4-5, 11-12, 19, 33, 126, 142
Hypnotic regression, 54, 69-71, 76-81, 82
Indianapolis Star, 129
Jacobson, Eleanor M., 15-16
Jerome, Major Edwin A., 143-44
Journal de Montreal, Le, 62-63
Keel, John A., 79-80
Kelly, Leonard (Red), 172
Kenora, Ontario, 15-16
Keyhoe, Major Donald E., 98, 99, 102 110-11, 126. 129
Kinross U.S. Air Force Base, 103-104
KLRH Radio, Lackland U.S. Air Force Base, 103, 104
Lake Huron, 117-18
Lake Ontario, 18, 117, 127
Lake Superior, 102-105
Langenburg, Saskatchewan, 23
Lavoie, Jacques, 9-12
Lehn, W.H., 142
London, Ontario, 109-10
London Free Press, 109-10
Lucas, Douglas, 29
Maccabee, Dr. Bruce, S., 5, 142
MacDonald, Dr. James E., 126, 128, 130, 158
McKenna, Dr. C.J., 90
MacDuff, Claude, 136
Maine, Dr. Frank, 19
Malboeuf, Florida, 61-64
Manicouagan Hydro-electric Complex (Quebec), 136
Manitoba Centre for UFO Studies, 35-41
Manitoba, Government of Forestry, Department of, 33
Health and Social Development, Department of, 40, 41
Marshall, William, (Mrs.), 121-23
Mather, Barry, 43
Mayo Clinic, 42, 44
McCampbell, James M., 33, 35-36
McCarthy, Mary, 120-21
McCarthy, Pat, 7, 17, 19, 183
McCord U.S. Air Force Base, 175
McIntosh, Dr. Bruce, 147-48
McKay, Henry, 183
McMaster University (Hamilton Ont.), 18
McNamara, Dr. Allen G., 181-84
McRae Flight Sergeant Reginald, Michalak, Stephen, 37-43, 60
Millbank, Stephen, 153, 154
Miller, J.A., 163-64
Millman, Dr. Peter, 33, 90, 167, 178
Monda, Lieutenant Felix, Jr., 103-104
Mont Rougemont, Quebec, 73, 137-39
Montreal Urban Community Police, 63
Morier, Ronald L., 24
Mount Pleasant, Ontario, 27-29
Musgrave, John B., 54, 182-83
Mutual UFO Network (MUFON), 5, 54, 75-76, 182
My Encounter With the UFO, 37-43
National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA), 2, 8, 122
NBC-TV, 14, 100
Neal, Reginald, 94-95
New York City, 128-29
New Zealand, 5, 142
Niagara Falls, Ontario, 127-28
NICAP (National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomenon),
103, 105, 126, 141, 143, 151, 171
North Bay Air Force Base (Ontario), 62, 87, 90-91, 147-48, 162,
Northeast Blackout, 125-31, 135
Novaya Zemlaya Effect, 142
Nuclear Energy, 114-19
Nuclear Power Demonstration, (NPD), Rolphton, Ontario, 120
Oliver, Donald. 150-51
Oliver, Major Michael, 145
Ontario, 45, 108-109, 126, 173
Ontario, Government of, Lands and Forests, Department of
Ontario Provincial Police (OPP), 28, 120-21. 164
Solicitor General, Forensic Services Centre, 28-29
Ontario Hydro, 115-17, 120, 127, 133
Ottawa, Ontario, 14, 132-36, 166, 170, 177
Ottawa Citizen, The, 120, 134
Ottawa Journal, The, 121, 134, 165-66
Pachal, Ashley, 49-52
Parks, Andy. 117
Parliament Hill, 8, 126, 132-35, 183
Pembroke, Ontario, 29
Persinger, Dr. Michael, 58
Petawawa (Ontario), Canadian Forces Base, 121
Phillips, Ted, 20, 23-24
Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (Ontario), 115-18
Pilots, Civilian, 153-64, 173
Pilots, Military, 87, 96-110, 144, 147-48, 173
Poher, Dr. Claude, 4
Port Coquitlam, British Columbia, 25-27
Project Blue Book, 14, 106-107
Project UFO (TV Program), 100
Quebec (Province), 135-38, 154-63
Quebec City, 161-62
Radar, False Signals, 5, 141, 147
installations, 101, 103, 106-107, 111, 140-52
Tracking of UFOs, 6, 101, 103, 106-108, 110, 140-52, 160, 163
Radiation, Microwave, 21, 33, 35-36, 48, 52, 67, 124
Nuclear, 36, 39-40, 42, 45, 116, 119-20
Regina, Saskatchewan, 107
Reid, John, 148-50
Rimouski, Quebec, 136
Rosedale, Alberta, 56, 65, 67
Rossell, Warrant Officer E.H., 90
Rougemont, Quebec, 137-39
Roy, Jean, 68, 162
Sagan, Dr. Carl, 57
Saint Matthias de Chambly, Quebec, 72-74
Schreyer, Edward (Governor General of Canada), 43
Seewaldt, David, 81-86
Selfridge (U.S.) Air Force Base, Michigan, 118, 147
Sept-Iles, Quebec, 156-58
Shirleys Bay, Ontario, 177-SO
Shoal Lake, Ontario, 31-33, 174, 183
Simon Fraser University (Vancouver, B.C.), 27
Sioux Lookout Canadian Forces Radar Station (Ontario), 148-49
Sioux Lookout Daily Bulletin, 149-50
Sir Adam Beck No. 2 Generating Station (Ontario), 127-30
Smith, Warren, 13-14, 174
Smith, Wilbert B., 93, 167, 176-79
Solandt, Dr. O.M., 90, 167
Soo Locks, Michigan, 103
Soroka, Staff Sergeant Bud, 29
South America, 56, 76
Soviet Union, 3-4, 96-97, 130, 140, 152, 168, 171
Spaulding, William H., 8, 15
Sprinkle, Dr. Leo, 77
St. Cyrille de Drummondville, 57, 67-71
St. Hubert Air Base (Quebec), 87, 91-93, 151, 171
St. Hyacinthe, Quebec, 137
Star Trek, 78, 97, 153
Stirling, Ontario, 183
Stringfield Leonard, 5, 97
Sturrock, Dr. Peter A., 2
Sudbury, Ontario, 105, 144-48, 160-63
Sudbury, Star, The, 145-46
Suffield ORB Experimental Station (Alberta), 98, 168
Syracuse Herald Journal, 129
Time Magazine, 129
Toronto Star, 91-92
Turner, Colonel, W.W., 14
UFO, Aerodynamic maneuvers, 5, 7, 9-10, 12-13, 16, 17-19 23
25, 30-32, 37, 46, 61, 64, 67, 89-91, 93-94, 98, 100-102,
105-12, 116-47, 129-30, 132, 135-36, 138, 141-42, 143-45,
151-52, 155-57, 161, 163, 178
Attempts to communicate with, 38-39, 125, 138
Chases by military aircraft, 81, 96-100, 102-107, 109, 144,
Chases, disappearance of planes/crew, 81, 97, 102-107, 168,
Chases, filming of UFOs, 99-100, 102, 106
Chases, pilot fatalities 97, 104, 105-106
Crashes, 5. 97
EM (Electromagnetic) Effect, 6, 49, 125, 128
Internal Combustion Engines, 124-25 139
Radio Disruption, 12, 32, 125, 160, 162
TV Disruption, 124-25, 139
Emissions, 13, 20, 24-28, 35-36, 49, 67, 93, 99, 114,
118-19, 137, 159-60, 163
Foliage Damage, 21-22, 30-33, 49, 52, 66-67, 69, 73, 137, 183
Ground Markings, 5, 16, 19-31, 39, 62-64, 66-67, 68-69, 73,
Hoaxes, 7-8, 21, 24, 41, 43, 64, 78, 149-5 1, 164
Landings, 5-6, 16-17, 19-31, 37-39, 44-45, 65-68, 69, 72-74,
National Security Threat, 6, 46, 88 98, 111, 165, 168-72
Occupants, 3, 5, 9, 20-21, 46, 48, 53-74, 75-86
Official Recognition of, 3-4, 90, 92-93, 165, 185
Origin Hypotheses, 6, 19, 57-58, 93-94, 157, 158
Over Communications Installations, 47, 60, 138-39
Over Energy-Producing Facilities, 60, 95, 114-23, 126,
Over Farms, 22, 27-31, 137
Over High-Voltage Transmission Lines, 46-47, 95, 115, 125
Over Military Installations, 59, 87-95, 98, 114, 140-52,
Paranormal Aspects, 6, 27, 58-59, 79, 81, 82-83, 86, 97,
101, 103-104, 106, 121-22
Photographic Evidence, 5, 6, 7-19, 20, 94, 98, 102, 106-107,
128-29, 141-42, 145, 162-63, 183-84
Physiological Reactions to -
Animal Response, 6, 15-16, 25, 29, 37-38, 52, 66
Human Response, 6, 27, 30, 35-45, 47-49, 5], 75-76, $4,
Related Power Blackouts, 114, 115, 124-39
abduction of, 60-61, 75-86
amnesia of, 75-86
behaviour modification, 78, 79-80
disappearance of, 80, 97-98
UFO Exist, 3
UFO-Quebec, 11, 63, 67, 69, 72-73, 137, 139, 160-61
UFO Society of Edmonton, 49-52
Ukrainian, 38, 60
United Nations, 3-5, 54
United States, 2, 5, 22, 76, 98
United States, Government of,
ADC (Air Defence Command), 106-107
Air Force Intelligence, 97-98, 101-102, 111, 157
Air Technical Intelligence, 102 Defence Department, 1, 6,
102, 143, 147
Defence Intelligence Agency, 3 FPC (Federal Power
Freedom of Information Act, 3, 147
House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 77
NASA, 3, 8, 122
National Security Agency, 3
NORAD (North American Air Defence Command), 87-90, 102,
140-44, 152, 171, 176
NORAD Headquarters (Colorado Springs), 62, 175-76
Robertson Panel of Scientific Consultants, 167-68
U.S. Air Force, 2-3, 14, 77, 97, 102-104, 106-107, 110-12,
143, 147, 168-69, 173
U.S. Navy, 100
Naval Intelligence, 102
University of British Columbia, 26-27
University of Calgary. 82-86
University of Manitoba, 32
Vallée, Dr. Jacques. 4, 36
Vancouver, British Columbia, 25, 99
Victoria, British Columbia. 93-94
Voorsluys, Hermanus, 93
Waldheim Kurt, 4
Walsh, Robert C. 128
Webb, David, 54, 75, 80
Weekend Magazine, 180
Wilmot, Daisy, 17
Winch, Harold, 180
Windsor, Ontario, 163-64, 173
Winnipeg, Manitoba. 37, 39-40, 46-48, 108, 176
Wood, Dr. Robert M., 55, 57
X-Ray Spectrometry, 27
Yeo, Warrant Officer W.J., 89