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WILBERT BROCKHOUSE SMITH, M.Sc.
A Top Canadian Scientist
Lived: 1909 - 1962
DOSSIER COMMENTS:

Wilbert Brockhouse Smith:
Masters of Science (UBC), Electrical Engineering Canadian Radio Technical Planning Board
Canadian Association of Broadcasting Consultants
Superintendent of Radio Regulations Engineering
Department of Transportation & Communications.

"There is a [alien] plan which is being meticulously followed... big and terrible things are due to happen shortly... the people from outside [aliens] are so much like us that they could mingle with us and we would be none the wiser." - WB Smith

 

DOSSIER CONTENTS:

  1. [WILBERT B. SMITH] by Errol Bruce-Knapp, MUFON, Radio Host (4 pages)
  2. [WILBERT B. SMITH] by Michael Strainic, MUFON, NICAP (2 pages)
  3. [SMITH BACKGROUND] by Grant Cameron, UFOROM (3 pages)
  4. [PROJECT MAGNET] excerpt from "UFO Canada" by Yurko Bondarchuk (3 pages)
  5. [CANADIAN PROJECT] excerpt from "Flying Saucers" by Donald Keyhoe (9 pages)
  6. [RADIO INTERVIEW] CJOH Radio Interview courtesy of Nick Balaskas, MUFON (3 pages)
  7. [HOME] (Link back to HomePage)

Wilbert Brockhouse Smith (1909-62)
Canadian Radio Engineer and Ufologist

From material by Arthur Bray, David Haisell and Greg Kanon
Edited by Errol Bruce-Knapp
Wilbert Smith was born in Lethbridge, Alberta, graduated from University of British Columbia in 1933 with a B.Sc. in electrical engineering and went on to obtain his M.A.Sc in 1934 at the same university. After graduation he became chief engineer for radio station CJOR in Vancouver.

Smith did much to encourage improvements in the technical side of broadcasting facilities in Canada, and took a strong personal interest in the formation of the Canadian Association of Broadcast Consultants, which often advised the federal Department of Transport (DOT) on frequency allocation and other technical matters. He also played an important role in liaison between that department and the Canadian Radio Technical Planning Board. In 1939, he joined the federal Department of Transport. He was engaged in engineering Canada's war-time monitoring service and, in 1947, was in charge of establishing a network of ionospheric measurement stations, several of which were in isolated parts of the North.

At the time of his death, he was superintendent of Radio Regulations Engineering with the Department of Transport [DOT], responsible for the engineering aspects of all matters concerning the use of radio in Canada, including equipment standards, radio relay systems (micro-wave), broadcast facilities and interference studies.

Smith's area of research was in radio wave propagation, a study which eventually led him into fields such as auroras, cosmic radiation, atmospheric radio-activity and geo-magnetism. It was the latter of these fields which really attracted his attention and caused him to speculate that the potential energy of the Earth's magnetic field might be extracted and used. He had already progressed to the stage of developing a crude experimental model to demonstrate his theory, and successfully tested the unit which, in his words, "demonstrated the soundness of the basic principles in a qualitative manner and provided useful data for the design of a better unit." (1)

Smith's curiosity got the better of him when he read a magazine article on 'Flying Saucers' in the late 1940s and from then on he took a great interest in investigating flying saucers or UFOs. In DOT, he was engaged in research on the collapse of the Earth's magnetic field as a source of energy. As Smith believed that flying saucers may be operating on magnetic principles, it seemed that this work of DOT might explain their operation.

He believed, quote: "that we are on the track of something which may well prove to be the introduction to a new technology." This "is borne out by the investigations which are being carried on at the present time in relation to flying saucers." (2)

The investigations he was referring to were those being carried out by the US Government at that time. In late 1950 Smith had attended a North American Radio Broadcasting conference in Washington, DC, and while there, made inquiries through the Canadian Embassy staff who were able to inform him that:

  1. the matter of UFOs was the most highly classified subject in the US, rating higher than the H-bomb
  2. UFOs exist
  3. their modus operandi is unknown, but concentrated effort is being made by a small group headed by Dr. Vannevar Bush, (Editor: Of 'MJ12' fame)
  4. the entire matter is considered by US authorities to be of tremendous significance.(3)

    1. Memorandum to the Controller of Telecommunications, W.B. Smith, Nov. 21, 1950, p.2.
    2. ibid, p.2.
    3. ibid, p.3.

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Smith felt the preliminary result of his work in geo-magnetism correlated with the available data on reported UFO behaviour, and that they were fairly close to some of the answers. The Defence Research Board liaison officer at the Canadian Embassy in Washington evidently agreed with Smith for he was extremely anxious for him to get in touch with Dr. Solandt, Chairman of the Defence Research Board upon Smith's return to Ottawa, to discuss with him future investigations along the line of geo-magnetism energy release.

Consequently, upon his return to Canada, Smith met with Solandt on November 20, and obtained his support. Solandt agreed that work on geo-magnetic energy should proceed as rapidly as possible and offered DRB's co-operation in providing laboratory facilities, acquisition of equipment, and specialized personnel.(4)

On November 21 he outlined his proposal in writing to the Controller of Telecommunications, indicating Defence Research Board's support and requesting that a project be set up and carried out on a part-time basis "until such time as sufficient results would warrant more definitive action". (5)

The proposal outlined seven avenues of investigation, all dealing with geo-magnetic research, none dealing with UFO investigation. (6) He proposed the work be classified since he felt that the lesser known and little explored aspects of magnetism might hold the key to a new and significant technology, and its impact on our civilisation would have to be assess if his suspicions proved correct. Commander C.P. Edwards, then Deputy Minister of Transport for Air Services gave the project his blessing, requesting that he be kept posted from time to time.

It is curious that the avenues of investigation Smith proposed made no reference to UFOs. Could it have been that Smith wilfully omitted such reference in order to ensure a greater probability that the project would be approved? Or was he only interested in UFOs because they seemed to be demonstrating that some of his concepts were apparently being applied, whereas his main interest was indeed in the new technology which he felt he was on the verge of initiating?

Smith's curiosity was responsible for Project Magnet's initiation in November 1950, and for its relatively secret progress for a few years at least. It is significant, though, that the official 'Magnet' report, when eventually released many years later, dealt only with UFO sighting analysis, and made no mention of Smith's geo-magnetics research.

Curiously, the Canadian government in all its wisdom, saw the need for still another project to analyze UFO reports, less classified than Project Magnet, but still confidential. During the early months of 1952 there was a noticeable increase in the number of UFO incidents covered by the Canadian Press. (7,8,9) Several of these involved reports of disc-shaped craft over Royal Canadian Air Force bases, many reported by service personnel themselves.

The Defence Research Board (DRB) noted this increase, and DRB chairman Solandt asked staff member Harold Oatway to get a committee together "to see if we can make anything out of these flying saucer reports". (10)

Had Solandt forgotten about Smith and Magnet? It's doubtful.

Oatway was a friend of Smith and knew of his involvement. As we shall see Smith had not been forgotten, but the reason for setting up a further project remains unclear, unless, of course, Smith was too busy with his research. Why they didn't merely enlarge Magnet remains a mystery.

On April 22, 1952, the committee gathered by Oatway held its first meeting, with Peter Millman, head of the Dominion Observatory, as its chairman. Smith, Edwards and Solandt were also among those present.

It was agreed that there was a need to formally investigate UFOs, and that a committee should be formed to lead this activity and to standardize procedures, etc.(11) From the minutes of this meeting we read, "This committee was to prepare a brief of instructions for observers; examine interrogation; and to establish a standard method of recording and indexing for subsequent analysis." (12) (And if I may be permitted, I would like to note that thirty years later, we are still doing the same thing!) It was also decided that "the function of DRB should be mainly advisory as the collection of reports could best be done by field organizations." (13)

Two days later, the newly formed committee assembled, classifying its work as 'confidential', and identifying themselves as 'Project Theta'.

On May 19, 1952 they met for a second time and among other things, re-named themselves 'Project Second Storey' since 'Theta' was apparently not on the list of valid names for projects of this type.

On June 25, 1952 Smith submitted an interim report on Project Magnet in which he stated that it appeared evident that flying saucers are emissaries from other civilizations and actually operate on magnetic principles, magnetic principles which we have failed to grasp due to our not paying enough attention to the structure of fields in our study of physics. (14)

On July 31, Project Second Storey held their third meeting where, among other items of business, a letter containing several of Smiths motions, presumably based on his progress in Magnet, was tabled and discussed. Also, the final form of the 'Project Second Storey Sighting Report was approved, and distribution of same was determined.

There was no mention in the minutes of any reference to Smiths decisive statement in his interim 'Magnet' report.

4. ibid, p.4.
5. ibid, p.4.
6. Project Magnet, program, W.B. Smith, p.2.
7. Ottawa Journal, April 16, 1952.
8. Toronto Globe & Mail, April 16, 1952.
9. Ottawa Journal, April 17, 1952.
10. 'I Believe Flying Saucers Come From Outer Space', by Alan Phillips, Weekend Magazine, V.7, #27, 1957, p.4.
11. Minutes of a DRB meeting to discuss flying saucers, April 22, p.1.
12. ibid. p.1.
13. ibid. p.2.
14. Interim Report on Project Magnet, W.B. Smith, 1952.

Page 3
The fourth meeting of Second Storey was not held until November 17, followed by the fifth on March 9, 1953. Smith had been working on some 'weighting factors' to be applied to witness testimony to help arrive at some measure of report significance. At the fifth meeting his system was adopted temporarily without alterations. At this point, though, it was probably felt irrelevant since Chairman Millman noted "that evidence to date (and note that this was not Second Storey's evidence to which he was referring, since they had so far only managed to standardize their procedures) did not seem to warrant an all out investigation by the Canadian Services but it might be well to continue to collect at some central location all forms which may be submitted to the Services." (15) Millman reached this conclusion following discussions with the chairman of DRB on the future activities of the committee. They seemed to be again ignoring Smith's statement in his preliminary report on Magnet; or were they trying to play it down?

And as it turned out, Millman's conclusion was based on activities in the U.S. in the wake of the Robertson Panel, which is now know to have been a CIA whitewash. So here is further evidence of top level U.S. Canadian inter-relationship in the UFO field, and if we assume this inter-relationship continued after the Robertson Panel, it is safe to assume that investigation of UFOs in Canada was placed under the control of some branch of Canadian Intelligence. We can only guess that Smith's interim 'Magnet' report probably played a significant part in this assumed decision.

In concluding the fifth meeting of Second Storey, it was agreed that a further meeting would take place after the Department of Transport had completed its analysis. That is, after the Magnet Report was finished. This was accomplished on August 10, 1953 but there are no minutes available of any further Second Storey meetings, although there is evidence that further meetings did take place. One wonders why the minutes were nod made public. Recent correspondence between Canadian ufologist Arthur Bray and Dr. Allen McNamara (without even having been asked the question) that the Project Magnet report was submitted to Second Storey in 1953. (This from a letter dated July 25, 1979.) (16) So it was 26 years before any indication of further Second Storey meetings surfaced.

During the summer of 1953, Wilbert Smith obtained approval from the Department of Transport (DOT) to set up some UFO detection equipment at Shirley's Bay, near Ottawa, and by the end of October the installation was complete. The instruments included a gamma-ray counter, a magnetometer, a radio receiver (to detect the presence of radio noise, and a recording gravimeter. (17)

News of Magnet finally leaked to the media presumably because of the conspicuous nature of the Shirley's Bay installation. (18) As expected, denials were attempted; on the very day the station went into operation Dr. Solandt was quoted as saying reports of the station's establishment were completely untrue. However, he was forced to back down on this, and later claimed he actually had only said that such a station was not being operated by his department, and that he personally had no knowledge of its existence. (19) Even this was difficult to accept since the installation was located next to DOT's Ionosphere Station on Defence Research Board (DRB) property, and in fact, the building was loaned to Smith by DRB. (20)

Public awareness of this project was to be a source of frustration, annoyance and embarrassment to DRB and DOT, and it put Smith in an awkward position since he was still officially a member of the Second Storey Committee. This was probably a contributing factor to the contents of Millman's November 21st summary report of Project Second Storey. He announced that Project Second Storey's forms and instructions for filing of sighting information were available for any government department seriously interested in pursuing the matter further, but the committee felt that, owing to the impossibility of checking independently the details of the majority of sightings , most of the material did not lend itself to a scientific method of investigation. (21)

Could it be that they were not aware of the scientific study being conducted in the U.S. at that time by the Air Force on UFO reports collect from June 1, 1947 to December 31, 1952? The study was initiated in 1952 and continued through 1954, and proved beyond a doubt the existence of an unidentified phenomenon, even though the conclusions were worded in such a way as to divert attention from the evidence. The study to which I am referring was known as 'Project Blue Book Special Report #14' which is probably the most constantly referred to in the literature of Stanton Friedman, and more recently was the subject of a paper by Bruce Maccabee in the Journal of UFO Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, entitled the 'Scientific Investigation of Unidentified Flying Objects'.

It is difficult to believe Millman's statement, and perhaps his remarks were designed to appease 'somebody' in the event Smith's association with Second Storey eventually became public knowledge, and also to save face in view of the Adamski & contactee activity now the public eye.

At 3:01 in the afternoon of August 8, 1954 the instrumentation at the Shirley's Bay installation registered an unusual disturbance. In Smith's words "the gravimeter went wild", (22) as a much greater deflection was registered than could be explained by conventional interference such as passing aircraft. Smith and his colleagues rushed outside only to find a heavy overcast. Whatever was up there as hidden in the clouds. The only evidence they had was the deflection registered on the chart recorder paper.

Two days later the controller of Telecommunications issued a form letter, which was also authorised as a press release, admitting that the DOT had been engaged in the study of UFOs for three and a half years, that considerable data had been collected and analysed, but it had not been possible to reach any definite conclusion, and since new data simply confirmed existing data, there seemed little point in carrying the project any further on an official level. This, despite the fact that "new data... confirmed existing data", which is what one would expect of a positive scientific experiment!

15. Minutes of the 5th Second Storey meeting, March 9, 1953, p.2
16. The UFO Connection, Arthur Bray, Jupiter Publishing, 1979, p.69
17. The UFO Connection, Arthur Bray, Jupiter Publishing, 1979, p.63.
18. Sudbury Star, Nov. 12, 1953.
19. Toronto Daily Star, Nov. 14, 1953.
20. Letter from Dr. N.M. Millman, Sept. 24, 1968, NRC files.
21. Project Second Storey - Summary Report, Dr. P.M. Millman, chairman, Second Storey Committee, Nov. 21, 1953. Bray, p.63.
22. Form letter signed by the Controller of Telecommunications, DOT, Aug. 10, 1954.

Page 4
Project Magnet was to be dropped, but Smith would continue to receive and catalogue data on an unofficial basis.(23) In Smith's words, Magnet went "underground"(24) probably joining Second Storey.

The detection of 'whatever it was' two days before had evidently inspired rapid action. Does it seem likely that a project, which had finally apparently detected what it was looking for, would be terminated? Justification for changing to a 'Top Secret' classification perhaps... It is apparent that pressure was applied to Smith to down-play or even deny the Shirley's Bay incident.

Researcher Greg Kanon writes: "In an abrupt about face, Smith announced, before the May 17th 1955 session of the Commons' Special Committee on Broadcasting, that no UFOs had ever been detected at the Shirley's Bay Station. At about this same time, Captain Edward J. Ruppelt (who earlier served as chief UFO investigator for the U.S. Air Force) was reportedly told by RCAF Intelligence officers that only 'officially' had the Shirley's Bay Station produced negative results. These developments led some UFO researchers to conclude that Smith had been successfully silenced by officialdom."(25)

Whatever the case, Smith kept busy over the next few years, and we get a glimmer of what he was up to from a presentation he gave about five years later to the Illuminating Engineering Society's Canadian Regional Conference during which he stated:

"We know that gravity is not all Newton visualised. Far from being a basic force in nature, it is really a derived function, and is the consequence of a dynamic condition, not a static one. We know what goes into its makeup; we know its formula and we have a pretty good idea of how to go about bringing it under control. We have conducted experiments that show that it is possible to create artificial gravity (not Centrifugal force) and to alter the gravitational field of the Earth. This we have done. It is Fact. The next step is to learn the rules and do the engineering necessary to convert the principle into workable hardware." (26) That statement was made in 1959. The question is, what has been achieved since then?

It has been claimed by some that Smith turned away from orthodox scientific work to the more metaphysical aspects of what he termed 'the new science'. Such was not the case. He carried on his normal scientific work and at the same time delved into the science of metaphysics as a possible answer to the UFO mystery, which apparently produced some concrete results in the laboratory. In the realm of purely orthodox science, Smith was working on the development of an anti-gravity device and believed himself to be on the verge of an important breakthrough just prior to his death.

In the area of metaphysics, Smith claimed to communicate with 'occupants' of UFOs through a contact who provided him with certain information. One instance pertained to areas of reduced binding in our atmosphere. All matter is held together by forces which are not clearly understood and are known as 'binding forces'. Smith was informed that there are areas of reduced binding and that many air crashes were due to entering such regions, where the planes literally fell apart. He was told that means of detecting such areas were easily available to us and that suitable instruments could be constructed. By building a 'binding meter' according to the principles given to him, he was able to locate regions of reduced binding. He recommended to the government that further investigation be conducted, but because of the unorthodox source of his information, he was unable to obtain official recognition of this work and his letters were added to the 'crank file'.

The last ten years of Smith's life were devoted to intensive thought and study. He formulated several of his ideas into a book titled 'The New Science'.

Smith died of cancer on December 27, 1962. The respect he commanded was reflected in his being posthumously awarded the Lieutenant-Colonel Keith S. Rogers Memorial Engineering Award for dedicated service in the advancement of the Technical Standards in Canadian Broadcasting. This award, presented by the Canadian General Electric Company, was well deserved. Smith was one of the foremost thinkers of his time - a well respected ufologist - one of the first of our breed.

23. 'Project Magnet - The Canadian Flying Saucer Study', Topside, Winter/Spring 1963.
24. Canadian UFO Report, Vol.3, No.6, p.23.
25. 'Sputniks, Saucers and Spacecraft', W.B. Smith, - a paper delivered to the Illuminating Engineering Society, Canada Regional Conference, at a luncheon in Ottawa, June 11,1959.
26. ibid.

WILBERT BROCKHOUSE SMITH
(1909-1961)
by Michael Strainic

In the 1950s, no-one in the UFO field in Canada was better known than Wilbert Brockhouse Smith. Smith is generally known as an official with the Department of Communications (DOC) and the head of a Canadian Government UFO project, Project Magnet. Wilbert Smith held both a B.Sc. and M. Sc. in Electrical Engineering, and was Senior Radio Engineer, Broadcast and Measurements Section, Department of Transport (DOT).

Smith was internationally recognised for his work in radio communications, and he held a number of patents. He had been responsible for engineering aspects of everything concerning the use of radio in Canada, including equipment standards, radio relay systems, broadcast facilities and interference studies. He was in charge of establishing a network of ionospheric measurement stations throughout Canada, and he often represented Canada at international conferences.

Smith's interest in the UFO phenomenon and his influential position within the government caused him to make a proposal to the DOT to establish Project Magnet. Smith stated in the proposal that his group believed that they were on the track of something which may well prove to be the introduction to a new technology.

It appeared that their work in geomagnetics might well prove to be the linkage between our technology and the technology demonstrated by the saucers. The purpose of this proposed project was to study how magnetic and gravitational principles might account for the reported flight characteristics of flying saucers.

There has been a resurgence of interest in Smith in the last few years, primarily due to what has become known as the "Smith memo." This was a memo which attracted a lot of attention around the time of the MJ-12 papers, and the Smith memo helped lend a certain credibility to the whole MJ-12 milieu. The memo, which now has been widely circulated, is dated 21 November 1950, and was originally sent to the Controller of Telecommunications as a proposal to study officially the UFO situation.

In this memo, Smith wrote, "The existence of a different technology is borne out by the investigations which are being carried on at the present time in relation to flying saucers." He also stated that by making discreet inquiries at the Canadian Embassy in Washington, DC, he had learned from Dr. Robert Sarbacher that:

A. The matter is the most highly classified subject in the United States government, rating higher even than the H-bomb.

B. Flying saucers exist.

C. Their modus operandi is unknown but concentrated effort is being made by a small group headed by Dr. Vannevar Bush.

D. The entire matter is considered by the United States authorities to be of tremendous significance.

WILBERT SMITH BACKGROUND
Who Was He?
by Grant Cameron

Smith began UFO studies in 1950, and continued them until his death in December 1962. He was only 52 when he died.

He was the Senior Radio Engineer at the Department of Transport 1950, when Project Magnet began. Smith worked on the communications side of the department. It later became The Department of Communications. It was the equivalent to Federal Communications Commission in the United States.

Held a Master's Degree in Electrical engineering. Took many more courses on advanced physics and mathematics.

responsible for the engineering aspects of all matters concerning the use of radio in Canada, including equipment standards, radio relay systems (micro-wave), broadcast facilities and interference studies.

Smith read a magazine article on 'Flying Saucers' in the late 1940s and from then on he took a great interest in investigating flying saucers or UFOs.

Smith wrote two science novels.

Ran "Radio Ottawa" which was the place where Canadians spies radioed in, and where the Canadians intercepted Soviet communications. Being in charge of this put Smith in a position where he was trusted to keep the most highly classified secrets.

Smith allocated radio frequencies for AM/FM radio, and for the intelligence agencies who also used radio frequencies.

1956 -superintendent of Radio Regulations Engineering. Being promoted after the shut down of Project Magnet clearly indicated that the Canadian government held Smith in high esteem, and did not think he was crazy as some have maintained over the years.

1957 Smith sat on the co-ordinating committee of the international geophysical year. He therefore had contact on leading edge scientific problems with many Americans and scientists from the Soviet Union who where also a part of the IGU program.

Smith was an unusual UFOlogist. Never criticised anyone. This is after reading hundreds of his letters to people. The exceptions would be the Gravity research Foundation in New Hampshire who refused to allow him to demonstrate his gravity control experiment in 1959 at their "Gravity Day" in 1959, and Donald Keyhoe who attacked the contactees asking them to resign from NICAP.

Page 2
PROJECT MAGNET
Magnet was the official flying saucer investigation by the Canadian government. It was headed up for the four years it was operational by Wilbert Smith.

The program began after Smith wrote a Top Secret memo to the Deputy Minister of Transport for Air services C.P. Edwards, and the Assistant Minister J.R. Baldwin.

The Top Secret memo described a possible new propulsion system powered by the earth's magnetic field. Smith felt that this was the principle being demonstrated by the flying saucers.

In a series of "discreet inquiries" in the United States Smith was able to discover five key points about flying saucers, based on what he was told about the American flying saucer program.

    1) The matter of UFOs was the most highly classified subject in the US, rating higher than the H-bomb
    2) Flying saucers exist
    3) Their modus operandi is unknown, but concentrated effort is being made by a small group headed by Dr. Vannevar Bush, (Of 'MJ12' fame)
    4) The entire matter is considered by US authorities to be of tremendous significance.
    5) There were a number of other things including "mental phenomena" that were being studies because of their possible link to the saucers.
PROJECT MAGNET INTERIM REPORT
Classified 1953. Not declassified till 1979. The conclusions of the report were as follows:

Based on strict statistical analysis Smith team determined that there was a 91% probability that the objects are real, and a 60% probability that they are alien vehicles.

The report sat on the Prime Minister's desk for three months. At the end of the period Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent determined that the time for the release of such a report was not right, and Wilbert Smith apparently went along with the decision.

1959 Smith wrote to a man who was attempting to pry the Project Magnet report loose. Smith wrote "You will recall last March that I didn't think you had the proverbial snowball's chance of prying it loose. No minister in his right mind is going to release ANY report which in any way might prove embarrassing or give rise to questions which he or his colleagues might find difficult to answer.

FLYING SAUCER OBSERVATORY
Set up in spring 1953 to detect and measure simultaneously gamma radiation, radio noise, magnetic variations, and gravity variations. Also an ionospheric detector to determine if anything is overhead.

Observatory and Project magnet were both shut down on August 10, 1954 after Smith detected an object flying over the station on August 8. Smith stated that the object might have been a flying saucer. The press reports centred on the fact that an official ( Wilbert Smith) had confirmed a flying saucer over the nation's capitol. The publicity was so bad that the Canadian government could take it no longer. They shut down the project and Smith was forced to carry on in his spare time.

He was however still given access to any government labs for his scientific work on flying saucers.

PROJECT SECOND STORY
Project Second Storey was a Department of defense secret project was initiated by Dr. Omond Solandt to get to see if they could find out anything about these flying saucers.

The committee of high ranking officers from various departments was chaired by Dr. Peter Millman, who was the Director of the Dominion Observatory in Ottawa.

Six meetings were held over the period 52-54. The project, often written up as some big secret effort to attain an answer to flying saucers, was actually a whitewash effort to make the whole phenomena to go away.

Of the members of the Second Storey committee, only Smith attended all of the six meetings. A quick review of the notes will show that many of the other top-ranking officers only attended one of two meetings. Moreover, the Second Storey records show that Smith is the only one who actually did any talking about what to do. The rest appeared just to sit in the meeting and listen.

Page 3
MYTHS ABOUT WILBERT SMITH
Myth: Smith was Intelligence but gullible

Not true as he was promoted in 1956 after the UFO project was closed down. Shows government confidence making him department head. Smith was also a Consultant to NASA. In 1957 Smith sat on the co-ordinating committee of the international geophysical year.

Myth: He didn't head the UFO program. (The claim is it was part time, and that it was a personal project not connected to the government.)

However, in Oct. 1955 "You may know that I am the fellow who was in change of the Canadian Government's Project Magnet, which was the official saucer study program." C.P. Edwards writes at end of document "OK, go ahead with it and keep me informed." The story that the Smith UFO work was unofficial and part-time was started in 1968 by Dr. Peter Millman in his introduction written for the Project magnet Report. Millman, however, had never read the Top Secret memo in Project magnet and was not cleared about anything that occurred in the project. Because Smith had continued his UFO studies after 1954 as a personal private pursuit, Millman wrote in 68 that Smith's work was part time. The fact was that it was only part time after 1954. All government officials commenting on Project Magnet after that point, simply read the intro. to the Project magnet report in the file, and quoted Millman about the whole effort being part time and Smith personal interest.

Myth: The Top secret memo should not have been Top Secret

Solandt indicated that Smith had just put Top Secret on his personal papers and that the document should have never been classified Top Secret. Question is why classifies a document - the sender or the receiver? Now let us assume that Smith was a bad boy and shouldn't have put Top Secret on the document. If that is so why was the document not released to the public till the late 1970s. Take it one step further. Why was it still classified Top Secret in September of 1969? Why was it not declassified as soon as it was received if it was not proper? A review of the actual facts will show that even in 1969 the declassification to confidential was an accident. Something most people don't know. The declassification memo is on this site under documents, but here is what it says. W. J. Wilson who wrote this memo is told to declassify the documents. He states instead, "at no time should this be made available to the public," and the copy of the project magnet report in the file is the original, and it should "not be destroyed until such time as this subject has cooled off." This declassification was being done in 1969 just as the Canadian and US governments were cancelling their UFO investigations, and going to the people telling them there was nothing to the UFO phenomena.

The declassification ordered by Dr. Peter Millman was by a man who had never read the Top Secret memo - sceptics don't have to read to come to a conclusion. Dr. Peter Millman was at the National Research Council. He had been asked to take over the UFO files held by the Department of Transport, and the Department of Defense. Millman, a sceptic on UFOs, had agreed but stated he did not wish to have any classified material as a part of the files. He believed there was nothing to UFOs, and there was therefore no secrets to hide. The files included the Top Secret memo which included the information obtained from the states that "flying saucers exist" and "it is the most highly classified item" in the United States. It also included the interim Project magnet report written up in 1952 which stated "there is a 90% probability that the objects are real, and a 60% probability that the objects are extraterrestrial." Now instead of declassifying the Project Magnet files, as was requested by Sr. Peter Millman, and agreed upon by the Defense Research Board, Wilson decided to only lower the classification to "confidential," and to hint that the documents should be destroyed.

Asked about this memo years later, Dr. Millman told me that he had never read the Wilson memo. In reply to my question about the statements "should never be made available to the public," and destroying the document "when the subject has cooled off," Dr. Millman said "If you can understand all the statements made by top government officials, you are a better man than I am." Good answer!

Myth: How he died

Smith died of cancer of the lower bowel. People like Phil Klass were claiming a brain tumour. Some people inside NICAP were also spreading this story.

Myth: He had no access to Top Secret American information.

However, the US Project Magnet clearly shows that the Americans were listening to him. Admiral Knowles stated that Smith was dealing with top officials in the US government. The Canadian Embassy documents clearly show that the Smith rewrite of the Major Keyhoe article on the Canadian UFO Program had gone to Dr. Vannevar Bush for approval.

Smith's oldest son states that his father had seen both the bodies and a crashed flying saucer outside of Washington. It is logical that top access would have been required to see these two objects.

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT
Project Magnet
from UFO Canada, Yurko Bondarchuk

One of the first scientists to suggest that UFOs represented a probable by-product of advanced extra-planetary technology was Wilbert B. Smith. a radio engineer with the Canadian Department of Transport (DOT). Recognised today as the pioneer of UFO research in Canada, he was instrumental in generating DOT-sponsored UFO research in 1950 which yielded some startling findings.

At the time, Smith was head of DOT's Broadcast and Measurements Section. As a world expert in electromagnetism and telecommunications, he had little difficulty in convincing his superiors to examine what in effect was his personal fascination with the UFO phenomenon.(1) It was at a North American broadcasting conference in Washington in early 1950 that he first proposed to his superior, DOT Deputy Minister John Baldwin, the need for government-sponsored UFO study.(2) The dramatic increase in the volume of nation-wide sightings during the ensuing months added considerable support to his proposal.

Despite mass media's sensationalist portrayal of the UFO phenomenon, public acceptance at that time was surprisingly high. According to a poll taken in July of 1950 by the Canadian Institute of Public Opinion,

Half of the adult population of Canada believed that these mysterious disks are not just imagination and that they are not just a natural phenomenon.(3)
By December of that year, Smith was given the green light by Commander G.P. Edwards, then Deputy Minister of Transport for Air Services, to go ahead with a UFO study which came to be known as Project Magnet.(4) Authorised by DOT engineers to draw on UFO reports from across Canada, Smith embarked on this historical venture with the assistance of his colleagues from within his own Broadcast and Measurement Section.

To this day many of the Project Magnet findings remain classified material, with two notable exceptions - a small-scale study of twenty-five 1952 sightings. released in May 1968; and the public disclosure of an unprecedented instrument recording of a suspected UFO over the Project Magnet sighting station at Shirley's Bay, ten miles west of Ottawa, in August 1954.

The 1952 study clearly demonstrated that the majority of cases compiled in the eight-month period from May I to December 31 could not be explained as natural identifiable phenomena. Of the twenty-five sightings analyzed, sixteen or 64 per cent were either circular, elliptical, ring-like or cone-shaped vessels unlike any known man-made craft.(5) From this cross section of nation-wide cases Smith was able to draw the following conclusions:

They are a hundred feet or more in diameter; they can travel at speeds of several thousand miles per hour; they can reach altitudes well above these which would support conventional aircraft or balloons; and ample power and force seem to be available for all required manoeuvres. Taking these factors into account, it is difficult to reconcile this performance with the capabilities of our technology, and unless the technology of some terrestrial nation is much more advanced than is generally known, we are forced to the conclusion that the vehicles are probably extra-terrestrial, in spite of our prejudices to the contrary.(6)

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Even though DOT had initially given Smith full authorisation and co-operation, it soon became evident that his controversial findings led to a downgrading of Project Magnet by subsequent administrations. When portions of its report were declassified on May 9, 1968. it became clear that the government had entirely disassociated itself from both the mandate and the conclusion of the project. This was spelled out in a disclaimer signed by Dr. Peter Millman, then head of Upper Atmosphere Research of the National Research Council, and former Chairman of the Project Second Storey Committee:
I have been informed by the Department of Transport that although Project Magnet was officially authorised by the Department, work on this Project was carried out almost entirely by Mr. W.B. Smith and was in the nature of a spare time activity. The conclusions reached in this report are entirely those of Mr. Smith and do not represent an official opinion of either the Department of Transport or of the Second Storey Committee.(7)
What may have triggered the demise of Project Magnet was Smith's highly publicised instrument recording in August 1954, heralded by the press as the worlds first.(8) In the wake of the excitement generated by his 1952 findings, Smith had received approval to set up a UFO detection station at DOT's electronic establishment at Shirley's Bay. Open for operations in mid-December 1953, the twelve-foot-square laboratory was equipped with an assortment of sophisticated electronic equipment including a gamma ray detector, a radio wave detector, an ionospheric recorder to monitor activity and changes in the ionised layer of gases sixty miles from the earth's surface, and a gravimeter, designed to detect magnetic and gravity fluctuations in the atmosphere.(9) Assisting Smith were Professor J.T. Wilson of the University of Toronto; Dr. James Wait, a theoretical physicist with the Defence Research Board, and Dr. G.D. Garland, gravitational expert at the federal Mines and Technical Survey Department.(10)

Once the station was in operation, Smith and his colleagues instituted a twenty-four-hour vigil. Nothing unusual was recorded until eight months later when on Sunday, August 8, 1954, at 3:01 PM, the station's alarm bells rang out signalling that the gravimeter had been tripped. Fortunately, Smith was on hand to observe the instrument activation.(11) He dashed over to look at it and:

the deflection in the line (drawn by an electronically operated-pen) was greater and more pronounced than we have seen even when a large aircraft has passed over. bead.

I ran outside to see what might be in the sky. The overcast was down to a thousand feet, so that whatever was up there, whatever it was that caused the sharp variation was concealed behind the clouds. We must now ask ourselves what it could have been,

Although the evidence was inconclusive, Smith was convinced no known natural atmospheric phenomenon could account for the unusual pattern.(12)

Uncomfortable with the extensive press coverage sparked by the incident, Department of Transport officials unceremoniously discontinued Project Magnet two days later. This surprise move, described years later by Smith as "premature",(13) coincided with a tightening of military secrecy on UFOs in the United States, following repeated leaks about tragic mishaps and mysterious disappearances of military pilots who had pursued UFOs.

It soon became apparent that Smith had been persuaded to publicly downplay the Project Magnet findings. When he appeared before the House of Commons Special Committee on Broadcasting on May 17, 1955, be made the surprise admission that:

On the basis of our measurements, which were nil, we came to the conclusion we had very little data of any nature to go on.(14)

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After that, Smith was still allowed to pursue his interests in UFOs privately: but without DOT co-operation he was forced to scale down his research. Prior to his untimely death in 1962, he restated his beliefs in an interview with Weekend Magazine.
From the weight of the evidence, I think they come from outer space. But I can't prove it. The best I have is data on which you can put a probability figure ... look at this way, if a stock promoter told you that there was a 60 per cent probability that a certain stock would go up, I don't think you'd invest with him. But if the weatherman told you there was a 60 per cent probability that a hurricane was going to hit your area, I think you'd hurry up and bring in the lawn furniture. It's a question of viewpoint. You have to make up your own mind how significant you think the matter is.(15)
The documents relating to the Shirley's Bay operation have remained classified to this day. The following classical case of parliamentary 'double talk' took place in the House of Commons on December 4, 1963, and demonstrates the government's preoccupation with secrecy. Government spokesman Yvon Dupuis (Parliamentary Secretary to the Secretary of State) responded to questions from Harold Winch (PC-Vancouver East).

Winch:  Is Canada co-operating with the special United States
        program for investigation of unidentified flying objects
        and if so, is this entitled 'Project Magnet'?

Dupuis: The United States program known as 'Project Magnet' is
        not directed to the investigation of unidentified flying
        objects.

Winch:  Is 'Project Magnet' an un-publicised,. world-wide
        operation, using specially equipped, super
        constellations, non-uniformed pilots and civilian
        scientists?

Dupuis: 'Project Magnet' is a program conducted by
        the naval oceanographic office of the U.S. Navy
        concerned with the compilation of geo-magnetic data
        covering all the oceans of the world.

Winch:  Is any data available from 'Project Magnet' to the
        general public?

Dupuis: It is understood that data obtained in 'Project Magnet'
        in the form of geo-magnetic charts is available upon the
        application to the Naval Oceanographic Office of the
        U.S. Navy.(16)

FOOTNOTES:
 1 Harry Tokarz. 'Canadian UFO Research-Tribute to a Pioneer'
   Wilbert B. Smith, 'The UFO Pulse Analyser', Issue No. 1 (April
   1977) p. 19.
 2 Weekend Magazine, Vol.7, No. 27 (1957) p.4.
 3 Ibid., p. 4.
 4 Project Magnet Report, Radio and Electrical Engineering
   Division, National Research Council. Released May 9, 1968.
  (Ottawa), p. 1. Ibid., pp. 6-7.
 6 Ibid., pp. 10-11.
 7 Ibid., Note on Project Magnet Report, Forward.
 8 Toronto Globe and Mail, August 10, 1954.
 9 ibid.
10 Sudbury Star, November 12, 1953.
11 Toronto Globe and Mail. op. cit.
12 Toronto Star, May 18, 1955.
13 Toronto Star, op. cit.
14 The House of Commons Special Committee on Broadcasting.
   Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence. No. 8. Tuesday, May 17,
   1955 (Ottawa Queen's Printer).
15 Weekend Magazine, op. cit., p. 21.
16 The House of Commons Debates December 4, 1963, p. 5408.

FLYING SAUCERS FROM OUTER SPACE
The Canadian Project
Major Donald E. Keyhoe, US Marine Corps (ret.)

About twice a year since the fall of 1950, Smith had flown to Washington on official business. Each time, before he left, we had discussed the saucers and exchanged sighting reports. In the hope that he might be planning another visit, I wrote him at Ottawa. Then, while waiting for his answer, I went over the information I had on the Canadian investigation.

Two years before this, when I first learned of the Canadian interest in saucers, most Dominion officials and scientists had been openly skeptical. But early in '52, after a series of unusual sightings, their attitude had changed.

Though most of these recent sightings had been classified, a few were released to the public. Two of the published reports came from veteran airmen of the Royal Canadian Air Force.

On the night of January l, 1952, an orange-red disc appeared over North Bay, where the RCAF has a new jet base. For eight minutes, flying at a high altitude, the machine circled, dived, and zigzagged over the field. From its estimated height in the stratosphere, the saucer was one of. the largest ever sighted. Its manoeuvres were made at supersonic speeds.

When the report was published, RCAF Intelligence refused to comment. Then a second saucer was reported, again over North Bay. Approaching from the south-west, it stopped directly above the base. After hovering for a moment, it swiftly reversed direction. Climbing at an angle of 30 degrees, it disappeared at tremendous speed.

Meantime, other disturbing reports had reached the RCAF. Until then, many top officers, taking their cue from the Pentagon debunking, had laughed off the sightings. But after the second North Bay case, a high-level conference was held at Ottawa.

Four days later RCAF Intelligence publicly admitted it was starting a serious investigation. At the same time the Defense Research Board announced a new project, now secret.

"We are carefully studying the information," said Dr. O. M. Solandt, chairman of the Board. "At the moment we are as mystified as anyone else."

Another official statement was given out by Dr. J. C. Mackenzie, chairman of the Atomic Energy Control Board and formerly president of the National Research Council.

"It seemed fantastic that there could be any such thing ", said Dr. Mackenzie. "At first the temptation was to say it was all nonsense, a series of optical illusions. But there have been so many reports from responsible observers that they cannot be ignored. It seems hardly possible that all these reports could be due to optical illusions."

Dr. Peter Millman, a famous Dominion astrophysicist, also admitted he was baffled after studying the sighting reports.

"It is no good just laughing at these reports. We can't discover any conventional explanation which would cover the reported manoeuvres of these objects."

Just four days after the new project was begun, a formation of orange-red discs was sighted over Toronto, flying high above the city. Then on May 1 a lone saucer, moving at terrific speed, flashed over the Canadian capital. In this sighting at Ottawa, the disc's speed was calculated as 3,600 m.p.h. by government investigators from "Project Magnet."

Unknown to most of the public, this special project had been started three years before, by geomagnetic engineers and scientists in the Telecommunications Division, Department of Transport. Its originator, the engineer in charge, was Wilbert B. Smith.

Probably no one in Ottawa was better equipped for a saucer investigation than Wilbert Smith. As the official in charge of broadcast monitoring, he could direct his men to listen for any strange messages; as a geomagnetic engineer, with a government laboratory at his disposal, he could carry out research on certain propulsion theories; through the official ionosphere observatories he could keep a radar check on saucers flying at extremely high altitudes.

In addition to this, Smith was an electronics expert, with several inventions to his credit. One was a high-speed radio direction finder used in World War II. Another was a new type of voltmeter, and a third was a regenerative noise filter. He was also an expert on electronic analysis of graphic charts.

Page 2
When I met Smith, in 1950, he was in Washington to represent Canada at an international conference on wavelength allocation. For two weeks, between his committee meetings and at nights, we covered every angle of the saucer problem. A tall, quiet-voiced man with close-cropped black hair, Smith had the cool detachment of a typical scientist. In our first talk he told me of the analyses he and his men had made. Then he gave me his opinion.

"I'm convinced they're real-that they're machines of some kind. We've weighed three possibilities. One, they're interplanetary. Second, they're a United States secret device. Third, they're Russian. The last two don't stand up. From the weight of evidence I believe the saucers come from outer space. And I think their appearance is what suddenly increased your government's interest in space travel and an artificial satellite. Judging from our own operations, I'm sure your government also is vitally concerned with learning the secret of propulsion. "

"What do you think it is?" I asked him.

Smith laid a pad on the table-we were lunching at a downtown hotel. Then he sketched a rocket-shaped craft.

"First, let's consider the parent ship. From the high altitude sightings, I think it must be a type like this. For power it could use nuclear fission, mass conversion of energy, or some other revolutionary source, such as cosmic rays. But our experiments indicate that the true discs, which are probably launched from large parent ships, utilize magnetic fields of force. And it's possible that the parent ships also use this same source of power.

It wasn't the first time the electromagnetic field theory had been suggested. Before Scully used the idea, in his story of the little men, I'd checked it with two or three engineers. But when several well-known scientists ridiculed the theory, I'd lost interest in it.

The first hint of electromagnetic propulsion had come in '47, on the day of Ken Arnold's now famous sighting. About that same hour, an Oregon prospector later reported, several discs appeared over the Cascade Mountains. As they circled overhead, his compass needle went wild.

His claim drew a tart comment from Project Sign analysts.

"It is difficult to take this seriously. It would imply fantastically large magnetic fields. '

There had been other hints of discs rotating to utilize magnetic fields. One report came from the Reverend Ross Vermilion, a former B-29 pilot. The minister and other witnesses had described a rotating saucer which hovered a few hundred feet over a Kansas highway. Also, I had found some scientific support in the experiments of Dr. Fernand Roussel, a Canadian physicist now living at Lasqueti Isle, British Columbia. In a privately published treatise called "The Unifying Principle of Physical Phenomena," Dr. Roussel explained his theory of universal electromagnetic fields, which he believed space ships could tap in travelling between planets. ( This treatise, which is now out of print, has several points in common with Einstein's unified field theory. )

Quoting Doctor Roussel, I mentioned this propulsion theory in my 1950 book on the saucers. But after the storm raised by Scully's electromagnetic explanation, I'd stopped giving it serious thought.

Since then, several scientists have backed the theory. One who publicly advanced the idea was Dr. Franz Zwicky of the California Institute of Technology. In 1951, writing in the Journal o f the American Rocket Society, Dr. Zwicky said that it may be possible to use the electricity of the ionosphere. In this upper atmosphere ions are stripped of some outer electrons by the ultraviolet rays of the sun. This ionization frees molecules which carry large electric charges.

"If we can tap this electric farce," said Dr. Zwicky, "it may prove better than atomic energy for propulsion."

Recently the Carnegie Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism admitted new discoveries about the ionosphere. Until two years ago this layer, which begins about 50 miles up, was believed to be utterly still. Now, radio-echo ( radar ) tracking shows there are high-speed "waves" which reach speeds up to 540 miles an hour. Unsuspected downward velocities, as high as 275 m.p.h., also have been discovered. Future ionosphere research may give us the key to tremendously powerful magnetic forces now unknown.

Other reputable groups, including scientists of the British Interplanetary Society, have suggested space-ship propulsion by means of external fields of force. It is only the beginning, but it shows the changing attitude toward this once-derided theory which a more advanced race may long ago have put to practical use.

In 1950, however, Wilbert B. Smith and his little group were the only government scientists I knew who took the idea seriously.

"Certainly the theory's been ridiculed," Smith said when I mentioned some scientists' reaction. "So were plans for the aeroplane, the helicopter, jets, the A bomb-practically all our modern developments. I'd have doubted it myself before our experiments."

Page 3
At the start the Canadian project was unofficial, though the research was done in a government laboratory with official approval.

"If you publish any of this," said Smith, "I want you to make that clear. We re government engineers and scientists, but we are working on our own time. We've gone back to the fundamentals of electromagnetism and examined all the old laws. We know now it is possible to create current by a collapse of the earth's magnetic field. Eventually, I think, we can achieve enough current to power a flying disc. And we plan to build such a disc."

"How much of this can I use?" I said.

Smith hesitated. "I'll give you the information, but it will have to be cleared with my government."

After his return to Ottawa, Smith rewrote my original draft and sent it to the Canadian Embassy in Washington. The revised report was cleared for me by Mr. Arnold Wright, Defense Research member of the Canadian Joint Staff, after a check at the Pentagon. The following is a verbatim copy of the most important statements.

A group of Canadian scientists has been working for some time on certain problems connected with the earth's magnetic field. These investigations appear to point the way to a new technology in magnetics, and if the initial conclusions are correct they offer a ready-made explanation for many of the striking features which have been reported in connection with the sightings of flying saucers.

The basic premise is that it is possible to produce a magnetic sink [the name arbitrarily chosen by Smith and his engineers] within the earth's field; that is, a region into which the magnetic flux will flow at a controlled rate, giving up some of its potential energy in the process. Such a `sink' would have many interesting properties, such as the following:

1. Electrical power could be obtained from the collapse of the earth's magnetic field into the `sink.'

2. Powerful reaction forces could be developed in a conducting ring surrounding the sink and offset from it, sufficient to support a suitably designed ship and to propel it.

3. If the rate of flow of magnetic flux is modulated, the resulting magnetic disturbances could be used for communication purposes.

"It is curious to note that most of the descriptions of flying saucers are in accordance with the design which would be necessary to exploit the properties of a magnetic sink. For example, the saucers are described as consisting of a large circular disc, with a small central cabin. In this case, the sink could be located in the upper central part of the cabin. The collapsing field in cutting through the surrounding metallic ring would induce in it an electric current which would react with the magnetic field which induced it, producing a force that would have a substantial vertical component. Support and propulsion of the ship would then be a combination of this resultant force, the airfoil action of the disc, and the interaction between eddy currents induced in the disc by its rotation and the main fields.

"Rotation of the disc may be either deliberate, for the induction of eddy currents, or may be incidentally caused by the electron drag of the very large current circulating around the disc. In any case, there is good observational evidence that the disc appears to rotate.

"Since the lift on the saucer will be proportionate to the product of the earth's magnetic field and the field produced by the current induced in the disc, it follows that when the saucer is accelerating upwards a greater force is required, and hence a greater circulating current.

"If the circulating current is sufficiently large and the cooling of the disc is inadequate, it may become red or even white hot, which is in line with several reported observations. Also, under certain conditions of operation, a very high voltage may be built up between the center and the rim of the disc, which could result in a corona discharge through the surrounding air, if the saucer were at a sufficiently high altitude. Such a discharge would resemble the Northern Lights but would be very much more intense. This also seems to be confirmed by observations.

"Navigation of such a flying saucer," the report went on, "would be a very complex process indeed. In the first place, the earth's magnetic field makes all sorts of angles with the horizontal, depending upon geographical latitude and peculiar local conditions. Thus the direction of the force which results from the interaction of the earth's field and the field of the disc may be in almost any direction.

"Furthermore, the tilt of the saucer to get the reaction force in the wanted direction most probably will result in aerodynamic forces in some other direction. Navigation therefore will resolve into a determination of the field direction, comparison with the direction in which it is desired to move, and analysis of the aerodynamic forces which would result from such a motion-and, finally, a suitable correction in the initial tilt of the saucer and flow of magnetic flux.

"It is doubtful if a human pilot could manage to do all this at the speed which would be necessary to manoeuvre a saucer at the speeds and through the intricate motions which have been observed. It is therefore highly probable that the saucer control systems are semi- if not fully automatic. There are many reports of saucers hovering in one spot for some time. For a saucer designed to operate as described, this would probably be its easiest manoeuvre. It would be necessary merely to adjust the flux flow and the tilt until the resultant force exactly balanced the weight of the saucer. There would be little or no aerodynamic problem in this case.

There is no indication that the accelerations to which a saucer crew would be subjected would be any different from the accelerations experienced in any other type of aircraft going through the same manoeuvres. Those authorities who have been consulted say that even Einstein's Unified Field Theory does not indicate that gravity can be neutralized or the inertia of matter overcome. Where saucers have been observed to execute close turns and other manoeuvres which would result in large accelerations, it is most probable that such saucers are remotely controlled and do not contain living matter as we know it."

Page 4
During our talks Smith had enlarged on several of the major points. One night, while we were dining at the Roger Smith Hotel, I told him I was puzzled by the conflicting reports of the saucers' lights.

"If the reports are right," I said, "they're every colour of the rainbow. And pilots say they sometimes appear suddenly, or blink out like a light bulb when it's switched off. It just doesn't make sense to me."

"I think I can clear it up," said Smith. "Most of the effects are caused by the disc's rotation, though sometimes a corona discharge is the cause. In the first place, probably many discs aren't seen at all, especially at night. If they're not heating up from rotation, and there's no corona discharge, you wouldn't see one unless it was caught in a searchlight beam or you saw its metal surface shining in the moonlight."

He stopped as I held out my cigarette case.

"No, thanks, I don't smoke." He waited until I had lit up, then went on. "Now let's assume a rotating ring begins to speed up, so that it overheats from its movement through the magnetic field. At first, out of the darkness, you'd see a pale pink-if the speed-up was not too rapid. Then the colour would brighten to red, orange-red, through yellow to the glow of white-hot metal. If you slowly heat any metal you'll see the same changes."

"That's right, I've noticed it," I said.

"Now if the ring's rotation was very swiftly accelerated "

Smith continued, "the human eye couldn't catch the rapid changes. It would go from red to white too quickly. The same holds true when the rotation is reduced. If the slowing is gradual, you'll see the various stages as the saucer turns yellow, orange, red, pink, and finally becomes dark. But if the rotation were abruptly slowed or stopped, the cooling effect of the air, especially at high speed, would be very swift. You could get the impression that the light had actually been turned off."

"It sounds logical enough," I agreed. "It explains all but the blue and green combinations."

Smith paused while the waiter put down our dessert orders.

"Those colours come from the corona effect. Under certain atmospheric conditions you'll get the Northern Light colours. At different heights a certain shade would predominate. For instance, at relatively low altitudes, any corona discharge would be very short in length and you'd see more of a blue-white colour. Somewhat higher, it would be green, or bluish green. Higher still, you might see all the normal corona colours-red yellow blue and green.

"If the ring were overheating, could you still see a corona discharge?"

Smith nodded, then qualified the answer.

"Ordinarily a bright red or white glow would nullify it. But if the rotation speed was only moderate, you might get a reddish colour tinged with blue. Higher up, you'd be more likely to see a red shade, from heating, tinged with green or bluish green. It would most likely be a rather hazy effect instead of precise colours. In the majority of cases, however, you could expect just the red- orange-white range, and the reports bear that out."

"This certainly backs up the rotating disc answer," I told him. "It's the first convincing explanation of all the night sightings: '

"It explains the daytime variations, too," said Smith.

"It's fairly clear, from the reports, that the discs are made of some silvery-coloured metal. In sunshine they gleam like conventional aircraft. But there are colour changes in daytime, when the saucers manoeuvre or suddenly speed up. Many of them have been described as turning red or getting white-hot-also the reverse. However, in bright sunlight it's harder to detect the changes-and to recognize the disc shape, too."

"Come to think of it," I said, "Project Sign mentioned that in its 1949 analysis. I'll bring the report next time we get together."

Our next talk was at the Pan American Union, where the wave-length conferences were being held. Smith had an hour to spare, and we found an empty room. I had brought my copy of the final Project Sign report, which contained one section entitled, "Confidential Analysis of Intelligence Reports." Though it had been declassified, not many people knew the analysis details.

Together, Smith and I went over the main points.

"Group 1. The most numerous reports indicate daytime observation of metallic disc-like objects, roughly in diameter ten times their thickness. Some suggest the cross-section is asymmetrical and rather like a turtle shell. Reports agree that the objects are capable of high acceleration and velocity. They are often sighted in groups, sometimes in formation. Sometimes they flutter.

"Group 2. Lights observed at night. These are also capable of high speed and acceleration. They are less common in groups. They usually appear to be sharply defined luminous objects.

"Group 3. Various kinds of rockets, in general like the V-2.

"Group 4. Various devices, probably cosmic-ray balloons.

"Group 5. Reports given little credence.

"In general, there are few if any indications of noise or radio interference. Nor are there many indications of any material effects or physical damage attributed to the observed objects."

Page 5
Smith carefully reread the last sentence.

"Not many indications," he said. "That could be taken to mean they do have a few. I didn't think any disc had come that close."

"What do you mean?" I said.

"There is an area of possible danger." Smith reached for a pencil, sketched a rotating disc, then roughly outlined a city beneath it. ` With a disc 100 feet in diameter, for instance, there will be two fairly large fields of magnetic force around it while it's in operation. If it were to fly low over this city-let's say at 500 feet-eddy currents would be induced in power lines and metal surfaces. It could blow fuses, perhaps even burn out wires. The danger zone might even e larger; possibly it would extend for a thousand feet. I believe it's the main reason discs have avoided flying low over inhabited areas."

"How close could a plane come without danger?"

"Well-" Smith stopped, gave me a shrewd glance. "You're thinking about Mantell. Judging from the report, he never got near enough for any such effect. However, if a pilot did fly into a region where a magnetic field was collapsing it would produce eddy currents in his plane.

"At a moderate distance it would merely throw off his direction finder and compass. If he were fairly close, it could affect his ignition and set up strong vibrations in his plane. It might even cause a fire. But the plane would have to be well inside the danger zone.

Could the vibrations cause a plane to disintegrate?" I asked.

"Possibly," replied Smith. "But it would have to be extremely close with a 100-foot disc. A larger one, rotating at high speed, would have a greater danger zone, of course."

He looked back at the Project report.

"I see they recommended that the discs' flutter be analyzed. What ever came of that?"

"Nothing that I know of." I glanced at another section where Project analysts had discussed the saucers' shape and colour, and checked several paragraphs for Smith:

"Colour. Observers universally report light-collared objects. . . Seventy per cent said the objects were glittering, shiny, luminescent.

"Shape. Over half were reported as round, disc-shaped, spherical or circular. Very few [observers] saw any distinctive shape. . .

"Individuals who see objects in daylight either look at the reflection of the sun on a shiny surface, or else directly at a light source of high intensity. In the war, camouflage experts placed bright lights on the leading edges of anti-submarine aircraft to conceal them from sub lookouts. So if observers in daytime actually see lights, or the reflection of the sun on objects, it would account in large measure for their not identifying them."

"That also holds for the daytime difference in colours," said Smith.

"On a sunny day a disc could be bright red from rotation, but seen close to the sun it would appear as just a brilliant object. Also, any corona effect would be much dimmer in daylight. The farther from the sun, the more of the true colour you'd see.

"On a cloudy day people have seen the actual colour changes. At first a disc which isn't heating up will look silvery-or gray, on a very dark day. Then increased rotation will give it a reddish tint, and on through orange to white. And of course the reverse, as rotation decreases."'

"It all adds up," I agreed. "But what about the rocket-shaped types?"

It was getting close to Smith's next conference. He looked at his watch, hesitated.

"Let's cover that later. Call me tonight and we'll set a date."

Before our next meeting I listed a few points that still puzzled me. When we got together for dinner, Smith picked up the discussion exactly where we'd left off.

"You were asking about the rocket-shaped types. I think the large parent ships have that general shape. There may be a smaller cigar- shaped type operating nearer the earth, but I'm not convinced. A disc seen at various angles will give all the effects reported."

He took out a half-dollar, poised it between his fingertips.

"Assume this is a disc-shaped saucer. Narrow your eyes, so your vision blurs a little and you don't see the sharp outlines. Now I'm holding it flat, edgewise to you-you see it looks like a long, extremely narrow cylinder." He tilted it slowly. "Now it's a narrow ellipse, the typical `cigar shape.' As I tilt it a bit more, it looks more like a football, then egg-shaped. And finally it becomes perfectly round."

He laid down the coin.

"I believe many, if not all, of the saucers described as egg-shaped, oval, or cigar-shaped have simply been tilted discs, travelling at varying angles because of the local magnetic fields. And that brings up another point-the reportedly sudden disappearances. Take the daytime sightings first. Suppose a disc seen as round or oval abruptly tilts so it's edgewise to the observer. At best, all he could see would be a very narrow cylinder-shape, little more than a line. Except at close range, the human eye couldn't resolve it-the disc would seem to vanish.

"Abrupt manoeuvres may also explain some of the night disappearances. Some witnesses describe discs as glowing on top, but dark on the lower side. It may be that there is a stationary section under the rotating disc, and only the moving ring heats up. There may be some other explanation. But if the lower side remains dark, then any manoeuvre that turned the bottom toward an observer would give the effect of a sudden blackout."

Page 6
During one of our talks Smith had sketched his idea of a flying saucer, showing a rounded, turret-like central cabin. It was possible, he said, that the turret might retract in flight, to reduce resistance. I got out the sketch and looked it over as Smith finished his blackout explanation.

"With all that heat," I said, "it's hardly possible the things could be piloted-unless, of course, they're creatures be a smaller cigar- shaped type operating nearer the earth, but I'm not convinced. A disc seen at various angles will give all the effects reported."

He took out a half-dollar, poised it between his fingertips.

"Assume this is a disc-shaped saucer. Narrow your eyes, so your vision blurs a little and you don't see the sharp outlines. Now I'm holding it flat, edgewise to you-you see it looks like a long, extremely narrow cylinder." He tilted it slowly. "Now it's a narrow ellipse, the typical `cigar shape.' As I tilt it a bit more, it looks more like a football, then egg-shaped. And finally it becomes perfectly round."

He laid down the coin.

"I believe many, if not all, of the saucers described as egg-shaped, oval, or cigar-shaped have simply been tilted discs, travelling at varying angles because of the local magnetic fields. And that brings up another point-the reportedly sudden disappearances. Take the daytime sightings first. Suppose a disc seen as round or oval abruptly tilts so it's edgewise to the observer. At best, all he could see would be a very narrow cylinder-shape, little more than a line. Except at close range, the human eye couldn't resolve it-the disc would seem to vanish.

"Abrupt manoeuvres may also explain some of the night disappearances. Some witnesses describe discs as glowing on top, but dark on the lower side. It may be that there is a stationary section under the rotating disc, and only the moving ring heats up. There may be some other explanation. But if the lower side remains dark, then any manoeuvre that turned the bottom toward an observer would give the effect of a sudden blackout."

During one of our talks Smith had sketched his idea of a flying saucer, showing a rounded, turret-like central cabin. It was possible, he said, that the turret might retract in flight, to reduce resistance. I got out the sketch and looked it over as Smith finished his blackout explanation.

"With all that heat," I said, "it's hardly possible the things could be piloted-unless, of course, they're creatures who can withstand extreme heat as well as the high gs."

"I agree," said Smith. "If they were human-like beings, they'd have to avoid operations that would cause such heat and high g-forces. The cabin would need to be heavily insulated. They might also have special cooling systems, perhaps a nonconducting gas in hollow compartment-walls. But I think most if not all of the disc-type saucers are under remote-control."

We had already covered some of the reconnaissance angles. Smith agreed with me that some of the discs undoubtedly carried television scanners and cameras. Others, he thought, would be equipped with devices like our tape recorders, to pick up broadcasts and code messages for later analysis aboard the mother ship.

Though he admitted it was pure speculation, Smith also had sketched his ideas of how discs could be berthed on the larger craft. Each mother ship could have small cup-shaped niches in its sides, into which the disc turrets would fit, with the rest of the saucers lying flat against the parent ship's side.

If the turrets retracted, it would be even simpler for the discs to attach themselves to the larger craft. They might be held in place magnetically, or by some mechanical lock.

Another angle which Smith had covered was the operating steps. To take off, he said, the revolving section would be rotated until the resultant cutting of magnetic fields caused sufficient upward thrust. Since less resistance would be encountered in edgewise flight, this was obviously the reason for the discs' tilting up at steep angles, during swift climbs.

The actual control was one point which puzzled me, and I asked Smith about it now.

"Even if they're remote-controlled from the mother ship," I said, "it must take some kind of robot to calculate all the forces: '

"No doubt of it," Smith answered. "They probably use an automatic device which constantly analyzes the magnetic fields through which a disc is travelling. This robot would be in the disc itself-even if it were manned. I think it must be linked with the controls, so that it instantly changes the disc position, and the speed of rotation if necessary, to compensate for magnetic field variations. And the same would apply for manoeuvres. For turns, climbs, hovering, and other manoeuvres, the operator would have a series of push buttons- whether he was aboard the disc or on the parent ship. When he pushed a button for a turn, or to speed up, the robot would do the rest."

Another thing I had wondered about was the oscillation or flitting motion so frequently reported.

"They seem to waver before making a turn or climbing, I said to Smith. Some pilots say they've seen the discs oscillate even in straight flight."

"That's to be expected," he told me. "Let's say a master- control button was pushed for a turn. There'd probably be a split-second delay while the robot-analyzer checked the resultant forces needed, then it would move the controls. This accounts for oscillation before any sudden change such as a steep climb or a sharp turn.

"In straight flight, oscillation would be caused by the disc s adjustment to changing magnetic fields. In a formation, you'll sometimes see individual saucers wobble in succession as they pass through Different fields."

Page 7
He looked at me quizzically as I glanced at my notes.

"I see you still have some doubts about electromagnetic propulsion."

"No, I think you're right. Some of the points are hard to grasp, that's all."

"When we do get all the answers," Smith said soberly, "it will be a tremendous thing-and we'd better get them before Russia does. Magnetically powered discs would be terrible weapons. Their range would be unlimited, and their speeds would be far beyond anything we've even dared hope for. They'd make perfect guided missiles, and they could easily carry A-bomb warheads-perhaps even the H bomb, when we get it."

"And their being silent would make it even worse," I added. "You'd never hear them until they hit."

"Well, of course, that applies to even slower missiles," said Smith. "The people in London never heard the V-2s before they struck."

"Incidentally," I said, "that was the last question on my list. I don't understand why the saucers have never been heard, even at fairly low altitudes."

"A few people have reported hearing them," answered Smith. "But most sightings, I think, have been at altitudes higher than witnesses thought-so high that you wouldn't hear anything. In two or three cases, when discs passed overhead at a moderately low altitude, people have said they heard a swish. And of course if you were very near a saucer on the ground, or if it was hovering close to the earth, you'd undoubtedly hear a humming sound from the rotation. That is, unless other sounds-like a train passing by-drowned it out."

This was our last meeting before Smith left for Ottawa. It was two months after this when he sent back the revised version of the article I'd written. It had been intended for early publication, but was held up to include details of the Canadian disc experiments. Later in '51, Smith told me they had made laboratory tests with a rotating disc, but by that time Project Magnet had been classified. I decided to wait a while longer, hoping that the details, and pictures of the disc, would be released. But Smith had been unable to clear them, and the article had remained unpublished.

Now, as I read over the material, in December of '52, Smith's earlier explanations seemed almost uncanny in light of the recent sighting reports.

For a careful check I went through my entire file of sightings.

There were several which described the red-green- yellow-blue combination indicating a saucer's corona discharge at high altitudes. The most outstanding case was at Phoenix, where hundreds of people had seen the so-called "jewel box" saucer.

In sightings at lower altitudes, case after case bore out Smith's explanations. During daytime periods, scores of metallic-looking discs had been seen to change colour during manoeuvres. One typical report, in 1950, described an encounter near Lewisburg, West Virginia. Two round, silvery devices had approached the city, then had swung into tight, fast circles. As the manoeuvres began, both discs turned orange-red. When they straightened out, reducing speed, the orange hue quickly faded and the discs resumed their normal silvery colour.

In detailed night reports, too, observers' descriptions backed up Smith's analysis. One carefully reported encounter, which I had personally investigated, was the dramatic incident near South Bend, on the night of April 27,1950. Because of this check-up, I was able to get the passengers' stories as well as the crew's account.

At 8:25 p.m., a Trans World Airlines DC-3 was droning westward over Goshen, Indiana. In the left-hand seat, handling the controls, was Captain Robert Adickes, a stocky ex-Navy pilot with ten years' service in TWA. Over on his right was Robert F. Manning, also a four-stripe captain, who was acting as first officer on this flight to Chicago.

The DC-3, Flight 117, was cruising at 2,000 feet when a strange red light below and behind the airliner suddenly caught Manning's eye. Moving swiftly, it climbed up on the right, overtaking the plane.

Puzzled, Manning watched it close in. This was no wingtip light-the red light was too bright. The DC-3 was cruising at 175 m.p.h., but the mysterious object overtook it rapidly, the light steadily growing in size. It was now an orange-red colour, like a round blob of hot metal sweeping through the night sky. Craning his neck, Manning looked down on a spherical shape which glowed brightly on top, its lower half in shadow.

"Look over here," he said to Adickes. "What do you make of this?"

Adickes stared down through the starboard window, then told Manning to crank it open to make sure it was not some freak reflection. The saucer was still visible, now almost at the airliner's level. Over the top, the pilots could see scattered ground lights, cars moving on a highway. Adickes hastily called Air Traffic Control, but ATC had no record of any craft near their ship.

By this time the saucer was parallel with the DC-3. As they watched, it slowed down, keeping pace with the plane. To Adickes it looked like a huge red wheel rolling down a road. He banked toward it, but the disc instantly slid away, keeping the same distance. Again he tried, with the same result.

Calling the hostess, Gloria Hinshaw, Adickes told her to alert the passengers. To make sure he had plenty of witnesses, he went back into the cabin, watching the passengers' reaction. When he returned to the cockpit, he tried once more to bank in for a closer look. When the disc again slid away, he cut in sharply, at full throttle, for a direct chase.

Instantly the glowing disc dived, racing to the north past South Bend. Adickes estimated its speed at nearly 400 miles an hour. Since it had been pacing the airliner at 175 m.p.h., this meant it had doubled its speed in about three seconds. For a few minutes more the weird light remained visible-a diminishing bright red spot. Then it faded into the darkness.

Page 8
Before meeting the two pilots, I checked on them with TWA.

"Quiet. . . conservative. . . serious. . . careful," were the reports on both men. Nobody in TWA questioned that Adickes and Manning saw exactly what they described.

Captain Manning, the first one I saw, was an ex-Air Force pilot. He had flown six years for TWA, and his flight time was over 6,000 hours.

When he first saw the saucer, Manning said, it seemed a brighter colour than when it flew alongside. Apparently the reduction in power, as it slowed to pace the DC-3, decreased the heating effect. He also agreed that the device had evaded attempts to get near it.

"It was like flying formation with another plane. The thing seemed to slide away when we turned toward it "

"How large do you think it was?" I asked.

"That's hard to say, because we could only guess at its distance," said Manning. "But it had to be fairly large. When I first saw it, the thing was near the horizon, perhaps ten miles away. Even then it was big enough to stand out."

He quietly spiked the idea that the saucer had been a jet plane's tail pipe.

"I've seen jets at night. If you're directly behind one you'll see a round red spot. But this was huge in comparison. Beside, I saw it coming up from behind us-a jet's exhaust would be invisible from that angle. You wouldn't see much from the side, either."

Manning wouldn't speculate as to what the machine was.

"All I can say is that it definitely was there. And it was uncanny enough to startle anyone first seeing it."

Captain Adickes agreed with Manning on all the main points.

"Before then, I wasn't convinced by the saucer reports. Now I know they do exist. One thing, it wasn't cherry-red, as some papers said. It was about the colour of hot metal."

Beside trying to close in on the saucer, Adickes also had attempted to get above it.

"Each time it veered away, as if it were controlled by repulse radar. And when I went straight after it, the thing was off in a flash. Manning and I estimated its diameter at 50 feet or more. When I tried to cut in toward it, it streaked away at twice our speed, but even then it took several minutes to fade out. So it had to be fairly big- maybe a lot larger than 50 feet."

As it speeded up to escape, Adickes said, he caught an edge-on glimpse of the saucer. It seemed to be about one tenth as thick as its diameter. Though he couldn't be sure of its distance, while it was pacing the airliner, Adickes believed it was at least half a mile away. It had not been close enough to affect his instruments or radio.

Hostess Gloria Hinshaw had seen the disc from both the cabin and the darkened cockpit.

"It looked like a big red wheel rolling along," she told me. "It was certainly a strange-looking thing. If I hadn't seen it, I don't think I'd have believed the pilots." Later, by long-distance calls, I interviewed 11 passengers. The first was S. N. Miller, manager of a jewellery company in St. Paul. He had watched the saucer, he said, for several minutes.

"The thing was the colour of a neon sign-just a big red disc. I used to laugh at saucer stories-but not any more."

Among other passengers who confirmed the sighting were C. H. Jenkins and D. C. Bourland, engineers with the Boeing Aircraft Company, and E. J. Fitzgerald, vice-president of a metal equipment corporation in Chicago. Later several officials of the International Harvester Company also admitted they had seen the glowing disc as it paced their plane.

Though there were some variations in the passengers' reports, most of them were minor differences-estimates of size, distance, and speed. Their combined testimony left no doubt that some kind of controlled machine, a type unknown to the pilots and the Boeing experts, had been flown near the airliner for a careful observation.

As I read the details again, I checked them against Smith's explanations. The pattern fitted perfectly.

Page 9
The more recent cases, too, seemed to rove that the discs were magnetically powered. One report, cleared to me by ATIC, described an unusual sighting by four astronomers at Greenville, South Carolina. On the night of May 13,1952, the astronomers had seen four saucers flying in a diamond-shaped formation. Glowing a reddish yellow, the machines passed silently overhead, wobbling several times before they went out of sight. All four saucers, the astronomers agreed, had an oval shape, like that of a disc flying on its side.

Several other Intelligence reports, from Goose Bay Air Force Base, gave similar evidence from pilots and ground men. The first was the sighting on June 19,1952, when a glowing red disc approached the field at night. As already described ( in Chapter IV ) the machine wobbled a moment, then turned white and climbed out of sight at high speed.

On November 26 an F-94 pilot chased another disc several miles from the Labrador base. As it turned and climbed, the saucer's colour changed from bright red to white. On December 15 he saw a second disc and tracked it on his radar. Again, he watched the colour change from red to white, when the saucer swiftly manoeuvred. The colour changes were also seen by a T-33 jet pilot.

In the Pan American-Norfolk case, every point seemed to fit Smith's answer-the brief fading of the orange-red glow, as the discs slowed; the quick flipping on edge before the turn; their brightening glow as they speeded up. But 7the clincher, to me, was an incident at Camp Drum, on September 22,1952.

For 30 minutes that night the duty officer and several soldiers watched a round, orange-red object circle above the camp. At least three times they heard what they later described as "the whine of a generator or rotating discs." During its half-hour observation of the camp, the strange machine hovered, accelerated for swift climbs, and descended again. Part of the time it was apparently operating at a very low altitude, for the humming sound was distinctly heard on the ground.

Though it still wasn't absolute proof, it looked as if Smith had been right from the start. If so, we now knew what the saucers were like, and how they were operated.

But where did they come from? What kind of beings controlled them?

And most important of all:

Why were, they watching this planet?

THE WILBERT SMITH CJOH TV INTERVIEW

In a just recovered 1961 interview with television station CJOH, the former head of the official Canadian Government UFO investigation, Wilbert Smith, was asked a number of questions about what he had learned during his days of investigating flying saucers for the government. Among the many questions was one about whether or not communication had taken place _between space people and people of this planet, and if communication had occurred how was it done?

The question of communication addressed to Smith was important, not only because he headed up the official government investigation into UFOs from 1950 _ 1954, but because Smith was one of the foremost communications experts of the day.

Smith worked as the chief radio engineer for the Canadian government, going on in 1956 to head up the countries radio regulations department. More importantly, he was in charge of monitoring 50,000 radio frequencies in Canada, and ran the Top Secret _Radio Ottawa where spies would radio in to intelligence services.

Smith's reply to the interviewer regarding the subject of talking to aliens was positive.

_Some of the communications have been on a face-to-face basis but I have not been so honoured myself. Some of the communications have been by ordinary radio, and I have received a few messages by this means. But by far the majority of the communications are by what we call Tensor Beam transmission, which uses a type of radio with which we are only vaguely familiar, and which I couldn't possibly attempt to describe now. However, the mental images of the person wishing to transmit are picked up electrically amplified and modulated into a tensor beam, which is directed to the person to whom the transmission is addressed, and within whose brain the mental images are recreated. The transmissions are therefore very precise, and independent of language. I have had some experience with these transmissions myself and can say that they are like nothing within the conventional experiences of earth people.

In the rest of the interview Wilbert Smith discusses what the aliens look like, the effect of the extraterrestrial idea on religion, secrecy, and a number of other topics. It should be noted in the interview that Wilbert Smith never used the word UFO. This is because from the very beginning Smith was aware that the phenomena was extraterrestrial, and that UFO was a word developed by the U.S.A.F. in 1952 to muddy the waters for investigators. According to Smith's son Jim Smith, shortly before his death in 1962 Wilbert called his son in, and told him that he had in fact seen the alien bodies from a crash, and had been shown a crashed flying saucer outside of Washington D.C., while conducting the official Canadian investigation. The 1961 interview continues.

Page 2

THE CJOH TV INTERVIEW

Do you believe that flying saucers are real? Yes. I am convinced that they are just as real and tangible as most things we deal with in our every day lives.

Why do you think they are real? Because thousands of people have seen them, many under circumstances, which virtually preclude misinterpretation, many of these sightings have been co-ordinated with radar fixes. Photographs have been taken and physical evidence has been accumulated.

Have you ever seen a flying saucer yourself? I have seen several objects which I concluded were flying saucers simply because they couldn't be anything else.

Would you please describe such a sighting? Last year, I think it was August 16, (Echo 1 was launched August 12, 1960) right after the launching of Echo I, my wife and I, and a couple of friends, were outside sky-gazing to see the passage of Echo 1 which was due about ten minutes to nine. At about a quarter to nine a bright object came from the south at an apparent speed about twice the expected speed of echo, and travelled almost due north. As it approached, and when viewed through binoculars, it appeared to be a steady brilliant white light with a flashing electric blue light superimposed on it. At first the rate of flashing was not apparent as it was above the flicker frequency, but as it approached the frequency of the flicker slowed down until it was about one per second as it passed overhead. As it proceeded northward it suddenly made a sharp right hand turn and headed due west and disappeared into the western sky, with the blue light still flashing. There was no noise and the apparent speed was about the same as a jet flying at 10,000 feet. About five or so minutes later Echo 1 sailed majestically into view from the south-west as much less than half the apparent speed of the previous object.

Where you able to see any shape of the object? No. Just a bright white light, with the intense blue light with it.

You said earlier that there was physical evidence, and that pictures existed supporting the reality of flying saucers. Would you please explain? There have been over a hundred books and very many magazines published in the last ten or twelve years, the majority of which are predominately accounts of sightings, pictures, and descriptions of the physical evidence, which has accumulated. In the limited time available I could not possibly cover more than one or two such cases. However, here are a couple of interesting ones. (Two book quotes)

Have you, yourself actually handled any material believed to be from a flying saucer? If by that you mean material substance showing evidence of fabrication through intelligent effort and not originating on this planet, I have. But I cannot say from my own knowledge that it was ever part of a flying saucer. Unfortunately, most of my contacts in this direction were through classified channels, which for some particular reason, which I could never fathom, insisted in _Classifying these matters, and I am not at liberty to discuss them further.

What about pictures? I am naturally very skeptical about pictures since they are so very easy to fake, so unless I have taken the picture myself and participated in its developing, I would not like to offer any of them as authentic. I have taken a few myself, but I'm afraid that they are not very impressive. There are however, many pictures available, which, whether they are fakes or not, do check quite well with the many visual descriptions. Here are a few. (Shows a few photographs)

How long have you been studying flying saucers? I suppose I have always known that there were other intelligent beings in the universe other than ourselves, and that sooner or later they would visit us. In 1947 when the first wide spread publicity on flying saucers came about, I thought this was something worth thinking about and maybe investigating. However, I didn't get around to active participation until 1950, when I was attending a rather slow-moving broadcasting conference in Washington D.C. and having some free time on my hands, I circulated around asking a few questions about flying saucers, which stirred up a hornet's nest. I found that the U.S. government had a highly classified project set up to study them, so I reasoned that with so much smoke maybe I should look for the fire. So I set about gathering as much sighting data as I could get a hold of and analyzing it, from which I concluded that there was a 91% probability that the saucers were real, and a 60% probability that they were alien craft of some kind.

What is the official view of flying saucers? I don't even know if there is one, in Canada. In the United States there have been so many contradictory statements made that I doubt if anyone could sort them out. However, I don't think it really matters much anyway because the saucers are here and our opinions regarding them are not going to change matters. It has been my experience that no one who takes even a little time to study the evidence available publicly remains skeptic very long. This is quite apart from those who have had access and studied the larger files of evidence collected by private and semi-official organizations.

How widespread is the interest in flying saucers? I really don't know, but I think that most people are prepared to take them in their stride, along with atomic energy and earth circling satellites. I have encountered very few really died in the wool skeptics. Judging from the large number of saucer clubs, one or two in each city, and the number of publications available I would say that the interest was considerable.

Page 3
Since you say that you have been active in the study of flying saucers for over ten years, what have you found out about them? that is a tall order and would take a good many hours. Most of it is available in reliable bookstores anyway, so I only propose to cover the highlights here. There is much evidence that people who build and fly flying saucers are people very much like us. They have been seen on many occasions and there are many claims of personal contact having been established with them. Communications with these people tell us that they are our distant relatives; that we are descendants of their colonists on this planet, and that they still regard us as brothers even though we don't often act like it. There is much evidence that the technology of these people is quite a bit ahead of ours, and that through study of the behaviour of the saucers and from the alleged communications we have been able to piece together some of this technology, and it is amazing to say the least. We are informed that these people are really civilized, in that they regard all men as brothers; that they do not have wars, and live under conditions of personal freedom of which we cannot conceive.

Have you any indication of why the saucers are here at this time? there is much evidence in history, legend and the Bible, that flying saucers have visited this planet on many occasions in the past and that the present visitation is nothing new; it is simply a bit more intense than in the past and we have better news dissemination means now. I think that these people from elsewhere are concerned with our playing with atomic energy, and about our plans for space travel and interplanetary exploration and conquest. I am sure that they do not hold us in very high esteem, and are worried about what we might do if we ever got loose in space armed to the teeth with nuclear weapons.

Have you any ideas about how flying saucers operate? As I said before, the technology of these people from elsewhere is quite a bit ahead of ours, and they have an understanding of the realities of this universe that we are just approaching. We have started at the effects and speculated towards the causes, whereas they started at the cause and worked towards the effects, with the result that they are not nearly so self-limited in science as we are. Our observations indicate that the saucers can hover indefinitely in one place, or they can dart off with very high accelerations. Also, they can change direction quickly; all this with utter disregard of the laws of inertia, as we understand them. From this we conclude that they must understand these laws better that we do and have found ways of getting around the situation. Our own work along these lines, aided by tips from outside, indicates that the trick is through gravity control wherein the earth's gravity field is bent to accommodate the action required.

That sounds quite technical, but could you explain it further. I'm afraid not, and I am sure that you will appreciate the reasons, which should be fairly obvious.

I know this may be a hot question, but how do you think flying saucers affect religion? As far as I can determine, these people from elsewhere are a great deal more religious than we are. They believe in a Supreme Creator, the brotherhood and divinity of Man, and a plan for the evolution of all. To these people, their religion is a matter of daily reality, not just Sunday profession, and they certainly seem to practice what we preach. I can find no contradictions with any of the religions of this planet.

Do you have any idea where these people come from? I am informed trough the many alleged contacts that these people come from everywhere; that there is no place in the universe where men can live that he does not live.

How about travelling about in the universe? Doesn't it take a terribly long time? I am afraid our ideas about certain things are due for a severe revision in the not to distant future. I am informed that time is not at all what we think it is, but is in fact variable. Also, that the velocity of light is not at all a limiting velocity. It merely appears so to us because we can't see any faster. I understand that these people from elsewhere can and do travel about a great deal and I'm sure they don't take years and years to do it.

You seem to have a great deal of inside information about these things; what are you doing about it? Are you bringing it to the attention of the scientists? I have made no secret of the information with which I am entrusted, and will gladly pass it on to anyone who is sincerely interested and wants to learn. But I feel that I have no obligation whatsoever to force this knowledge on anyone or to interfere in his or her chosen pattern of thinking. I know these things to be true, and all the opinions to the contrary aren't going to change things. When the time is right they will be accepted. In the meantime, I am NOT a missionary. I am concentrating my efforts on increasing my own understanding and the understanding of those who work with me in this area.

 

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