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UFO Canada Yurko Bondarchuck HECHO EN WINNIPEG, CANADA PRINTED IN CANADA 1. The Photographic Evidence 2. UFO Landings and Physical Traces 3. Physical Reactions to Sightings 4. UFO Occupants 5. UFO Abductions 6. UFOs and Military Installations 7. Military Pilot Sightings 8. UFOs and Energy Generating Sites 9. The E. M. Effect and Power Blackouts 10. UFOs and Radar Sites 11. Civilian Pilot Sightings 12. The Canadian Government and UFOs 13. Future Scenarios Hamilton, Ontario March 29-30, 1966 The only other known Canadian case involving physical contact with a UFO took place in Hamilton, Ontario, about a year prior to the Michalak incident. At about 9:15 PM on the evening of March 29, thirteen year-old Charles Cozens was strolling through a field behind the Hamilton Police Station. Suddenly, a luminous oval object descended from the evening sky heading toward him, closely followed by another. Alarmed, the boy took cover behind a fence, from where he could watch the spectacle. As the metallic craft settled into the grass, he could hear a distinctive buzzing sound. Along the rim of the objects, which were about eight feet in diameter, he noticed a string of multicoloured lights, illuminating the surrounding grass, "flickering like a computer."1 A few moments later, Charles decided to approach the objects for a closer look. As he stood beside one of them, he was suddenly overcome with the irresistible urge to touch it, which he did. He was surprised to find that the surface was hard and smooth,. similar to polished metal. "I could not feel hot or cold so they must have been about body temperature,"2 he recounted. One of the craft had a long gun-like antenna protruding at one end, and Charles noted that "it was thicker at the base 45 and narrowed to the size of a nickel at the top."8 He touched the antenna; there was a flash and he received an electric shock. Terrified, he ran away toward the police station. I was running to tell someone,... - but when I looked back, they were gone and I thought the police would not believe me, so I ran home to tell my parents.4 His parents noted the three-inch yellowish burn mark on his hand and thoroughly questioned him before notifying the authorities. Forty-eight hours after the incident, his father drove to the hospital to have him examined for possible radiation. The diagnosis revealed that he was suffering from a harmless first-degree burn which healed within a week.5 Even though Charles had been in direct contact with the craft, he did not suffer additional adverse effects. The following night, Lawrence E. and his brother Owen, two other Hamilton youths, reported seeing two objects "unlike anything they had ever seen before, flying low over the city."6 While they couldn’t distinguish their shapes against the night sky., they both said the flashing red, blue and green lights were accompanied by "a whirring noise, not at all like an aircraft." The sighting left both these boys extremely shaken. Checking out the story for publication, Hamilton Spectator reporters were advised by Air Canada that no aircraft had passed over the Hamilton sky at 11:15 PM, the time the objects had been viewed. Both these incidents coincided with a week-long wave of other sightings that had occurred in southern Ontario—between Windsor to Toronto. It was by far the most intensive and widely reported UFO "flap" ever recorded in Canada. Disturbed by these ufological manifestations, William D. Howe (NDP-Hamilton South) asked in the House of Commons that the government reveal what type of investigations Canada was conducting. In response, the then Associate Minister of National Defence, Leo Cadieux, assured Mr. Howe that be would instruct the Defence Research Board "to initiate an investigation 46 which would have the results for which the honourable member is hoping."7 It was never revealed whether the Defence Research Board or any other related agency ever investigated the week-long sightings. But the UFO flurry, coupled with increasing parliamentary concern, appeared to have sparked an open era of government investigations. In the ensuing two years, the office of the Defence Directorate of Operations (DOPS) at Canadian Forces Headquarters in Ottawa was put in charge, of examining reported sightings; many of them, after close scrutiny, remained unexplained and unidentifiable. Although never openly admitting the possible existence of UFOs, DOPS went so far as to state that they did not pose a threat to national security. (See Chapter 12, "The Canadian Government and UFOs.") 1 Hamilton Spectator, April 2, 1966. 5 (CAPRO) Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 2 (January-February 1969) p. 9, 6 Hamilton Spectator, op. cit. 7 House of Commons Debates, April 21, 1966 (Ottawa: Queen’s Printer) p. 41-49. Winnipeg, Manitoba OCTOBER 22, 1967 This, October, 1967 sighting demonstrates the wide range of symptoms manifested by UFO witnesses, as well as the apparent UFO interest in high-voltage transmission lines and communications installations. It is also one of the rare occurrences of a UFO reported over a densely populated urban area - in this case a suburb of the City of Winnipeg. This incident took on an added dimension of intrigue with the discovery of footprints that strongly suggested the presence of UFO occupants. The principal witnesses, two new home salespersons in the suburb of Charleswood, were locking up for the night, when they noticed a peculiar formation of brilliant red lights over the adjacent field. Their curiosity quickly turned to astonishment when they realised that the three mysterious lights were floating in mid-air. Although no shapes could be discerned, both observers felt sure the two- or three-foot-wide pulsating lights were part of larger craft obscured by the night sky. As they watched the bizarre spectacle, they were joined by six people who had stopped their station wagon to view the lights. Moments later, two similar vessels appeared and took up a position alongside the formation. One of them lit up the low cloud cover from where it had descended. 47 The noiseless objects then rose and moved away in formation, floating over the nearby Perimeter Highway, they appeared to change positions, now forming a geometrically perfect triangle. With his binoculars, one of the salespeople, Mr. Edward Fortney, was now able to make out the shape of the craft against the lighter background of the sky. He described them as "rectangular blobs of black glass that the lights emanated from." The formation, now visibly dipping and bobbing like ping-pong balls, then headed toward a line of high-voltage hydro towers running parallel to the highway, half a mile away. As the craft approached the towers, the leader’ descended to within fifteen feet of the wires. In the words of Mr. Fortney, a former electrical technician with the RCAF: The three lights forming a triangle broke formation and strung out behind their leader. Now’ they really hustled south above the wires in single file. I could see the wires light up with a red glow as they sped south over them, and the towers lit up as they passed over them also. I estimated their speed at least 125 mph as they flew over the wires. It was very noticeable.2 Then Mr. Fortney was called to the telephone to speak with a radio announcer who had been notified of the occurrence by one of the witnesses. When asked whether the craft were still visible, he looked out and saw them hovering above a high elevation TV transmission tower, a few miles to the southwest. The three lights over the tower now pulsated quite strongly with an orange-red brilliance. The ‘sight I now saw appeared like a giant neon arrow pointing to the sky. The lights on the shaft were a little smaller and steady, with the arrow head brilliantly pulsating.3 After about five minutes, the craft broke formation and were last seen travelling northwest in single file. Later on his way home, Mr. Fortney experienced a sudden headache - in his own words, "a real skull-buster," - which persisted till about midnight. The following day, he returned 48 to the field site, where at first he discovered a peculiar circular pile of fist-sized stones. Then he noticed several tracks of small child-like footprints in the moist soil, leading to and from the stone pile and radiating out towards three areas of footprint concentrations. In his own words, It was as though they were all crowding to get into or onto a ladder of their flying machines. From the three trampled areas, sets of footprints in straight lines radiated out... always in pairs, as if they were soldiers with a definite job to do. Estimated by the tracks, at least eight creatures were involved.4 The indentations were unique in that the heel marks seemed to be deeply pressed in the soil, indicating the probable absence of any ankle movement! Although they somewhat resembled normal shoe prints—the front came to a point and the back left a rounded Cuban-heel style depression—any further similarity with human footwear ended there. There were no tread marks, nail heads or cracks on either the sole or the heel parts. Also, the prints were extremely small by our standards; a mere seven inches in length and only two and three quarters- inches across the sole. If they were children, how come they had all the same type and size of footwear?... We estimated they weighed between forty and fifty pounds by comparing the depressions left by our footprints!5 That same day, as word of the sighting spread, representatives from the RCAF, the RCMP, the Tucson-based Aerial Phenomena Research Organisation and the mass-media converged on the site. Before going to bed that night, Mr. Fortney felt a slight ache in his legs and he had a "hot sensation," like a sunburn on his face and hands. The next day, the leg pain intensified and spread to his back and kidneys. A few days later these aches were replaced by a hot feeling in his thighs, followed a month later by a chilled feeling which persisted until January. He also had a metallic, copper-like taste lingering in his mouth. Then, seven weeks after the incident, on December 10, an alarming yelIow-green coating appeared on his tongue and he immediately sought medical attention. Blood tests 49 revealed he was suffering from dehydration and a significant drop in his white blood cell count. The symptoms soon disappeared and Mr. Fortney remains convinced these symptoms were caused by exposure to some form of electromagnetic radiation emitted by the UFOs. Predictably, the RCAF quickly replaced all this "extraterrestrial" speculation with a more "down to earth" explanation. The UFOs were dismissed as four RCAF Otters of the 402 Auxiliary Squadron en route to Minot, North Dakota to pick up a pipe band which was returning from a trip to Texas!6 1 Fortney, Edward, Signed statement. (Winnipeg: The Manitoba Centre for UFO Studies, Winnipeg Planetarium, Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature, c/o Edward Barker. January 1968) p. 6. 2 Ibid., p. 6. 3 Ibid., p. 7. 4 Ibid., p. 9. 5 Ibid., p. 10. 6 Winnipeg Tribune, October 25, 1967. Abee, Alberta July 16, 1969 In Abee, Alberta, a ten-year-old girl experienced temporary loss of vision after staring directly into the bright under-carriage of a UFO, not more than ten feet away from her. As corroborative evidence, the craft also produced foliage damage in the immediate vicinity of the sighting. The incident took place on July 16, 1969 at about 3:30 PM near the small town of Abee, sixty miles northeast of Edmonton. Following the sighting, Ashley Pachal and Gilbert Funk of the UFO Society of Edmonton drove to Abee where they interviewed the principal witness, Sylvia Annola and her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Edwin Annola. Here is the transcript of that interview. Sylvia: I was reading and I heard this noise and I ran to the door and flung it open and... (I saw) this big gray thing above the well, and it was about to land, and the lights on the bottom sort of blinded me. Pachal: Now it was daylight at the time? S: Yes. P: What did these lights look like? S: Well they were just a glow like, of light... sort of real bright. P: What colour? S: Silver. P: Were there just lights at the bottom or did the whole object glow? 50 S: The whole object glowed a little bit but the lights at the bottom were really bright. They’re just a little round thing of lights. P: Was it close to the edge of the object or close to the middle? S: The middle on the bottom. P: So there were lights in the middle; there weren’t any around the edges. Can you describe the object a little bit? S: Well, it looked almost like a hat. P: Had it rounded edges or sharp edges? S: Rounded edges. P: What kind of hat? S: Well like a top hat. P: The corners weren’t as sharp? S: No. P: Was there anything on top that looked like a cabin or anything? S: ...No. P: Any antennas, or anything sticking up? S: No. P: So all you saw was this object with the lights on the bottom... Well you saw this object coming down, now could you tell a little more of what you did then? S: Well after I thought it had gone, and I was blinded, I came in and told mummy about it, and in the meantime I was bumping into everything. P: O.K.... now I think we went a little bit fast there. You saw the object coming down and... ran outside. How close were you to it at the nearest point? S: Oh about ten feet. P: It was right above you, or beside you? S: Well sort of away from me and above me. P: I see. And you were looking right into the light? S: Yes. P: Have you ever seen a photo flash bulb or an electric welder? S: Yes. P: Would you say it was as bright as an electric welder? S: Brighter. P: ... and you say you were blinded? S: Yes. P: For about how long? S: Oh about half an hour. 51 P: Were your eyes sore after that for a few days? S: Yes. P: (turning to the parents) Have any of you people anything to add...? Edwin Annola (father): I was in one of the outbuildings and I could hear.... well I actually thought... there’s a steel table down the hill with a vise on it and quite often she used to put things in this vise and use a file on it, you know kind of copying what I was doing, and I could hear this sort of zew... zew... zew... zew zew... and then it would speed up until it went zew zew zew zew zew, and I thought she must really be working out there. And then the noise died out, and in the meantime that’s when she saw the flying saucer. Now, after it disappeared we... were all standing there, and... we could hear voices... sounds like a two-way radio... there was a police car parked at the corner something over a mile or so from here, and there was an accident at the corner. Now whether this UFO and this accident have something in common I don’t know, but anyway the driver of the car left the highway, over the approach, and straight into a telephone pole: he was dead instantly. Mrs. A. (mother): He was dead before he hit. E.A.: So they figure. But the point is this, that the car was that far away, had the window rolled down, and we could hear every word on his’ two-way radio, the air was so electrified, or clear, or whatever you want to call it. That sound carried a long way. (It was suggested that the radio could have been connected to the car’s outside speakers.) P: .... and you figure that this should have happened pretty well at the same moment that this. E.A.: The accident and the UFO should have been almost the same time. Mrs. A.: She said it seemed to come from northward, and the car was going north. P: The driver of the car could have seen this and it could have distracted him and caused him to go off the road. E.A.: We noticed the dog was missing... but this dog had never left home, positively never, as long as we were home. So I jumped into a half-ton [truck] and went every which way you could think of, but no dog. He answers to a bicycle horn if he’s away out in a field or something... We tried the horn... no results. The dog was gone. So I happened to go outside, oh... I’d say half an hour later after this happened, and there he was, cringing under a gate. Now he loved riding in vehicles. I opened the door, and I said "Tanny come on." He wouldn’t move. I had to get out and pick him up and put him into the vehicle. And when I brought him home he was looking all around, and slunk out of the car, which was not his nature at all. P: Well these objects have been known to emit high pitched sounds which dogs can hear, and it bothers them, and I think that when this came around this must have been what happened. G Funk: It also gives them a frightening experience, which is not uncommon in many reports that we have seen where animals have often shown an adverse attitude, one of cringing or fear.... It is very interesting, and notable that you should come out with this story. P: This is a little bit more than most dogs have done though. A lot of them are scared but they don’t leave home... yours left home. E.A.: He left home. That’s for sure he left home. And he was not what you would say a mild-mannered dog by a long ways. He stuck up for his rights you know and nobody, betted him around, but this one time he left home and didn’t want to come back. From the well there when it left it took off in a north-westerly direction, and the path... well it raised up to get over the trees, and the trees were burnt you know... you could see it, well we showed a lot of people. And the leaves they just dried upon the trees, you know, and they stayed there over the winter.1 Damage to vegetation, both at ground and tree-top level, is one of the more commonly reported side effects related to the presence of UFOs. However, most of the damage seems to be caused by exposure to heat, believed to be microwave radiation. It is not known whether in this particular case, the foliage was subjected to tests. 1 Ashley Pachal, "When a UFO Came to Abee," Flying Saucer Review: Case Histories, Supplement 15 (June 3, 1973), do Compendium Books, 281 High Street, London, NW 1, England. 53 Chapter 4 UFO Occupants Of all the UFO incidents recorded over the years, none have triggered more controversy and more skepticism, hot to mention emotional reaction, than those which involved occupants. Even people who may entertain the feasibility of UFOs, find the notion of intelligent extra-planetary beings visiting the earth somewhat more difficult to accept. The tendency to scoff at the presence of such alien beings is rooted in misinformation, myth and fear. Only a few centuries ago most everyone knew that the world was flat; any other claims were unacceptable. Understandably, stories of alien visitations would be in direct conflict with the established beliefs of most people raised on the premise that humanity is at the centre of the universe. The concept of such a universe teeming with intelligent life also poses a ticklish dilemma for those whose spiritual convictions revolve around an exclusive, symbiotic relationship between God and humanity. If ufonauts do exist, how could they fit into this type of spiritual order? There are other factors contributing to the credibility gap. In a world dominated by such negative forces as con-artists, growing political and religious corruption, un-fulfilled personal dreams and sensationalist mass media, most people have learned to mistrust what they cannot see for themselves. It was mass media that characterised early occupant reports as nothing more than the delusions of people who claim to see "little green men from Mars." Yet, the same mass media that has neglected to explore one of the greatest stories of all time, is now capitalising on the mass audience fascination with our final frontier - space. In spite of this "popular" and "mainstream" trend, serious 54 UFO researchers are still confronted with widespread skepticism whenever sightings involving passengers arise. Iconoclasts ask, "Where is the proof? Where is the irrefutable evidence?" Justifiably so. My response is, "Where have you looked?" if you solely rely on mass media for the story behind the story, you tan only expect negligible coverage of the mounting evidence confirming occupant presence. Admittedly, no one, to my knowledge, has yet successfully managed to photograph any of these alien travellers. Nor have UFO occupants landed in New York’s Central Park and then asked to be allowed to address the General Assembly of the United Nations. Instead, a growing number of reputable scientists and researchers have been steadily accumulating a collection of undisputable proof such as suspected footprints and credible testimonies by witnesses under hypnosis. Part of the difficulty in obtaining better evidence stems from the fact that UFO beings seem to be reluctant to let themselves be seen. They prefer to remain undetected while conducting their "earthly" activities. This may explain why the majority of occupant sightings occur in isolated, peripheral areas, usually at night time, with a peak between 9 and 10 PM.1 An insight into the habits of occupants comes from the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON), the respected research organisation based in Seguin, Texas, comprised of hundreds of researchers who work together with a board of consultants representing virtually every discipline from bacteriology to nuclear physics.2 Contrary to the popular belief that sightings of UFO beings are extremely rare, researchers froth MUFON’s Humanoid Study Group (HSG) have compiled a long list of such cases-over 1,600 different entity incidents. In the words of HSG co-chairman, physicist David Webb: "Many of the reports are well-documented, first-hand investigations involving credible witnesses."3 The MUFON study is considered to be the most complete in existence. In Canada, biologist John B. Musgrave, 55 MUFON Provincial Director for Alberta has similarly put together an impressive compendium of entity incidents, which lists a total of forty-eight Canadian cases, five of which have been included in this chapter.4 Attempts to come up with a composite description of UFO entities are complicated by the variety of beings reported. But if we overlook the number of species that have been reported, the one characteristic they all seem to share is their "humanoid" appearance. This means they walk upright, have two arms, two legs, a torso and a bead. in a paper presented to the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in September 1975, Cornell University physicist and aeronautics specialist Dr. Robert M. Wood went so far as to suggest that: It is evident that if some of the hundreds of occupant reports are correct, a common biological origin with homo sapiens is a significant possibility.5 Dr. Wood also estimated that as many as a thousand different extraterrestrial civilisations must have been involved in earth visitations throughout history. From the wide spectrum of reported species, the humanoids can be divided into three general categories-the dwarves, the man-like entities and the giants/robots. Dwarves. The most frequently reported of all the humanoids, the dwarves, average from 0.7 to 1.2 meters in height.6 If it were not for their thin physiques, they would probably resemble humans with pituitary gland problems. Unlike the popular image of "little green men from Mars," they are neither green, nor do they appear to come from Mars. Their complexion has been described as "very pale," often bordering on white, although reddish and bluish skin colours have occasionally been mentioned.7 In spite of anatomical variations from species to species, they are usually 56 characterised as having large, bald heads, with elongated, slanted eyes, small mouths and noses and pointed ears.8 The majority wear clothing resembling space suits with breathing apparatus. In one landing incident, five dwarves were reported to have been wearing bright yellow suits with yellow headgear.9 Other dwarfish humanoids do not require life support systems, and it must therefore be concluded that they feel comfortable breathing our air. As to their wardrobe, the entire spectrum of colours has been reported, including silvery gray, khaki, red, and luminous.’0 Man-like Entities: Next in frequency of appearance are beings bearing a striking resemblance to man with regard to size and facial features.11 They have been described as thin, having long arms and legs, slanted eyes, light skin and, in some cases, long blond hair. Aside from these physical similarities with man, their behaviour also seems to be human-like in terms of movements, gestures and attitudes. At times, witnesses have reported being addressed in their native tongues.2 In rare cases, female humanoids were seen accompanying what were presumably the male ufonauts. Wherever humanoids were accompanied by dwarf-like beings, the humanoids appeared to be coordinating all the activities, suggesting that they may hold a higher social standing than the dwarves. The man-like entities seem to be perfectly at ease breathing our air, and are usually seen clad in skin-tight garments. Three such entities observed outside Rosedale, Alberta wore khaki skin-tight outfits with see-through fabric covering their faces, somewhat reminiscent of bank robbers with nylon stockings over their heads.13 Giants/Robots. Both the giants and the robots represent the fringe of humanoid sightings. Primarily reported in South America, the giants appear to be multi-specied; some are as tall as eighteen feet.14 They are the least human-like of all the entities - being variously one-eyed, ten feet tall, black-faced, 57 with bushy black hair and in some instances with three unblinking eyes and "melon beads". The infrequently seen robots differ from the humanoids in that their movements are stiff and mechanical, while they appear angular and machine-like. In June 1974, in a well documented case outside Drummondville, Quebec, a couple allegedly watched fifteen "robot-like" creatures with neon-like bars across their bodies inspecting the couple’s trailer home.15 What are the possible origins of these UFO occupants? Without adequate data many theories have been put forward. Some people believe that UFOs and their pilots originate in the Center of a hollow earth, or that certain humanoids are descendants of a lost and obscure underwater civilisation; others see the uninhabited polar ice caps as a place from which they could possibly come. Based on the assumption that intelligent life is not restricted to the planet Earth but exists as a natural phenomenon elsewhere in the universe, the majority of researchers have. subscribed to the theory that UFOs are extra-planetary in origin. At the "Conference on Communication with extraterrestrial Intelligence" (CETI) held in September 1971 at the Byurakan Observatory in Soviet Armenia, Cornell University astronomer Dr. Carl Sagan estimated that in our galaxy alone there are at least one million advanced technical civilisations!16 Other scientists believe the figure to be even higher. Dr. S.S. Huang, formerly of the Goddard Flight Center and now at Dearborn Observatory, Northwestern University, has "estimated that the number of inhabitable solar systems is about three to five per cent of the number of stars." This would lead to eight billion inhabitable systems in our Milky Way galaxy.alone.17 Dr. Robert M. Wood goes so far as to suggest that: ...to get such a variety and frequency of visitors, one must assume they come far, and so hyperoptic travel (velocity in excess of the speed of light) must be routine; possibly a few come from nearby galaxies.18 Confronted with the prohibitive distances which separate 58 our solar system with the nearest star systems, an increasing number of researchers are now rejecting the established extraterrestrial hypothesis in favour of the para-dimensional theory which, simply stated, proposed that UFOs originate from other time-space dimensional realities - from a kind of parallel universe extra-dimensional boundaries are crossed via corridors or "vortexes" which interconnect our world with another space-time continuum. The mystery shrouded Warminster-Stonehenge region in England, the so-called Bermuda Triangle, the Devil’s Triangle in the North Pacific south of Japan, and the Great Lakes Triangle are considered to be some of the more notable "vortex" passages.19 Materialisation and demineralisation of UFOs frequently noted over these areas reinforce belief in this theory. (See Chapter 7, "Military Pilot Sightings".) Recent findings by physicist-cosmologists tend to suggest the likelihood of the existence of such parallel worlds where our traditional physical laws no longer apply. According to Cambridge University black-hole theorist Stephen Hawking, entrance to these different branches of the universe could be gained through any one of the billions of special-category black holes to be found in our galaxy alone.20 Another hypothesis closely tied in with this theory and held by a minority of researchers is that the UFO beings are future generations of human time travellers visiting the twentieth century. While this theory might account for the man-like appearance of some of these creatures, it fails to explain the physiological diversity of the remaining species. Another less popular theory has been advanced by psychologist Dr. Michael Persinger at Laurentian University in Sudbury. He combines geophysical electromagnetic and geological stresses hi of mistaken for UFOs by emotional reactions.21 Admittedly, this theory may be valid in certain instances, but it fails to consider the overwhelming physical evidence for the 59 presence of geometrically shaped craft capable of displaying inconceivable aerodynamic maneuvers. A relatively recent hypothesis that is gaining in popularity is the notion that UFOs can best be understood as parapsychological phenomena. Advocates of this theory cite the prevalence of wide-ranging paranormal effects in association with UFO sightings, such as levitation of humans and animals, materialisation and demineralisation of UFOs, clairvoyant visions by witnesses prior to sightings, post-sighting healing, and the recurring sightings which seem to plague certain witnesses.22 Critics point to the limitations of this theory in taking into account recognised physical UFO properties. While the psychic aspect of the mystery is undeniable, we cannot exclude the possibility that some of these paranormal manifestations may, in fact, have their origin in some as yet undiscovered physical laws. Faced with the dilemma that no one theory seems adequately to encompass all facets of the phenomenon, many researchers are now turning towards the "pluralistic" or "unified hypothesis," which recognises the potential diversity In other words, in the origin equation different hypotheses, applicable to different time-space frameworks, must be considered. Having established the probability of the multiple origins can now ask the question, why are the all here?" While the reported range of observed UFO occupant activities is predictably diverse, it appears that collectively most visitations are aimed at conducting investigations of humans and the world they live in. Such missions can be broken down into three distinctive areas of interest - natural environment, man-made structures and observation of humans. Natural Environment. In most parts of the world, including Canada, UFO entities have been spotted picking, plucking, uprooting and collecting samples of vegetation, natural and cultivated, such as flowers, shrubs, twigs, grass, herbs, leaves, lavender and tomato plants.23 In one instance two dwarves "with smiles showing fine white teeth" took a pot of flowers 60 from a woman.24 They have also been observed collecting soil samples, stones and rocks. Their scientific curiosity seems to extend to animals, wild and domesticated, and rabbits, chickens, pigs and even cattle taken aboard UFOs. Man-made Structures. The most common type of occupant activity in this category structure involves the inspection of highways, railroad tracks, mining shafts, oil derricks and buildings.25 To a lesser extent, UFOs have been also observed maneuvering in the vicinity of military and energy-generating facilities and communication installations. The site of the first A-bomb explosion in New Mexico was the scene of a UFO landing, although no occupants were observed.26 Observation of Humans. In what is now emerging as an intensifying pattern, the activities of Earth’s inhabitants are becoming the target of increased occupant surveillance. While most UFO beings appear to be content to monitor humans from a respectable distance, in two separate incidents in Quebec witnesses told how they were stared at by strange-looking beings through the window of their homes.27 Some UFO entities have now apparently turned to the disturbing practice of taking humans aboard their craft to examine them. Another type of occupant activity, rarely seen, is commonly referred to as "the pit stop" which usually occurs in the daytime 'a presumed forced landing' and seems to involve the replenishing of supplies such as water, or the repair of a mechanical malfunction. The "repair" theory has led me to speculate that the sulphur smell described by Stephen Michalak, (P. 38), may in fact have been an odour caused by a burned-out motor. Having given a brief overview of the complex nature of the UFO occupant phenomenon, here then are five typical encounters that testify to the diversity of UFO beings. 1 David F.. Webb, "Analysis of Humanoid Reports", 1976 MUFON Symposium Proceedings, Ann Arbor, Michigan (June 12, 1976) The Mutual UFO Network, Seguin, Texas. 1976. p. 33. 2 MUFON Symposium Proceedings, op cit. p. 12-13. 3 David F. Webb, "Analysis of Humanoid/Abduction Reports", Proceedings of the 1976 CUFOS Conference, Lincolnwood, Illinois (April 30-May 2, 1976). The Center for UFO Studies, Evanston, Illinois. 1976. p. 266. 4 Canadian UFO Report, Vol. 4, No. 6 (Winter-Spring 1978), p. 9; Vol. 4, No. 7 (Summer 1978), p. 20-23. 5 Robert M. Wood, "Testing the Extraterrestrial Hypothesis", Thesis, Synthesis, Antithesis. The Los Angeles and Orange County Sections of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and the Los Angeles Chapter of the World Future Society. A Joint Symposium. Los Angeles, California, September 27, 1975, p. 17. 6 UFO-Quebec, Premier Trimestre Vol. 2, No. 1 (1976), p. 19. 7 Otto Binder, "The Clues that Prove UFOs Come From Different Galaxies", SAGA’s 1975 UFO Annual (New York: Gambi Publications, 1975), p. 43. 8 UFO-Quebec, op. cit. p. 19. 9 UFO-Quebec, Vol. 1, No. 1 (1975) p. 69. 10 SAGA’s 1975 UFO Annual, op. cit. p. 64. 11 Ibid. 12 UFO-Quebec, Quatrième Trimestre, Vol. 2, No. 4 (1976). 13 Canadian UFO Report, Vol. 2, No. 4 (1972) p. 5. 14 SAGA’s 1975 UFO Annual, op. cit. p. 64. 15 UF0-Quebec, Vol. 1, No. 1 (1975) p. 10. 16 Carl Sagan, ed. Communication With Extraterrestrial Intelligence (CETI) (Cambridge, Mass.: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 1973) p. 166. 17 Jacques Vallée, Anatomy of a Phenomenon: UFOs in Space (New York: Ballantine Books, 1974), p. 204. 18 Robert M. Wood, op. cit., p. 17. 19 'Brinsley Le Poer Trench, Earl of Clancarty', Saga UFO Report, Vol. 4, No. 6 (October 1977) (New York: Gambi Publications), p. 20 Dennis Overbye, "The Wizard of Space and Time", OMNI, Vol 1, No. 5 (February 1979) (New York: OMNI Publications International Ltd.). 21 Sudbury Star, January 12, 1976. 22 J. Alien Hynek, "Exclusive UFO Report Interview", Saga UFO Report, Vol. 3, No. 3 (August 1976), p. 60. 23 James M. McCampbell, Ufology: New Insights from Science and Common Sense (Belmont, Ca.: Jaymac Company, 1973), p. 123. 24 Ibid. 25 Ibid., p. 125. 26 Jacques Vallée, Passport to Magonia. Case Summaries, Case No. 420 (Chicago: Henry Regnery & Company, 1969). 27 UF0-Quebec, Vol. 1, No. 1 (1975), p. 11. 61 Montreal JANUARY 6, 1977 UFO sightings over large urban centers are considered somewhat of a rarity, as the vast majority of incidents normally occur in remote, rural areas. Rarer still are cases involving the presence of UFO occupants in urban surroundings. For this reason, the reported appearance of two UFO passengers on a mid-town Montreal rooftop on January 6, 1977 must be considered unique and unprecedented. Ironically, the sighting coincided with Christmas Eve celebrated by millions of Christians according to the old Julian calendar. For children of Ukrainian origin it is traditional to search the sky for the first evening star which heralds the opening of the Holy Christmas Eve festivities. But for Mrs. Florida Malboeuf of Casgrain Street in Montreal, the bright light in the sky turned out to be much more than a prelude to an age-old tradition.’ At about one o'clock on that particular morning Mrs. Malboeuf rose from her bed, unable to sleep because of a bronchial condition. Gazing out of the window she saw a strange-looking object drifting above the rooftop of the house across the street.2 To her astonishment, it seemed to be making its way toward her. She could clearly see that it was dome-shaped, and resembled a flattened oyster with a chain of bright lights around its rim which almost blinded her. She estimated the object •to be about twenty feet wide. As she watched, the blazing craft hovered atop the three-storey building opposite, but then she could no longer see it from her vantage point at street level as it had become obscured behind the roof deck. Seconds later, two figures appeared at the edge of the roof. Even though there was nothing unusual about the way they walked, she instinctively knew they were not humans! They appeared to be extremely tall, in the neighbourhood of six and a half feet. They were thin and had unusually long arms and legs. Although she could not distinguish their features, their heads appeared to be covered by tight-fitting "bathing caps," similar to those worn by frogmen. The rest of their bodies 62 seemed to be covered by a white one-piece skin-tight tunic.3 Apparently unaware of her presence, the two figures surveyed the scene, first looking Onto the street below and then pointing toward- the sky, as if in search of something. Their behaviour appeared human-like and after a few minutes they retreated. Seconds later, the craft rose and again came into view. It slowly drifted away in a southerly direction, as if headed for Bellechasse Street. Shaken, Mrs. Malboeuf went back to bed but had difficulty falling asleep. It wasn’t until six o’clock the following afternoon that she decided to tell her son André, twenty-four, about her nocturnal adventure. Judging by his mother’s agitated state, André realised that she must have undergone a very traumatic experience. He immediately set out to investigate, first by consulting neighbours, none of whom had seen or heard anything out of the ordinary the night before. It seemed to him that the rooftop of the vacant building across the street would be the next most logical place to go. Unfortunately, there was no way of reaching it from inside. He had no choice but to climb a hydro pole and make his way across a six-foot-wide chasm, using a ladder as a makeshift bridge. When he reached the rooftop he was startled by what he saw. A twenty-foot-wide circular sheet of ice covered a thin layer of snow. It was obvious that some form of heat had melted the snow and the circle had subsequently frozen over. This ice sheet was flanked by two smaller oval-shaped ice patches a few feet away, presumably created by the same heat source. The smaller ice layers appeared to be fiat, whereas the larger one was visibly depressed in the centre, forming a shallow crater. Excited by this evidence of a possible UFO landing, André immediately called Le Journal de Montréal to report what had happened. He also notified air traffic control at Dorval Airport, and was advised that his statements would be forwarded to both the Canadian and the U.S. North American Air Defence Command (NORAD) Headquarters in North Bay, Ontario, and in Colorado Springs, Colorado, respectively. He was also informed by Dorval air traffic control that three other persons had called them to report what was presumably the same UFO drifting above the nearby Rosemont subway station, moments after Mrs. Malboeuf’s sighting.4 63 The revelation that these sightings would be transmitted to top-level defence personnel tenth to confirm that, contrary to repeated official denials, Canadian military authorities in collaboration with U.S. agencies are still actively involved in monitoring UFO sightings. (See chapter 12, "UFOs and the Canadian Government.") The next day - a Saturday - photo journalist Gilles La France of Le Journal de Montreal interviewed Mrs. Malboeuf and photographed the landing site.5 That same day, her son called Montreal Urban Community Police and two a their officers arrived a short time later to interview Mrs. Malboeuf and conduct a peripheral investigation which they described as "unofficial and personal."8 Following the appearance of the story in the Sunday edtion of Le Journal de Montréal and the weekly tabloid, The Sunday Express, local UFO investigators converged on the scene of the sighting. The first to arrive was Howard Gontovnick, a Laval area ufologist who publishes the periodical (UF0-Canada.7 Despite the fact that much of the ice layer were covered by drifting snow, he managed to take several colour photos, one of which is reproduced here. The next day a Monday, Marc Leduc of UFO-Quebec also visited Mrs Malboeuf, but due to a severe snowstorm he was prevented from inspecting the rooftop. He returned on Wednesday night, accompanied by Wido Hoville of UFO-Quebec Howard Gontovnick and Paul Dubeau, another of the UFO witnesses of January 6. Together with André Malboeuf, they embarked on the perilous ascent to the top of the building, where they made an other surprise discovery. Four peculiar footprints, originating at the centre of the ice mass and pointing toward the roof’ edge could be seen. Although these imprints resembled th heel and toe marks of a boot, they were unlike any the men had ever seen before.8 For one thing they were only 6 inches long and a mere 1.7 inches wide, thereby excluding the likelihood they had been made by an adult. Also, due to the extreme difficulty in reaching the rooftop and the narrow width of the prints, the possibility that they might belong to a child could be excluded. Unlike the structure of an ordinary foot 64 the curvature of these imprints was sharply exaggerated toward the inside. The connection between the strange footprints and what bad caused the snow to melt in circular patterns is unmistakable. Prints embedded in the frozen layer clearly suggested they must have been produced while the surface was still in a molten state. What had caused the snow to melt? The circular ice patterns could not have been created by mild weather conditions. According to Dorval weather office records, the temperature had remained well below freezing during the month preceding Mrs. Malboeuf’s nocturnal "shocker." Another possibility put forward was that the heat source had originated in the building. However, the thin layer of unmelted snow beneath the ice patch conclusively ruled out that theory.9 Clearly then, the ice surfaces must have been produced by an external heat source from an object with airborne capabilities. The fact that no landing gear imprints were found within the circular patches of ice indicated that the craft had not actually landed on the roof, but must have remained in a hovering position. From the location of the footprints, it would appear that the occupants had disembarked from the underside of the craft and walked towards the edge of the roof. In the final analysis, I believe that we can also eliminate the possibility of a hoax. To reproduce the circles, the hoaxer would have had to secure a silent, airborne craft capable of producing a twenty-foot wide uniform heat emission. To my knowledge, no such craft exists. As to the footprints, the trickster would have had to engage a six-year-old child with a severe case of crippled foot wearing specially fitted hoots. He would have then had to hoist his juvenile accomplice to the roof of the building while the "miracle craft" was performing its "instant summer" trick. And then just to complete the scenario, he would have had to convince Mrs. Malboeuf to publicise the fabricated story. Without apparent financial gain or publicity for either party, the hoax theory becomes all the more ludicrous. In the end, we are left with physical evidence to confirm Mrs. Malboeuf’s contention that two humanoids had disembarked from a hovering, spherical craft onto the rooftop of the vacant house across the street from her own. 1 UFO Quebec, Vol. 3, No.1 (Premier Trimestre 1977), p. 6. 2 The UF0 Researcher’: Newsletter, Vol. 1, No. 3 (Winter 1977), p. 6. 3 The UFO Pulse Analyzer, Issue 2 (May 1977), p. 18.4 4 Le Journal de Montréal, January 9, 1977. 5 Ibid. 6 UFO-Quebec, op. cit., p. 7. 7 The UFO Researcher’s Newsletter, op. cit., p. 18. 8 UFO-Quebec, op. cit., p. 8. 9 Ibid. p. 8. 65 Rosedale, Alberta June 7, 1971 The province of Alberta is famous for its vast untapped resources of "black gold," and for the resulting concentration of geological expeditions in search of new energy resources. If we are to believe the account of a Rosedale resident, it now appears that the world’s major energy consortiums are not alone in combing the province for tell-tale rock formations. Some occupants of UFOs seem equally interested in Alberta’s geomorphological history. On the evening of June 9, 1971, Ms. or Miss Esther Clappison, a middle-aged woman, witnessed the exploratory activities of three humanoid beings who had landed in a box-like, transparent craft a short distance from her farm house.1 In a taped radio interview with ufologist, William K. Allan, formerly of Calgary, she calmly described the curious spectacle: On June the ninth, I was attracted to a light coming through the windows. I couldn’t ascertain what it was all about, so I went around to the front of my home where there is a porch. Accompanying me was my old yellow dog, called George. I was surprised when I got there to See a rectangular-shaped lighted object down on the ground at an intersection of two roads.2 One end of the craft appeared to have been opened, revealing an interior illuminated by a diffused white, opaque light. Ms. Clappison barely bad time to recover from shock, when she saw two human-like forms moving about inside the craft. As her eyes grew accustomed to the dark, her fears were confirmed: although the forms seemed human, they looked unmistakably alien. She then noticed a third figure outside, across the road, in a crouched position. From her vantage point, the beings appeared to be wearing tight-fitting uniforms of drab green material similar to skin divers’ outfits. She couldn’t distinguish the facial features of the three humanoids since their heads 66 appeared to be covered by see-through fabric. Her attention was particularly drawn to the hands of the creatures: They were like mittens; not exactly like a ski-doo mitten, but you know, just the thumbs, very prominent thumbs going into points. I gathered that’s why he was having difficulty picking up the rocks.3 She then remembered a recent William K. Allan broadcast on CFCN-AM radio in Calgary, in which listeners were urged by the ufologist to look for the instrument panel when viewing a UFO craft. "The humanoid at this time had realised someone was there (me) and had covered as much of it (instrument panel) as he could with his person and his arm. He continually kept looking backwards to see that his arm was covering what was in the front of that craft. The panel went right across the craft and was about fifteen inches straight down and there seemed to be darker shapes on the down part."4 Too frightened to advance, Ms. Clappison remained a safe distance from the craft while watching the visitor’s every move. The being at the panel then motioned to his companion inside the craft, who in turn gestured to their colleague outside. "The man out there was obviously picking up samples. I guess it was rock, not dirt, because he was picking, not scooping. After a moment, I tried to get closer and have a real eyeful, but the old dog wouldn’t let me. He was scared to death and he pushed me right back. That was quite a push you’ve got to admit. Well, then, I came in to attract my brother’s attention. Then I looked through the window to see the object again and what they were doing, but there wasn’t even the light. When I returned with my brother, there was nothing there and so help me I hadn’t been drinking. I’m not a drinking woman." The next morning, the Clappisons inspected the area and found a scorched imprint at the edge of the road where the craft had been the night before. Twenty feet long and five 67 feet wide, the rectangular marking appeared to correspond to the estimated dimensions of the craft described by Mrs. Clappison. Close inspection of the charred imprint revealed that the burnt vegetation had been exposed to some form of intense heat radiation. When William K. Allan visited the site four months later the blackened imprint was still clearly visible.6 Judging from the extensive burns that bad destroyed the resilient desert weed, it became evident that no machine of earthly origin could have produced the uniform, geometrically shaped burn pattern. 1 Canadian UFO Report, Vol. 2, No. 4 (1972), p. 5. 2 Taped interview with Esther Clappison, conducted by William K. and Yvonne Allan. (October 1971.) Courtesy of W.K. Allan. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid. 5 Ibid. 6 Canadian UFO Report, op. cit., p. 6. St. Cyrille, Quebec June 25, 1974 Imagine for a moment coming face to face with what you believe to be creatures from a world totally alien to your own. How would you react? With shock? Curiosity? Fascination? Hysteria? Most people would probably respond with fear. Someone else with a different behavioural make-up might find the encounter entertaining, might even invite the curious visitors to come in for a beer. To a twenty-nine-year-old resident of St. Cyrile, Quebec, Mr. L., the experience of being stared at by an "alien invader" proved to be terrifying. To this day the credibility of this alien visitation remains unchallenged, following the verification of witness evidence. The case is noteworthy in that the beings seemed more preoccupied with examining the wheel assembly of trailer homes, than the residents inside. Mr. L. and his wife live in a trailer home outside St. Cyrille, forty-five miles east of Montreal. (Their identities are known to UFO-Quebec researchers.)’ The couple had just returned from a holiday in Florida. Exhausted from the long trip, Mrs. L. retired early, whereas her husband decided to stay up and watch television. What followed is best described by Wido Hoville of UFO-Quebec who investigated the incident. At 1:15 AM, Mr. L. was preparing for bed, when he heard a strange sound outside. It was some sort of 68 boom!... boom!... boom!, as if something had fallen on the ground. Lifting the curtain of his living room window, he saw a reddish-orange circular object hovering over a field on the north-east side of his trailer. Beams of yellow light shone from the bottom of the craft, which seemed to hover about four feet from the ground. The startled witness went into the bedroom to wake his wife, and while there, he heard a buzzing sound. Looking from the bedroom window, he saw a figure that had apparently emerged from the object and was hovering not more than fifteen feet from the window! Shocked, Mr. L. went with his wife into the living room, from where they observed three more "robots", as they called them, because the strange creatures looked stiff. The figures were close to the trailer next door, examining the shaft and wheel assembly.2 The floating creatures were about six feet tall, with luminous infrared bars on their bodies that flashed on and off. The glare from the neon bars and night time obscurity prevented the couple from distinguishing any facial features. Terrified by the presence of these creatures, the couple dared not venture outside, and only periodically peeked out of the window to see if they were still there. At one point during the three-hour observation, the couple saw about fifteen "robots" standing together in line close to a nearby creek. They stood there for over five minutes, then as if on command they suddenly moved together. When the observers looked out again at 4:20 A.M. the craft and the robots had disappeared. It was later revealed that an unidentified woman in the neighbourhood had also seen the creatures and had called the police. Evidently disbelieving her story, they never showed up to investigate.8 The immediate local reaction to the incident was understandably one of skepticism until Jean Roy, a Drummondville resident, discovered what appeared to be hard physical evidence to support the story. Three oval rings of flattened grass were found in the immediate vicinity of the trailers. One was at the precise location where the couple had observed 69 the UFO, while the other two were behind some tall bushes on the other side of the creek. All three rings were of similar dimensions—seventeen by eleven feet in diameter with a two foot outer perimeter of crushed grass. Inside the ring, three one-half-inch deep indentations were found. Three months later, after the grass had been cut, the rings of damaged vegetation were still plainly visible; the vegetation inside the ring had grown twice as high as the surrounding grass. While no footprints could be found, investigators did discover several paths of disturbed vegetation emanating from the rings. These paths, including one that ended directly outside the couple’s trailer, seemed to correspond generally with the movements of the floating "robots." Further evidence surfaced two years later, when on September 5, 1976, UFO-Quebec investigators revisited the two witnesses. Under controlled clinical hypnotic regression, Mrs. L. was able to elaborate and substantiate her original account of that memorable morning. Here are excerpts from the session as translated from the French.4 Q: What did he (her husband) ask you that night when he woke you up? A: To look outside. Q: Why did he ask you to look? A: Because there was a spotlight that lit up the garage. It was like a car’s back lights that was illuminating the garage door. He thought it was robbers or thieves. Q: What did you do after seeing this? A: I looked in the field. Q: What did you see? A: A saucer. Q: How was it? A: Dull with yellow lights. Q: Was it on the ground? A: Yes. Q: Did you watch it for a long time? A: No. A few minutes. Q: Were the lights on top or underneath? A: Underneath. Q: Did they light up the ground? A: Yes. It was all lit up, yellow and red. 70 Q: Were there any other lights? A: Yes. On top. Like a spotlight. It was turning. Q: Was there something else under the saucer? A: Landing legs. Q: How many? A: Three. Q: Do they reach down to the ground? A: Yes. Q: Do you hear anything? A: The wind. Q: A whistling sound. A: Yes. Q: How? A: Hou.. .Hou.. .Hou. . .Hou... Q: Is the whistling periodic? A: It is continuous. Q: At what time did the wind cease? A: At about four. Q: What did you do? A: I panicked and went back to bed. Q: What was your husband doing during this time? A: He was looking outside. He was afraid. Q: Why was he afraid? A: He said he saw a figure. Q: Did you see it? A: No. Q: Where was this figure? A: He said it was in front of him. Q: Describe the figure. A: It was round. Q: What was he doing? A: My husband said the figure was in front of him and was staring at him. Q: And you didn’t see the figures? A: It’s vague—They’re in a row. Q: Where is this row? A: In front of the house next door. Q: How many are there? A: I don’t know. Q: What are they doing? A: They’re bending down, then getting up. Q: Are you looking at them for a long time? A: No, only three seconds. 71 Q: Why not longer? A: I’m afraid. Q: What were you thinking of? A: The invaders? Q: What invaders? A: Those on television. Q: What colour were they? A: Shimmering. Like metal, silvery. They were lit up. Q: How? A: You could see their body but not the head. Q: Did they come close to the house? A: Yes. Q: How many were there? A: Several of them. .. about ten. Q: How many approached the house? A: I don’t know, I heard metallic sounds. Q: Was it close by? A: Two feet away. Q: What sort of metallic sound? A: On the "togne". (Word used by Mrs. I. to describe the metallic appendage used in pulling the trailer.) Q: What’s making the noise? A: I don’t know. Q: How many times? A: Three times, about one every second. Q: Were you afraid? A: I’m more worried for my husband. Q: Why are you worried about your husband? A: Because he’s afraid. To protect him. Q: To protect him from what? A: From something completely alien. Q: What do you think could have happened? Where did the saucer come from? A: I don’t know. 0: Did any of them enter the trailer? A: No. Q: Why are they there? A: They’re searching. Q: Do they find what they’re searching for? A: No. Q: Why do you think not? A: I don’t know. Q: When the wind whistling stopped, did you get up? A: Yes. 72 Q: What did you see? A: Nothing. 1 UFO-Quebec, Vol. 1, No. 1, (1975), p. 6. 2 Canadian UFO Report, Vol: 3, No. 1, p. 22. 3 UFO-Quebec, op. cit., p.?. 4 Ibid. Saint Matthias de Chambly, Quebec October 6, 1973 Daytime encounters with UFO occupants are extremely rare. For this reason, the appearance of dwarf-like beings in broad daylight at Saint Matthias, east of Montreal, stands out as a unique occurrence. Unlike most such cases, this occupant presence does not appear to have been intended for scientific or investigative purposes. Rather it would seem that the brief UFO landing may have been an emergency stop, provoked by the need to replenish water supplies. The incident is also unusual in that the witnesses mistook the small child-like creatures they saw for boy scouts doing their 'good deed for the day'. It all began at 12:45 in the early morning hours of October 6, 1971.1 when Mr. and Mrs. N.R. (whose identities are known to UFO-Quebec researchers) were strolling along a country road. They noticed an intense light coming from a field about a quarter of a mile away. It resembled a searchlight and seemed to be scanning the area. Mr. R. dismissed it as coming from police officers out looking for the cattle rustlers who had recently plagued the area. The next morning at about 11:30 AM, Mrs. R. was hanging up the wash in her backyard, when she noticed a column of smoke rising from the fields to the north. She called her husband, who was baffled by the curious nature of what should have been a fire. Not only was there no visible flame but as it bad rained earlier, that type of combustion in a water-logged field seemed highly improbable. With their attention now focused in that direction, Mr. and Mrs. R. spotted a round, yellowish, dome-shaped object resembling a camper’s tent, a short distance away from the “fire.” They concluded that a group of boy scouts must have set up camp and started a campfire. Suddenly, a yellow square-shaped object resembling a bulldozer emerged from the tent and proceeded to take up position near a spring about two hundred feet away.2 Still thinking of boy scouts, 73 they didn’t question the appearance or five child-like figures about four feet in height. Wearing bright yellow, suits with a headgear resembling football helmets, the figures seemed to be carrying something in their arms as they scurried back and forth between the tent and the object. Due to the tall undergrowth, no leg movement could be distinguished. Unperturbed by the presence of the young campers, the couple resumed their chores and only periodically glanced across the field. Then, twenty-five minutes later, 'scouts' and tents were gone. Since the only road leading out of the field runs along the couple’s farmhouse, they should normally have seen the 'campers' depart. Somewhat mystified, they began to re-evaluate their theory and wondered if a more exotic explanation would be in order. The first hint of a possible UFO connection came from a neighbour who told the couple that he had seen a 'yellow tent' take off and bead towards Mont Groupement, twenty-five miles further east. When the couple’s daughter returned from work that evening, her parents told her about the incident. She walked across the field to the 'campsite' and discovered a fifty-foot wide circle of burnt and crushed grass. She also noticed a six-inch-wide track, resembling tractor marks, leading from the circle toward a smaller twelve-foot-wide circle by the spring.3 When Miss R. returned to the house, her head began to ache and she felt nauseous - symptoms often associated with radiation exposure. She did not seek medical attention as the headache and the nausea soon disappeared. Several weeks later, when word of the incident had reached the offices of UFO-Quebec, Wido Hoville and Philippe Blanquière inspected the site and filed this report:4 The first circle was still visible and so was the track and the other smaller circle. We took some colour photos which vividly demonstrate the burn markings and the track-like imprints. Within the circumference of the large circle, we found three square imprints arranged in a triangular pattern thirty-four feet in length. At the time, we didn’t have a Geiger counter and it was impossible to conduct a radiation count. Next to the landing site, we found several water 74 springs where domestic animals customary come to drink. At about 1,500 feet to the east of the site were two high-voltage power lines, while to the west, a pipeline can be found. At the precise location of the landing, we discovered a synclinal axis... [which] strongly supports the hypothesis that UFOs are often observed in regions where geological discontinuities are present such as fault lines, quarries canyons, etc. We flew over the site to take some photos of the marks and we could plainly see the axis crossing the field from the southwest to the northeast. In the last twenty years, the regions of Chambly and Rougemont have emerged as areas of intensive UFO activity, with several credible reports of both UFO landings and occupant sightings. It would appear that the landing was probably made for the purpose of refuelling water supplies. The marks clearly indicate that some sort of device had travelled from the large circular craft to the spring. The hurried movements of the humanoids leaves us with the impression they were on a "rush-job". A curious side note to the affair is the unresolved case of the 'cattle thieves'. While we can find not a shred of evidence linking the cattle disappearances to our cosmic 'water bearers', it is noteworthy that such animal abductions have occurred in conjunction with intense UFO activity. 1 UFO-Quebec, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1975) p. 10. 2 Canadian UFO Report, Vol. 3, No. 3 (1975) p. 8-9. 3 UFO-Quebec, op..cit., p. 12. 4 UF0-Quebec, Vol. 1, No. 7 (1976) p. 20-22. 75 Chapter 5 UFO Abductions Abductions and kidnapping under any circumstances are traumatic experiences. But when the captors are repulsive looking creatures from another world, surely the ordeal takes on yet another dimension of horror. This may sound like a chilling plot for a science fiction horror film, but to the scores of people who have actually experienced this horror it’s real and unforgettable. In what must certainly be considered the strangest and most disturbing aspect of the mystery-shrouded UFO occupant phenomenon, a growing number of people now report being immobilised and beamed aboard a UFO! In virtually every known case, the victims of the 'spacenapping' tell of being subjected to an apparent medical examination by UFO entities. Truth is often stranger than fiction; thus the obvious is, "To what extent can these apparent flights of fantasy be taken seriously?" If we are to believe the studies conducted by serious worldwide UFO-oriented research groups, these abduction stories are highly credible. The previously cited MUFON Humanoid Study Group has already compiled a list of 166 reports where - the UFO’s witnesses related an on-board experience. This represents 10 per cent of the total number of HSG cases.’ According to Study Group co-chairman, physicist David Webb, some of the recurring features of kidnappings include: On-board medical examinations, induced amnesia, Intelligible communication, paralysis of the witness and such 76 physical characteristics of me humanoids as slanted eyes, small stature, small noses and ears and a mouth slit.2 In geographical terms, over half of the documented abductions have occurred in the United States, followed by strong concentrations in Brazil (20 per cent) and Argentina (6 per cent).3 With the exception of three early incidents in 1915, 1921 and 1942, UFO 'spacenapping' are exclusively a post-1947 'modern-era' phenomenon.4 UFO abductions have increased dramatically since 1965. The five-year period from 1970 to 1975 accounts for 53 per cent of MUFON’s total compilation.5 Even more alarming is the realisation that the number of known incidents represents a mere fraction of the total spectrum of cases. Dr. James Harder, professor of civil engineering at the University of California at Berkeley, claims that in the United States alone, hundreds, and possibly thousands of UFO-related abductions have never been reported.6 As Research Director for the Aerial Phenomenon Research Organisation (APRO), his statements cannot be taken lightly. Having personally investigated more than fifty such abduction cases, he is considered by many to be the world’s leading scientific authority on this phenomenon. Why do most cases remain unreported? For reasons that are little understood, the majority of victims, often referred to as 'contactees', simply do not remember the experience. While they normally recall seeing the UFO, the abduction itself remains inexplicably locked away in their subconscious, as if the experience had been purposely erased from memory. All they are left with is an unexplained time-loss which can range from a few minutes to several days. The world-famous UFO abduction of Travis Walton, near Heber, Arizona on November 5, 1975, reportedly lasted a full five days.7 In time, some of the contactees gain an insight into their elusive experience, often by means of a sudden memory flash 77 or a vivid dream. Realising the staggering implications of a brief glimpse into their contact with alien life forms, most victims usually seek immediate attention from psychologists or ufologists. For many other victims, however, the curious memory lapse remains a permanent mystery. Whether out of indifference or fear, they never bother to explore the time-loss further. Because these cases of amnesia appear to have their origin in Some form of induced memory suppression, researchers have turned to clinical hypnotic regression in an attempt to extract the hidden experience. In most cases, the technique has been successful, unlocking a Pandora’s box of spine tingling accounts of on-board events. As a result, hypnosis is now frequently employed by a growing number of professional researchers when they are confronted with suspected abduction cases. One of them is Dr. Harder. World renowned for his pioneer work in applied hypnosis, he has the distinction of being one of the six scientists to testify on UFOs before the July 1968 U.S. House Committee on Science and Astronautics.8 Dr. Leo Sprinkle, associate professor of psychology at the University of Wyoming at Laramie, is another prominent researcher who customarily employs hypnosis. He has gained international recognition with his investigations of two of the most controversial abductions in UFO history: the case of Ashland, Nebraska, patrolman Herb Schirmer on December 3, 1967; and the abduction and space voyage of elk hunter Carl Higdon near Rawlins, Wyoming, in October 1974.9 Dr. Sprinkle has worked with private and government-sponsored UFO research groups, acting as APRO consultant since 1962 and serving in 1968 as consultant to the Condon Committee, the U.S. Air Force-sponsored University of Colorado UFO study. It was the Condon Committee, headed by the late Dr. Edward Condon, that presented the highly controversial and much publicized conclusion that there was no evidence to confirm that UFOs were extraterrestrial spacecraft. Since then, these conclusions have been openly challenged by prominent scientists throughout the world, including former members of the Committee itself. 78 Both Dr. Harder and Dr. Sprinkle are strong defenders of hypnotic regression techniques and consider them one of the most effective and reliable tools available for extracting repressed memory and authenticating witness testimonies. Dr. Harder explains some of the difficulties encountered in evaluating the information obtained through hypnosis. First off, in many instances, the participants are told by the UFO beings not to remember the encounter. And sometimes it appears that a phony memory has been substituted for the real one. For instance, one person I hypnotised said he was shown a propulsion mechanism and told it was driven by "lithium crystals". I immediately recognised that as something from 'Star Trek'. We have no reason to believe that lithium crystals are part of any real UFO propulsion system... But when you have multiple witnesses remembering the same experience, then you know you’re dealing with something else... And then, once they’re under hypnosis, they’re in no mental state to resist cross-examination... I don’t think someone I suspected of lying under hypnosis could get away with it.10 Dr. Harder does not believe that the abduction victims are singled out for any special attribute they may possess: Abductees seem to come from all races and ethnic groups... the average abductee, however, is likely to be a little more intelligent than most... in my experience, these people seem to be at least slightly more psychic than most of their fellow’ citizens.11 As to the alien entities themselves, their attitude toward their terrestrial guests often differs from species to species. Some appear to be friendly and helpful, while others are aloof and cold.’2 If we are to exclude a few isolated incidents where abductees have experienced momentary pain during examinations, cruelty and aggressive behaviour do not appear to be a characteristic of these alien hosts. 79 What then can be made of seemingly random and harmless diagnoses by these alien physicians? For those with romantic visions of man’s first contact with intelligent life forms as a glorious, historical occasion worthy of pomp and ceremony, the questionable 'clinical' conduct of UFO occupants is confusing and invites speculation on the intent behind UFO visitations. While deploring the practice of abducting unwilling 'patients', most researchers see these experiments as part of overall missions aimed at studying man and his environment. These alien activities seem to be poignantly reminiscent of our conservationists’ tagging programs designed to monitor the movements and behaviour of endangered species. Are we to conclude that we are the endangered species of the galaxy? But the equally questionable and unethical practice of unauthorised medical experiments and memory tampering has led other researchers to suspect a more sinister plot behind the abductions. They point to cases where blood samples (generally in the lymph node areas) were extracted from the victim, or where, for unknown purposes, foreign substances were injected into the blood stream. One of the best known 'sinister plot' advocates is veteran UFO researcher and author John A. Keel, who writes: If the ufonauts are interested in our lymphatic systems, and the other defensive mechanisms of the human body, we may all have cause to worry about those funny lights in the night sky.13 In citing the obvious neurological expertise of these cosmic Marcus Welbys, Keel goes so far as to speculate that some, if not all, contactees may have been subjected to sophisticated forms or induced behaviour modification through surgical or chemical means: We do know that brainwashing plays an important role in UFO contact cases. We also know that many witnesses vividly remember false episodes that have been planted into their minds, apparently to cover up what really happened to them... It’s a frightening thought, but researchers around the world have now collected a mountain of evidence indicating that many UFO witnesses do suffer sudden changes in personality and 80 life style, and may have experienced some form of radical brain surgery.14 We cannot, on the other hand, rule out the possibility that some, if not all, personality transformations are normal psychological changes brought about by new attitudes toward the meaning of life and the perceived reality of extra-planetary life. However, the most disturbing aspect of the whole abduction syndrome, which also remains the least investigated, is the permanent disappearance of abduction victims. In his address to the 1976 Center for UFO Studies conference at Lincolnwood, Illinois, David Webb commented that "an alarming number of cases of reported abductions from which the witness has not returned is also a common feature."5 While some of the known disappearances have involved military pilots (See Chapter 7, 'Military Pilot Sightings'), very little else is know about the worldwide phenomenon of vanishing persons, be they UFO-related or not. Obviously, more research is required in this field. Canada can boast a handful of cases involving mysterious memory losses by witnesses viewing UFOs. Only two known witnesses have undergone hypnotic regression—a fourteen year-old boy in Calgary and a forty-one-year-old man in St. Johns, Newfoundland. In the case of the Calgary youth, the session proved to be extremely fruitful in not only confirming the actual UFO abduction, but also in revealing grizzly details of an on-board examination.18 Details of the incident and portions of the hypnosis session appear below. In the Newfoundland case, the session failed to disclose any pertinent revelations about the suspected abduction. Instead, it brought to light an even more bizarre aspect of the mystery. Under hypnosis, the victim was prevented from revealing details of his two-hour memory lapse by mysterious interference from a third party—an unknown voice, audible only to the abductee!17 In the final analysis, because UFO abductions represent the only perceivable form of direct human contact with the intelligence behind UFOs, they hold the key to solving this most 81 complex and puzzling mystery. If we are to understand the true purpose underlying UFO visitations, UFO research must turn toward improved methods of information retrieval, be it hypnosis or other forms of memory recall, as well as toward follow-up interviews with the confirmed "contactees". 1 David Webb, 'Humanoid Study Group Report: Abduction Cases' - The MUFON Journal, Number 123 (February 1978) - The Mutual UFO Network, p. 18. 2 David Webb, 'Analysis of Humanoid/Abduction Reports', Proceedings of the 1976 CUFOS Conference (April 30-May 2, 1976.) Lincolnwood, Illinois, The Center for UFO Studies, Evanston, Illinois, 1976. p. 266-271. 3 Ibid., p. 266-276. 4 Ibid., p. 266-271, 5 Ibid., p. 266-271. 6 Jerome Clark, 'UFO Report Interviews Dr. James Harder', Saga UFO Report, Vol. 5, No. 2 (December 1977) p. 39. 7 David Webb, op. cit., p. 271. 8 Fuller, John G., 'Aliens in the Skies: The New UFO Battle of the Scientists' (New York: G.P. Putnam & Sons & Berkeley Publishing Corporation, 1969) p. 129. 9 'Exclusive UFO Report Interview,' Saga UFO Report, Vol. 3, No. 2 (June 1976), p. 31. 10 Jerome Clark, op. cit., p. 38, 68. 11 Ibid., p. 39. 12 Ibid., p. 39. 13 John A. Keel, 'UFOs - The Medical Evidence', Saga UFO Report, Vol 5, No. 4 (March 1978) p. 25. 14 Ibid, p. 25. 15 David Webb, op. cit. p. 266. 16 B. Ann Slate, 'Contactee Supplies New Clues to UFO Mystery', Saga UFO Report, Vol. 3, No. 1 (April 1976) p. 26. 17 Telephone conversation with Mr. James E.B., August 20, 1977. Calgary, Alberta November 19, 1961 The victim of the most notorious Canadian UFO abduction on record• has, under clinical hypnosis, vividly described the horror of being isolated and closely examined by what he considered repulsive-looking monsters. The event occurred in the early evening of November 19, 1967. The unwilling guinea pig was fourteen-year-old David Seewaldt of Calgary who had just left a friend’s house.1 He was walking across the field that led to his home, about two blocks away. It was 5:45 PM and the late autumn darkness bad settled over the southern Albertan city. Normally, the walk took only a few minutes, but on that fateful Friday evening, it would be the strangest trip of young David’s life. In his own words: ... all of a sudden, I heard this high-pitched sound. I turned around and looked, and I saw this sort of silver, gray-ish object flying in the sky. It had all coloreds lights around the Center part and they were flashing on and off all colors.2 Frightened, he began to run. The next thing he knew, he was bursting through his front door, the sinister vessel now overhead. His older sister, Angela, followed him upstairs where she found him cowering behind his bed in a state of utter terror. Worried about her brother’s strange behaviour, she grabbed him and asked, "What happened? Why are you so late coming home?" It was now 6:30 PM - forty-five minutes after David had left his friend’s house. He stared past her sister with horror on his face and finally managed to stammer: "I... I was 82 chased by a flying saucer!"3 He then proceeded to describe the sudden appearance of the craft and the ensuing ordeal which seemed as if it had lasted a minute or so. Instead forty-five minutes had elapsed and David didn’t know why. Try as he would, he could not account for the time loss. The usually calm and mild-mannered youngster was a bundle of nerves for the rest of the weekend. Concerned about his apparent case of amnesia, his parents sought the help of ufologist, William K. Allan, who at the time was hosting a radio program on UFOs on CFCN-AM radio in Calgary. Their meeting unfortunately failed to unlock David’s frozen memory and in time the entire incident was forgotten by the Seewaldt household. But then, five months later, in April 1968, David awoke one night from a nightmare. He vividly remembered what had happened during the missing forty-five minutes and recalled being taken aboard the UFO and being subjected to a medical examination by creatures so different from ordinary humans that .he could only describe them as "monsters". The nightmare again left him thoroughly shaken and his parents turned again to Mr. and Mrs. Allan for help. "I was very upset over this dream", commented Mrs. Seewaldt. "He was real shaken up over it. He really missed a night’s sleep after it. I don’t recall David having a nightmare before. He isn’t a child who has a great imagination."4 Confronted with the sensitive nature of the case, the Allans realised that clinical hypnotic regression might be required. They secured the voluntary services of a dental surgeon, a Dr. K. (anonymity requested), who specialised in the use of hypnosis in his practice.5 As the session got underway, it soon became apparent that David had a mental block about his traumatic experience, for each time be was asked what happened after seeing the craft, he began to perspire, his legs started to shake violently and he could not speak. To remove the mental block Dr. K. suggested that David replay his experience as if he were watching television. Following are excerpts of a videotaped session held at the University of Calgary psychology department by Dr. K. and a psychologist, Dr. M, 83 K: Now, David, I would like you to see yourself on the nineteenth of November last year... All right, will you tell me where you are? D: I’m in the empty lot. K: All right, look around and tell me everything that you see. D: I see an object. K: Where is it? D: Above me. K: What colour is the object in the sky? D: Silver-gray-ish. It has a coloreds band of lights around the middle of it... green, yellow, blue, orange, red, pink... K: What happens next? D: They put a beam on me. K: What colour is the beam? D: Orange. K: Where does the beam come from? D: The ship. The middle... on the bottom. K: How did you feel when the beam touched you? D: I was sort of in a trance. K. Did the beam grab hold of your arm or did it grab hold of your body... what does the beam do to you? D: It just brought me up in the ship. K: Did you feel a funny sensation as you were going up? D: No. K: Were you frightened? D: No, I was in a trance. The beam is bringing me in the ship now. I see a monster. At this point we proceed to Dr. M.’s questioning who probed the appearance of the “monster”.6 M: Tell me all about the monster. D: It has a scaly skin. It has holes for its nose and holes for its ears and it has a slit on its face for a mouth. It's brown. M: How many monsters do you see? D: Two. M: What was there about the skin that made you think it was scaly? D: It looked like a crocodile skin. 84 M: What did their backs look like? Did they have a crocodile back too? D: I never saw their backs. M: Did they have any clothes on? D: No. Just that sort of skin. M: Were they smiling? Were they happy? D: No, they didn’t show any expression. M: Tell me everything that’s happening now. D: They put me on a sort of a cot. He’s looking at my body. M: How many are looking at you? D: Four. M: Can you tell me something more about their face? D: It’s sort of scary. It’s round. M: How many hands do they have? D: Two. M: What are they like? D: They’re like...real rough. M: How many fingers do they have? D: Four. M: Do they have a thumb as well? D: No. M: How big are these beings? D: About six feet. M: What are they wearing? D: It looks like they’re not wearing anything. They have a brown sort of scaly-like skin. M: How many feet do they have? D: Two. There’s nothing on their feet. M: How many toes do you see on their feet? D: Four. The following are selected portions of David’s recollection of the apparent anatomical examination. K: Are they saying anything to you? D: I can’t understand. It’s a... it’s a strange language. K: He’s not speaking in English? D: No. K: Imitate the sound these beings are saying. D: Espbezeebzzpsbzzebsp (sounding much like a bee hive or a high-voltage electric current). K: How many beings are doing this? D: Just one. 85 K: And who’s he doing it for? D: He’s telling the others. K: And what is he doing while be is saying this? D: He’s looking at my body. He’s studying it. He took my clothes off. K: You mean all your clothes? Your shoes, your socks, your trousers? D: Yes! K: Your underwear? D: Yes! (Visibly upset) K: Your shirt? D: Yes! (Almost hysterical) K: And he left your jacket on. D: No! (Angrily) He’s lifting my head up. His hands are coming for my head. He’s lifting it up. He looks at my hair, my eyes, my nose.. .(Heavy breathing at this point as he relives the terrifying experience) K: Keep on. D: He’s studying me and then after they finish studying me, they put my clothes back on. They move me onto a different table again. David then describes what is evidently the most terrifying part of his ordeal. M: All right David, now what is happening? D: They’re bringing me... through a hallway into another room. M: What does the other room look like? D: It has all sorts of bright lights in it. M: What else do you see? D: There’s another table there. They put me on that table. M: What’s going on now? You’re on the table. (David hesitates, breathing heavily, as if fearful to re-enact the next events. After being comforted by the psychologist, he continues.) D: They put this other thing over me. M: What other thing? What does it look like? D: It’s a gray-ish colour and they just throw it over me and then this great big, huge, orange-coloreds light comes down and is shone on me. Then one of them took sort of a needle. M: What’s the needle look like? 86 D: It’s gray, it’s small. He sticks It in my arm. M: Were you awake all the time when you were in this room? D: Yes. M: Did they give you anything to eat or drink? D: No. I was sort of in a trance. I felt numb. The final portion of the session is once more conducted by Dr.K. K: And what goes on now? D: And then we go through the computer room into a sort of a hallway. And then that orange beam shows up again and I’m back down on the ground and I hear the high-pitched sound coming from the spaceship. K: High-pitched? Could you hear it? D: Yes. K: Well if you could hear it, perhaps you might be able to imitate it for us. D: Eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee!!!! (high-pitched, shrill sound resembling a trumpet, or a sound similar to blowing through a blade of grass) K: It is that loud? D: Yes. K: Does the sound frighten you? D: Yes. K: What do you do now? D: I start to run home. And it seems as if it’s chasing me. And I run faster. I’m just about at my house and it goes straight up and disappears. I ran in the house, and tore upstairs and jumped across the bed. My sister she went up after me and asked me what had happened and I said, "Something was chasing me", and I told her the story.7 1 B. Ann Slate, 'Contactee Supplies New Clues to UFO Mystery', Saga UFO Report, Vol. 3, No. 1 (April 1976), p. 26. 2 Taped interview with David Seewaldt conducted by W.K. Allan, Calgary, November 28, 1967. Courtesy of W.K. Allan. 3 Ann Slate, op. cit. 4 John Magor, Our UFO Visitors (Vancouver: Hancock House, 1977), p. 166. 5 Ibid. 6 Ann Slate, op. cit. p. 27. 7 Tape recording of hypnotic regression session conducted by Dr. K. Calgary, August 1968. Courtesy of W. K. Allan. 87 Chapter 6 UFOs and Military Installations Since 1947, the year that marks the beginning of the modern era of UFOs, a sizable number of sightings have occurred in the vicinity of military installations. The appearance of these alien craft has not only been confined to conventional Canadian Forces Bases and stations. Strategic installations, such as key Command Bases and Control Centers of the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD), haves also become the target of UFO scrutiny. Predictably, information about such sightings generally remains restricted. However, some of it has managed to surface over the years. A report about a farmer in Saskatchewan observing a glowing, circular craft drifting noiselessly over his wheat field may hardly raise an eyebrow among military mandarins, but an unconventional craft which invades restricted air space, hovers momentarily over the base, and then disappears at bullet-like speed cannot be ignored! In several instances, jet interceptors were sent up to pursue the UFOs. However, in every known case, the UFOs managed to elude the aircraft. (See Chapter 7, 'Military Pilot Sightings.') Two of the more important UFO approaches, one over North Bay (Ontario) Air Force Base in 1952, the other over St. Hubert (Quebec) Air Command Base in 1959, are considered milestones in shaping the subsequent official attitude toward UFOs, as both sightings resulted in changes to policy that ultimately led to the escalation of UFO research and UFO-related secrecy. 88 Information on these 'known' sightings usually comes from public disclosures, from revelations by ex-servicemen or through the release of previously classified documents. But, despite these disclosures, many observers feel that this is only a trickle of information, the mere tip of the iceberg. Part of the difficulty in gaining access to UFO-related material from military sources is due to provisions contained in both the National Defence Act and the Official Secrets Act. Simply stated, any military or civilian personnel found guilty of disclosing unauthorised and illegal information are subject to jail terms of up to fourteen years.2 For this reason, few officials care to comment on classified matters, and are even less likely to discuss UFOs. Understandably so, when one considers that virtually every military document is automatically classified as 'RESTRICTED', 'CONFIDENTIAL', 'SECRET' or 'TOP SECRET'. The government’s 'Green Paper',' which dealt with the proposed legislation concerning public access to government documents, recently recognised the 'excessive' use of these classifications.3 Although, as early as 1954, the Defence Department determined that unidentified flying objects did not pose a threat to national security, the majority of UFO-related documents have remained classified.4 Nevertheless, from the frequent reports of prolonged UFO presence, it would appear that military installations must be of special interest to these unknown visitors. Admittedly, it may mean entering into the nebulous world of speculation, but I do believe some possible reasons for their presence might include: assessment of our offensive strength (jet, missile, nuclear fire power); testing the effectiveness of our defence systems in responding to alien craft; monitoring national and NORAD-linked communications channels; cataloguing installations as part of an overall survey of manmade structures; and sheer curiosity. Regardless of the possible cosmic or extraterrestrial intentions which may lie behind these appearances, our military 89 wise men insist that, since 1968, they have stopped investigating UFO sightings (a mandate currently in the hands of the National Research Council). This means highly irregular unidentified objects are actually allowed to violate military security regulation. If that is the case, then it represents a blatant disregard for the philosophy that created NORAD in the first place. On the other hand, if Our military intelligence agencies are actively investigating UFOs, presumably in collaboration with their U.S. counterparts, why the secrecy? 1 Richard H. Hall, ed., The UFO Evidence (Washington, D.C.: National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena. 1964). p. 78. 2 Official Secrets Act., R.S., C.198, sl. Section 15 (1) Chapter 0-3. p. II. (Ottawa: Queen’s Printer). 3 The Honourable John Roberts, Secretary of State. Legislation on Public Access to Government Documents. (Ottawa: Queen’s Printer, June 1977). 4 Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) Briefing on UFOs, November 15, 1967. Directorate of Operations. Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences Section National Research Council, Non-Meteorite Sightings File, DNO 222. (Ottawa). North Bay Air Force Base, North Bay, Ontario January 1 and April 12, 1952 As one of the five NORAD Control Centers in North America, North Bay Air Force Base is currently Canada’s most important military defence installation. In 1952, two separate UFO sightings Over the base by veteran RCAF airmen left top military and scientific officials completely baffled. -The first incident occurred on the evening of. January 1, New Year’s Day. RCAF Warrant Officer W.I. Yeo, a master telecommunications technician with sixteen years service, and Sergeant D.V. Crandell, an instrument technician, were out of doors when they spotted a luminous disk-shaped craft streaking across the night sky. In a front page headline story, the Ottawa Journal re. ported: The saucer appeared to be at great height, probably outside the earth’s atmosphere. It appeared to be moving at supersonic speed. Yeo and Crandell said they timed the object for eight minutes and forty-three seconds and watched it move roughly parallel to the Earth! They said it changed direction slightly at times, “zig-zagging and climbing and diving without a sound.” And according to the Toronto Globe and Mail: W.J. Yeo, who said that he was familiar with guided missiles, besides all conventional aircraft, claimed the object was definitely not an aircraft, a balloon or a me- 90 teor. "Frankly, I don’t know what it was and, for lack of better words, we called it a flying saucer."2 At that time the Air Force declined to comment, in an apparent attempt to downplay the sighting. A few months later, however, a second sighting triggered a flood of statements by government scientists thereby confirming official recognition of the phenomenon. It was about 8:30 PM on April 12, 1952, when two servicemen spotted a bright amber disk maneuvering over the airfield. The witnesses, Warrant Officer E.H. Rossell, an aircraft maintenance superintendent with thirteen years in the service, and Flight Sergeant Reginald McRae were driving from the married quarters at the time of the sighting. The two said the disk came from the southwest, moved across the airfield, stopped, and then took off in the reverse direction! It climbed at an angle of 30° at “terrific speed” and disappeared.3 Following this sighting, statements calling for stepped-up investigations into the phenomenon were expressed by such notable authorities as Dr. 0. Solandt, chairman of the Defence Research Board; Dr. Peter Millman, astrophysicist, and Dr. C.J. Mackenzie, chairman of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) and former president of the National Research Council. "At the moment, we are as mystified as anyone else", said Dr. Solandt. "We are keeping our minds open and studying the information that becomes available."4 Dr. Millman commented: We can’t laugh off these observations... We can’t discover any conventional explanation which would cover the reported behaviour of these objects. Whilst caution is advisable, we must keep an open mind about them.5 Dr. Millman dismissed the suggestion that the object could have been a meteor, since the average meteor is visible for only a split second. No known celestial object can perform a mid-air direction reversal and then accelerate upward at bullet-like speed. 91 AECB Chairman C.J. Mackenzie echoed the views of his colleagues: It seemed fantastic there could be any such thing. At first, the temptation was to say it was all nonsense, a series of optical illusions. But there have been so many reports from responsible observers, such as airplane pilots, that they cannot be ignored. It seems hardly possible that all these reports could be due to optical illusions.6 The sightings led to further revelations. In an unprecedented move, the Defence Research Board voluntarily disclosed it had actively probed similar UFO occurrences since June 1947, in collaboration with RCAF intelligence. Even more surprising was the admission that in the majority of cases, the Board had been completely stumped.7 The controversy also triggered the creation of a cross-ministerial committee, known as Project Second Storey to monitor existing government UFO research and establish new policy guidelines. (See Chapter 12, 'UFOs and the Canadian Government'.) Many critics feel Project Second Storey was ultimately instrumental in 'covering up' covert UFO research between 1954 and 1966. 1 Ottawa Journal, April 16, 1952. 2 Toronto Globe and Mail, April 16, 1952. 3 Ottawa Journal, op. cit., p.1. 4 Ibid. 5 Ibid. 6 Ibid. 7 Ottawa Journal, April 17, 1952. St. Hubert Air Command Base, St. Hubert, Quebec April 12, 1959 As in the case of North Bay Air Force Base, several UFO sightings had also been registered over the Quebec Regional Mobile and Air Command Base at St. Hubert, eight miles east of Montreal. In describing the most notable of these incidents, Toronto Star reported: Air Force authorities were baffled today by a mysterious unidentified flying object that showed up as a red ball of light over Canada’s key air defence establishment near Montreal, and disappeared north at a speed faster than sound!1 92 The object was first observed at about 8 PM by control tower personnel. Several hundred other airport officials and local residents watched in awe as the noiseless, red, luminous craft hovered over the airfield at an altitude estimated be.tween three and seven thousand feet. Incredibly enough, while it hovered over the air base, the object did nor register on control tower radar screens. Then, just as suddenly as it bad appeared, the craft took off northward toward Montreal, “faster than any jet interceptors at the Air Defense Command base are capable of flying”2 Descriptions of the craft ranged from "a black ball with a red light on it" to "a long red cigar".3 The witnesses unanimously agreed that what they had seen was totally unconventional. Trevor T., who spotted the craft in northern Montreal, described it as: A large sphere hanging in the sky to the southwest. At first it appeared to be standing still, then slowly moved away out of sight.4 And Claude M., who viewed the object with ten other neighbours stated that: It resembled a large-ten-foot-wide ball. There appeared to be a yellow light inside. There were small jets of fire coming from inside as the object passed over the field.5 Mr. Mercier said the object appeared intent on landing in a nearby field, but after hesitating for a few minutes it shot away at high speed. Government officials were forced to reject every possible conventional explanation. One St. Hubert spokesman was quoted as saying, "It was a genuine UFO as far as we are concerned."6 The Toronto Star account of the sighting stated that the government weather bureau at Dorval International Airport considered the theory that the mysterious object, ... might have been a weather balloon which was sent aloft an hour earlier than the mysterious object was spotted. But a spokesman said the balloon was white and carried a white, not red, light.7 93 The sighting prompted comments from Wilbert B. Smith, former Superintendent of Radio Regulations Engineering for the Department of Transport (DOT), who had headed Project Magnet, the DOT-sponsored investigation into UFOs between 1950 and 1954. Based on his extensive research, he claimed such objects appeared red when stationary and changed to orange and white when moving. They were either round or cigar-shaped, up to 150 feet long. "My personal opinion is that they are spacecraft."8 Visibly disturbed by the incident and by the disclosures made by military personnel, the RCAF quickly adopted a U.S. intelligence reporting procedure known as JANAP 146 (D).9 By imposing heavy penalties on personnel who released such UFO-related material, this move was designed to silence further disclosures once and for all. (See Chapter 12, 'UFOs and the Canadian Government'.) 1 Toronto Daily Star, April 13, 1959. 2 Ibid. 8 Ibid. 4 Ibid. 5 La Presse, April 13, 1959. 6 Toronto Daily Star, op. cit. 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid. 9 Richard H. Hall, ed., The UFO Evidence (Washington, D.C.: National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1964), p. 118. Canadian Forces Maritime Command Base, Esquimalt, British Columbia September 1968 Canada’s principal maritime defence outpost on the west coast is the Maritime Command Base at Canadian Forces Base Esquimalt, on the southern shores of Vancouver Island. In late September 1968, numerous local residents were treated to several sightings of brilliant objects meandering over the base. The principal witness, the late Hermanus Voorsluys, an amateur astronomer from Victoria, was the first to spot the UFO, high above Esquimalt harbour. It was an orange glow about 20° above the horizon. It moved up slowly from the south and hovered for a while, then it turned a fiery red-orange and pieces of what looked like waste material fell from it and floated toward the ground. After this happened, the glow be- 94 came much duller and suddenly went out as it turned on like a light bulb.1 After watching repeat performances on ensuing evenings, Mr. Voorsluys decided to share his experience with his neighbour, Reginald Neal, a former police officer. One night, after watching the craft drop the fiery substance, the two men drove to a beach where they believed the material landed. Even though their search proved futile, they were confronted with yet another mystery. It was a low bass-like vibrating noise. We could feel and hear this sound but it was impossible’ to tell where it was coming from, no matter where we looked. It sounded like it was coming from all over the area.2 Then, on September 29, accompanied by family members and neighbourhood friends, the two men succeeded in taking several photographs of the object. One shot taken by Mr. Neal revealed a central craft resembling a toy top, surrounded by four smaller luminous objects. He stated that: The four smaller objects appeared to drop from the leading one and after a zig-zagging descent, returned to the level of the parent body, where they then disappeared.3 In the photo reproduced here, a fifth object beneath the cluster can be seen descending from the “mother craft.” (The shot was taken with an Exacta SLR camera with a 135-mm lens and Dynachrome ASA 25 film, with an F3 setting, exposed for eleven seconds.) All photos were submitted for analysis to the Defence Research Naval Laboratory in Victoria where one official remarked that it was "the best UFO shot" he had ever viewed. In the Canadian Forces debriefing form, Neal wrote: It certainly was not a heavenly body, as it changed course, moved at various speeds, changed colour from a blue white to a deep orange, and once turned deep red, and generally came to rest for periods of time from a 95 few seconds to several minutes. The distance was too great to make an estimation of shape.4 An even more thorough analysis of the four photos was conducted at the National Research Council in Ottawa. While inconclusive, the report implied that it was probably a manmade object. The NRC official wrote: Unfortunately, I am unable to come to a definite conclusion on the basis of what evidence appears on your photos. One thing I am fairly certain of, however, the detail shown in the object observed is probably due to slight motion of the camera, and not to true detail in the object observed. The other images, which may be stars or lights on the horizon, show evidence of the same structure. I would think that what you photographed was a point source of light which confirms your visual observations. Its intensity, relative to the stars, would suggest that it was either a flare, an experimental balloon with a light, or possibly an experimental aircraft.5 Subsequent verification by researchers revealed that neither balloons nor flares had been released during the time of the sightings. Nor could the experimental aircraft suggestion be taken seriously, in view of the totally unconventional structural characteristics and flight maneuvers demonstrated by the objects. Brian Cannon, a Winnipeg-based researcher who later examined the case, came to the conclusion that the object had been positioned almost directly over a new high-voltage transmitter at the Esquimalt Base. (See Chapter 7, 'UFOs and Energy-Generating Sites.') He also felt that the maritime activities at the base may have added to the attraction. The sightings reported by the Victoria group took on considerable credibility when commercial aircraft pilot James R. McLean revealed having seen a similar object while flying over Victoria one night. The descriptions matched perfectly. 1 Canadian UFO Report, Vol. 1, No. 5 (September-October 1969) p. 4. 2 Ibid., p. 6. 3 Ibid., p. 5. 4 Ibid., p. 4. 5 Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics Planetary Sciences Section National Research Council, Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, N68-185. (Ottawa). 96 Chapter 7 Military Pilot Sightings Since the late 1940s, and as recently as April 1975,1 military pilots have occasionally had breathtaking encounters with a variety of unusual craft over Canadian air space. These sightings have involved British, American, Scandinavian and, naturally, Canadian military personnel. Although evidence is available to confirm these sightings, they are not mentioned in the annual reports of the Department of National Defence. Like UFO appearances over military installations, these pilot sightings generally remain classified, as do most national military and NORAD-related activities. From the few incidents known to researchers, there'd appear to be two categories of such military pilot sightings - random encounters and deliberate UFO chases. Random Encounters. Random encounters normally occur during routine flights and appear to be accidental in nature. Maneuvering a fair distance away, the unidentified machines normally look like disk- or cigar-shaped objects. Their unorthodox structure and unusual aerodynamic capabilities clearly suggest that they are intelligently controlled. Frequently, they have approached and followed military aircraft, presumably for the purpose of surveillance. Some pilots have been shaken by the experience whereas others have found it a “once in a lifetime” opportunity to examine closely these fascinating machines. It may be comforting to note that no incidents of overt aggression or hostility have so far been recorded during any of these encounters. 97 Deliberate UFO Chases. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, when UFO sightings were still a novelty, many people suspected these craft to be of Soviet origin. As a result Canadian and U.S. military officials felt compelled to launch interceptors to chase them. It soon became apparent, however, that these flying objects could not possibly be the product of Stalinist technological wizardry. But this only heightened the general consternation. What are they? Where do they come from? What do they want? All these questions remained unanswered. To military mandarins on both sides of the border, the obvious solution was to capture one of them, because as strategists they recognised the military as well as the political advantages such a capture would represent. To this day, no conclusive evidence has been found to indicate whether or not any of these attempts have succeeded. Part of the uncertainty stems from stories by a growing number of top level military and civilian witnesses who today claim to have investigated UFO crashes and their retrieved occupant casualties as far back as the late forties.2 After twenty-nine years of UFO research, author-investigator Leonard Stringfield has compiled a number of witness testimonies confirming no less than a dozen such incidents. The U.S. Air Force has denied all such charges.3 As far as we now know, the capture strategy was a complete fiasco in Canada. In every known case, the pilots were mystified by the elusive craft's seemingly effortless high-speed evasive tactics. A tortoise chasing a road-runner would probably be a fair analogy. These escapades were also costly in terms of human lives. Although there are no known fatal crashes in Canada, several have -occurred in the United States.4 Whether they were the result of direct retaliations by UFOs or were caused by the planes' accidental exposure to some form of lethal magnetic field remains a mystery. Even more baffling are some incidents over the Canada/U.S. border, which ended in the disappearance of both the 98 interceptors and the UFOs.5 They literally vanished into thin air, as if 'energised' into another dimension (a concept popularised by the science-fiction TV series 'Star Trek'). As in the United States, UFO chases over Canada were certainly not isolated incidents. In his investigative book0 Aliens From Space, Major Donald I. Keyhoe (USMC Ret.) maintains that: Though jet pursuits are the usual method for capture attempts, at least one country has tried a different plan. In 1954, U.S. Air Force Intelligence learned that Canada had set up a top-secret project, after Royal Canadian Air Force pilots bad failed to bring down a UFO. Hoping to lure aliens into landing, the Defence Research Board established a restricted landing field near its experimental station at Suffield, Alberta. All RCAF and commercial- pilots were banned from the area. But there was nothing to indicate that the restricted field was reserved for the alien machines and none came near the area. Even if the aliens had known, they might not have risked landing, after hundreds of earlier chases by the RCAF.6 The project was kept secret until July 1967, when the then Canadian Defence Minister Paul Hellyer revealed its existence, claiming that the site had not attracted UFOs. He did not elaborate further on the operation except to state that it had been discontinued following the conclusion that UFOs did not pose a threat to national security.7 Despite these revelations by the minister and USAF Intelligence, the Department of National Defence today denies that such a project ever existed. According to National Defence Headquarters (Ottawa) Public Information Officer, Captain Douglas Caie: “We have no record of any such project. From the information I have, we never had one.”8 This leads me to consider two possibilities. One, the project existed but is now being downplayed for fear that disclosures could generate questions that might uncover some current 99 secret UFO-related research. Two, while discussing other UFO-related DRB activities in the early 1 950s, Defence Minister Hellyer's comments were misinterpreted by the press. Based on Major Keyhoe's impeccable credibility and my yet uptarnished belief in basic journalistic ethics, I tend toward the cover-up theory. It seems to me that the Ottawa Journal would not print so explosive a story without double checking it beforehand to ensure that it wasn't fabricated. In many ufological circles, there is now a growing belief that some RCAF pilots have successfully filmed and photographed UFOs during pursuits, using easy-to-operate special gun-movie cameras which were customarily aboard the older F-86 Sabre jets and the current CF-1O1 Voodoos. Although the RCAF denies the existence of such photographic evidence. it seems unlikely that in the course of these pursuits, no film footage was ever obtained.0 In fact, if we are to believe one witness, the RCAF is said to possess an impressive collection of glossy close-up photos of a wide assortment of UFOs. This statement comes from rancher Bert Gammie of Green Lake, British Columbia, who in June 1964 was treated to a brief sighting of an enormous UFO as it circled above his car. The spherical craft, dull metallic in colour, apparently had a series of exhaust vents at one end that emitted peculiar multi-coloreds gases. Mr. 6ammie reported the sighting to the RCAF in Vancouver. Shortly after, he was visited by two senior air force officers, one of whom he knew personally. The pair brought with them a bulky portfolio of photographs which he was asked to study. To his surprise, Gammie found himself looking at a set of glossy prints of UFOs, many of them showing the craft in fine detail... Asked if any of the photos resembled what he saw, Gammie said some were similar but none fitted the description exactly... the officer told Gammie that if their visit received any publicity, the air force would deny they were ever there!10 In the final analysis, we are regrettably faced with the possibility that while the general public is being served UFO tidbits in the form of mediocre television programming like 100 NBC's defunct 'Project UFO', a select group of military officials in Ottawa are feasting their eyes on 'the real thing'. 1 Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences Section, National Research Council, Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, N75-041, (Ottawa). 2 Leonard H. Springfield, Situation Red: The UFO Siege (New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1977), p. 179-86. 3 Leonard H. Springfield, 'Retrievals of the Third Kind', MUFON UFO Journal, No. 128 (July 1978) The Mutual UFO Network, p. 8. 4 David R. Carlson, 'The Air Force and the UFO'. Aerospace Historian, Vol. 22, No. 4 (Winter 1974) p. 212. 5 Richard H. Hall, ed. The UFO Evidence (Washington, D.C.: National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1964), pp. 114-115. 6 Donald I. Keyhoe, Aliens From Space (Toronto: New American Library of Canada Limited, 1974), P. 78. 7 Ottawa Journal, July 20, 1967. 8 Telephone conversation with Captain Douglas Caie, August 25, 1978. 9 Ibid. 10 Canadian UFO Report, Vol 3, No. 5, p. 14. Fifty Miles Northeast of Gander, Newfoundland Fall 1956 The Gander region of central Newfoundland became the scene of a dramatic random encounter in the fall of 1956. On that occasion both the crew and passengers aboard a four-engine U.S. Navy Super Constellation transport sighted a disk-shaped craft as big as a football field. As the incident was viewed by an extraordinarily large number of military witnesses, it is now considered one of the most credible in UFO files. Over thirty pilots, navigators and flight engineers on their way home from special duty in Europe were aboard the transport. At the controls was veteran Navy pilot, Commander George Brent (name changed to protect the identity of the officer).' In a decade of service, he had crossed the Atlantic more than two hundred times, but this crossing was to be his most memorable. About fifty miles northeast of Gander Airport, Brent noticed a cluster of lights below his aircraft. Thinking they came from a village, he called Lieutenant Alfred C. Friedman, his navigator, to confirm be was still on course. "It can't be land", was Friedman's reply.2 Just then, all the lights except one dimmed and appeared to be spreading out. The one bright light was headed up toward the transport, seemingly on an imminent collision course. Within seconds, the object now clearly visible as a huge flying disk with a glow around the rim reached the plane's altitude. To the stunned men in the cockpit, it seemed to hit them head on. Then it tilted sharply and shot to one side.8 It bad swung around, was drawing abreast, pacing them 101 at about one hundred yards. For a moment he had a clear glimpse of the monster. Its sheer bulk was amazing; its diameter was three to four times the Constellation's wing span. At least thirty feet thick at the centre, it was like a gigantic dish inverted on top of another. Seen at this distance, the glow along the rim was blurred and uneven. Whether it was an electrical effect, a series of jet exhausts or light from openings in the rim, Brent could not tell. But the glow was bright enough to show the disk's curving surface, giving a hint of dully reflecting metal. Though Brent saw no signs of life, he had a feeling they were being observed. He held to a straight course, fighting an impulse to dive away. Gradually, the strange machine pulled ahead, tilting its massive shape upward. It quickly accelerated and was lost against the stars.4 Having recovered from shock, Brent contacted Gander Airport to ask whether any other traffic had been registered on the radar screens. “We had something on the scope near you,” he was told by an official, “but we couldn't get an answer.”5 After landing at Gander, all the crew members were thoroughly interrogated by U.S. Air Force Intelligence officers. From the start, it was plain they accepted the giant-disk sighting as fact... How close did the object come? What was its size... estimated rate of climb... any electrical interference noted... what happened to the other luminous rings?6 The crew members unanimously agreed that what they had seen was a craft measuring between 350 and 400 feet in width, which had a metallic appearance, and was definitely under intelligent control. Based on the estimated time of ascent—between five and eight seconds—it had accelerated at a speed of 2,300 mph, surpassing this speed on departure. When co-pilot Lieutenant Peter J. Mooney asked the interrogating officer what U.S. Air Force Intelligence had learned about UFOs, he was told: "Sorry, I can't answer any questions." 102 "Why not?" asked Mooney, "After a scare like that, we've got a right to know what's going on!" The officer shook his head. "I can't answer any questions," he repeated.7 As soon as the crew member reports were completed they were flashed to five top-ranking U.S. Defence commanders. The witnesses were then flown to their destination at Patuxent Naval Air Station in Maryland, where they were again questioned by officers of Naval Intelligence and Air Technical Intelligence. According to Major Keyhoe: Later, a government scientist (supposedly from the CIA) showed Brent UFO photos - one portraying a disk like the one over the Atlantic.8 Aside from revealing the high-level military interest in UFOs, the ensuing investigations also demonstrated that Intelligence personnel were under strict orders to keep all information confidential, even when it involved senior Navy officers who bad seen UFOs. This case again confirmed the existence of secret U.S. Air Force photos, presumably obtained during jet pursuits, and clearly demonstrates the U.S. military establishment's disregard of its Canadian counterpart, despite joint NORAD agreements. Even though the sightings had occurred in Canadian air space, Canadian defence authorities were evidently by-passed in the initial investigations. 1 Donald I. Keyhoe, Aliens From Space (Toronto: New American Library of Canada Limited, 1974), p. 78. 2 Donald I. Keyhoe, Flying Saucers: Top Secrets (New York: G.P. Putnam & Sons, 1960) p. 16. 3 Donald I. Keyhoe, Aliens, p. 79. 4 Donald I. Keyhoe, Flying Saucers, p. 18. 5 Ibid., p. 18. 6 Ibid., p. 18. 7 Ibid., p. 19. 8 Donald B. Keyhoe, Aliens, p. 79. Lake Superior, Seventy Miles Northeast of Keweenaw Point November 23, 1953 One of the most puzzling and disturbing UFO incidents ever to leak from U.S. Air Force secret files deals with the mysterious disappearance over Lake Superior of a U.S. Air Force F-89 jet interceptor, while in pursuit of a UFO. Reminiscent of some of the disappearances recorded in the so-called Bermuda Triangle, no trace was ever found of either the aircraft or the UFO. They both had literally vanished from the face of the earth. 103 Information of this baffling case was originally leaked by U.S. Air Force officials to none other than the former director of the National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP), who has over the years written several books condemning U.S. secrecy in UFO matters.' The case Was released to him as part of a script for a USAF radio program entitled 'Look to the Skies!' which was scheduled for broadcast on closed-circuit radio station, KLRH, at Lackland Air Force Base Hospital. The script opened with these startling words: "The question now is not 'If' but 'Why' and 'Where Do They Come From?'"2 Clearly we can intercept this as an indication that the U.S. Air Force acknowledges the reality of UFOs. Citing that the Lake Superior case had been officially authenticated, the radio script continued: It was the evening of November 23, 1953, and wintry darkness had settled over Michigan. At an isolated radar station, Air Defence operators were watching their scope in a routine guard against possible enemy attack.3 It went on to describe the sudden appearance on radar screens of an unknown object flying over the restricted area of Soo Locks, south of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. Following standard procedure, USAF personnel immediately scrambled an F-89C all-weather interceptor from Kinross Air Force Base to investigate the mysterious intruder. Piloting the plane was Lieutenant Felix Moncla, Jr., with Lieutenant R.R. Wilson as radar observer in the rear cockpit. Guided by ground radar, the jet raced westward across Lake Superior at a speed exceeding five hundred mph. Within minutes it had cut down the gap and would soon be picking up the object on its short-range radar screen. Just as the F-89 appeared to be closing in on the target, the ground radar men watched the two merge and disappear from the screen! In the words of one stunned radar officer: "It seems incredible, but the blip apparently just swallowed our F-89."4 Moments later, the radar controller hurriedly radioed search and rescue authorities in the hope that the two airmen would have had 104 time to bail out.5 As the search got underway, Lieutenant Robert C. White of the Air Force press desk confirmed the mysterious disappearance. His statement was followed by one from Truax Air Force Base to Associated Press: The plane was followed by radar until it merged with an object seventy miles off Keweenaw Point in upper Michigan. Kinross Air Force Base spokesmen said the missing plane was equipped with two rubber rafts and that each officer wore a life jacket.6 The Chicago Tribune ran the AP story in its early edition, under the heading “Jet, Two Aboard, Vanishes Over Lake Superior,” but deleted it from its later editions. In the following days, scores of American and Canadian planes and boats criss-crossed the lake over hundreds of square miles in search of the missing craft. No trace was ever found of the two airmen, the jet, or the UFO. - Soon after, the U.S. Air Force issued a statement that the so-called UFO had been identified by the F-89 pilot as an off-course Canadian airliner, and that the jet had subsequently crashed into the lake after the pilot had been stricken with vertigo (disorientation). This explanation quickly came under fire from Canadian airline officials who denied having any of their aircraft in the area at the time.7 Expert pilots also dismissed the explanation stating that: “Moncla could have switched on the automatic pilot until the vertigo passed; also Wilson could have taken over temporarily.”8 It soon became apparent that attempts were being made to cover up the UFO connection when, by some curious bureaucratic bungling, U.S. Air Force officials were caught in the act of divulging highly contradictory information: As customary, the Air Force sent two officers to the families of the lost airmen to give them official messages of sympathy. . . . Explaining the accident, the Air Force representative told Moncla’s widow that the pilot had flown too low while identifying the supposed Canadian airliner and had crashed in the lake.9 105 Due to a mix-up at headquarters a second USAF officer was sent out to offer condolences to Mrs. Moncla. When she asked him if her husband’s body could be recovered, he told her that there was no chance as “the jet had exploded at a high altitude, destroying the plane and its occupants!”10 After more than a year of obstinately adhering to the Canadian airliner story, USAF suddenly altered its stance. Major William I. Coleman, a Headquarters spokesman, revealed that the F-89 had in fact intercepted an RCAF C-47. This new explanation once again fell apart when, in response to inquiries from NICAP officials, the RCAF Chief of Air Staff spokesman disclosed that: A check of Royal Canadian Air Force records has revealed no report of an incident involving an RCAF aircraft in the Lake Superior area on the above date.11 Later, NICAP received an even more emphatic denial from the RCAF, confirming that the C-47 had flown exclusively over Canadian territory. Furthermore, its flight plan would have been known to U.S. radar station operators, who would have had no difficulty in identifying the Canadian plane. As a final blow to the USAF fairy tale, the C.47 was reportedly travelling eastward from Winnipeg to Sudbury, whereas the UFO had flown in the opposite direction - westward.12 To this day no trace of the jet interceptor has been found. 1 Donald I. Keyhoe, Flying Saucers: Top Secret (New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1964), p. 221. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid., p. 222. 5 Donald I. Keyhoe, Aliens From Space (Toronto: New American Library of Canada Limited, 1974), P. 166. 6 Donald I. Keyhoe, Flying Saucers, p. 222. 7 Donald I. Keyhoe, Aliens, p. 167. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid. 10 Ibid. 11 Richard H. Hall, ed. The UFO Evidence (Washington, D.C.: National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1964), p. 115. 12 Ibid. Alberta - Montana Border Early 1952 In 1971, nuclear physicist and ufologist Stanton Friedman revealed details of yet another mysterious disappearance of a military jet while in pursuit of a UFO. The incident was initially described to him by a Mr. Y., a former United States Air Force radar specialist, and one of the principal witnesses. Mr. Y.’s credentials were indeed impressive; after almost thirty years in radar operation and interpretation, he had served all over the world, training both 106 military and commercial air personnel in the operation of various radar systems. At the time of the sighting in early 1952, he was a radar operator at one of the five closely linked U.S. Air Defence Command installations in Grand Falls, Montana region, south of the Alberta border. The sighting was described by Mr. Friedman in these words: Mr. Y’s crew had been notified by Canadian radar installations in the Calgary area that three UFOs were heading south towards the United States at not too rapid a pace. The radar picked up the UFOs and a United States Air Force jet interceptor was scrambled from a base in eastern Washington. Radio and radar contact were maintained with the plane’s pilot as he was vectored toward the UFOs, which were also under radar observation. The pilot, at sixteen thousand feet radioed that be saw two of the UFOs! Shortly later, he and his plane just disappeared! No wreckage was ever found, though a search and rescue plane was immediately dispatched and the radar people knew exactly where the plane had been at the time it disappeared!1 Following this incident, interceptor fighter plane pilots were ordered to keep a safe distance of at least ten miles from any UFOs they pursued. They were also instructed to obtain as much film footage as possible of the incident.2 Friedman wondered why these films remained classified material. It is also interesting that Mr. Y. was instructed to bypass the official U.S. Air Force committee studying UFOs, known as Project Blue Book, when reporting sightings. According to Friedman: Because [Mr. Y.} was the only one of many operators in the five groups to have Top Secret security clearance, it was his responsibility to prepare the group 'overlays' from pictures taken of the scopes at each installation and submit this classified data to Air Defence Command (ADC) - not Project Blue Book... No information was ever sent back to him, but on occasion his reports were acknowledged or complimented.3 Friedman’s disclosure supports the contention long held by 107 critics that Project Blue Book was simply a USAF public relations front set up to 'debunk' and discredit any UFO sightings. It would appear that the 'meat and potatoes' sightings were secretly investigated by ADC, while the easily explained, non-controversial cases were left to Project Blue Book and, in effect, the public. 1 Canadian UFO Report, Vol. 2, No. 3, p. L 2 Ibid., p. 13. 3 Ibid., p. 13. Fort Macleod, Alberta August 23, 1956 Although pilots manage to photograph UFOs from time to time, it is rare that such incidents reach public attention. One incident that did occurred on August 23, 1956, when RCAF Squadron Leader Robert J. Childerhose and Flight Lieutenant Ralph Innes were attempting to set a cross Canada speed record with their F-86 Sabre jet.1 Over Fort Macleod in Alberta, at an altitude of 36,000 feet, they spotted a bright luminous sphere below, travelling parallel to their own aircraft. Before it could disappear, Childerhose succeeded in photographing the intensely brilliant oval-shaped object, which emitted a plasma-like glow from its underside. The fact that the airmen were successful in establishing a speed record of five hours which remained unchallenged for over ten years almost came as an anti-climax after their unusual mid-air encounter. Later, as a civilian, Childerhose became an avid UFO investigator and he contributed numerous articles on the subject to various publications. 1 Toronto Telegram, January 2, 1965. Regina, Saskatchewan August 16, 1968 Flying over Regina, Saskatchewan on August 16, 1968, the eight-man crew of a Canadian Forces Hercules C-130E observed a peculiar cigar-shaped craft of unidentified origin, as it crossed their flight path at 2:51 AM during a routine flight from Namao Air Force Base, north of Edmonton, to Rivers Air Force Base in southwestern Manitoba. The incident was 108 described in an unclassified report to Canadian Forces Headquarters in Ottawa: Observed by seven man crew and by Captain through twelve-power field glasses. Appeared as elongated sphere or dirigible-shaped with five or six rectangular-shaped dark patches on side. No gondola or tail. Aluminum or similar surfaces reflected the sun. No contrail from UFO, although Air Canada Flight 851 contrail observed continuously from 2 AM to 3 AM. UFO was visible to naked eye of crew for about one and a half minutes, then it shrank rapidly in size and disappeared to the southwest very, very rapidly. It reappeared faintly twice in the next five minutes to four crew members, probably due to reflected light.1 The captain advised the Winnipeg RCAF Centre of the sighting and also requested that U.S. Control in Montana be notified. It is not known whether the object registered on the Hercules radar screens or on ground-level radar. But this case is noteworthy because it involves eight reliable specialists, who were unanimous in their account of what they had viewed. Also, the reported Zeppelin-like shape, the unusual patches along the fuselage, as well as the high-speed velocity, conclusively ruled out the possibility of a misidentified conventional craft. 1 Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences Section, National Research Council, Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, N68-044, (Ottawa). Southern Ontario April 21, 1952 Shortly after noon on April 21, 1952, hundreds of people in southern Ontario reported spotting a "dark, cylindrical object", travelling at high speed and high altitude, emitting a distinctive vapour trail.1 The craft was first sighted over Toronto, but within minutes, London Airport officials saw it flying overhead. Local military officials immediately set out to investigate. According to London Free Press: ...Fighter aircraft from No. 428 Squadron attempted 109 to intercept the plane, but it quickly left them behind. The Mustang fighter pilots pushed their craft to speeds of 450 miles an hour in the futile chase.’ The incident occurred exactly a week after a disk-shaped UFO had been observed over North Bay Air Force Base. The sighting had triggered statements from public officials confirming the government’s recognition of the UFO enigma.2 In this instance, however, RCAF Headquarters in Ottawa stated that the object was a British Canberra bomber, on a high-speed flight from Montreal to Omaha, Nebraska. The aircraft, one of the fastest at that time, reportedly landed at Offut Air Force Base in Omaha at 1:05 PM Eastern Standard Time.8 Most military personnel who had witnessed the sighting disagreed with the official RCAF statement. Wing Commander A.D. Haylett, Officer Commanding No. 420 City of London Rescue Squadron, was of the opinion that the object was travelling about two thousand miles per hour! He stated: "I’m pretty firm in the opinion that it couldn’t have been an aircraft. Not at that speed. I’ve never been a believer in flying saucers but I’m pretty sure now there’s something going on around this planet that we should be paying lots of attention to."4 Another RCAF officer, who requested anonymity, doubted that the Canberra, flying at top speed with a strong tail wind, could even approach a speed of a thousand miles per hour. The RCAF failed to explain why the order was given to scramble jet fighters and to intercept the unidentified craft. Presumably, the instructions came as a result of fruitless efforts by military officials to establish contact with the UFO. Normally civilian air traffic would respond to identification requests from the military. Furthermore, the reported time of sighting over Toronto would not have corresponded with the passage of the Canberra over the city. The craft was spotted over Toronto shortly after noon, while the Canberra reportedly arrived at Omaha less than one hour later. To accept the RCAF explanation, the Canberra would have had to cover the thousand-mile distance between the two cities in less than 110 an hour (at a speed exceeding a thousand miles per hour). But the Canberra’s maximum cruising speed is six hundred miles per hour. The British bomber would therefore have bad to be over Toronto between 11:00 and 11:30 AM, or fortyfive to sixty minutes before the passage of the unidentified craft. More evidence supporting the UFO theory came from other people who had spotted UFOs over Toronto on that same day. The London Free Press reported: One resident reported seeing about fifty lights in V-formation moving rapidly from southeast to Northwest. He said the lights were dim orange and appeared to be at great height. He heard no sound. The David Dunlap Observatory on Toronto’s outskirts said it had no record of the lights. They might have been meteors, observatory officials said, since they are prevalent at this time of year.5 1 London Free Press, April 21, 1952. 2 Ibid. 3 Ottawa Citizen, April 16, 1952. 4 London Free Press. April 21 1 952 5 Ibid. Goose Bay Air Force Base, Labrador December 15, 1952 and September 4, 1968 Goose Bay Air Force Base in Central Newfoundland has been a veritable 'hot spot' of UFO activity. Over the years, dozens of incidents were witnessed by a number of Canadian and U.S. military pilots. The two incidents described here - one a UFO pursuit - clearly demonstrate the irregular and highly advanced maneuvers that have become characteristic of most sightings. The first incident dates back to December 15, 1952, when the crews of a USAF T-33 jet trainer anti an F-94B interceptor spotted a brilliant red and white object, seemingly motionless in the sky, at an altitude of fifteen thousand feet. After fixing the target on their radar screens the pilots of both aircraft set out in pursuit of the object, straining their own craft to maximum speeds of 375 knots (431 mph).1 During the half-hour chase, the elusive UFO seemed to be playing a game of cat and mouse, literally leading the poor jets around in circles. As Major Donald Keyhoe reported: 111 The radar in the fighter got a lock on the target that, although at an azimuth reading coinciding with that of. ground radar crews, was regarded as too brief to be acceptable by Air Force Intelligence, and so was dismissed as a mechanical malfunction - as far as the F-94B fighter’s radarscope was concerned.2 Tiring of the joyride, the UFO suddenly straightened out and shot away at breathtaking speed. Faced with this potentially newsworthy occurrence, U.S. Air Force officials dismissed the incident, stating that the mysterious object was none other than the old favourite standby - the planet Venus. Even though the fighter’s radar readings corresponded with those of ground radar, military authorities had the audacity to explain the incident as a radar malfunction which had caused both screens to scan the planet Venus. One wonders what the two pilots must have thought when they heard that a scarlet and white 'planet' had led them in spaghetti-like pursuit for over thirty minutes before streaking away into the wild blue yonder! Almost sixteen years later, on September 4, 1968, two U.S. Air Force pilots, flying in the vicinity of Goose Bay AFB, spotted an unidentified spherical craft headed in a southerly direction. During the five-minute sighting, it performed maneuvers that left the two airmen completely astounded. Although lacking in detail, a report from Goose Bay. Air Force Base to Canadian Forces Headquarters describes some of these maneuvers: Approximately round, silver metallic in colour, no sound and no vapour trail. Appeared to be one-half the size of a jet in flight between thirty-three and forty-one thousand feet. Speed was approximately the same as a jet. Object crossed high-flying jet track behind jet (ours). Stopped. Did two 3600 turns. Continued for one to two minutes and stopped again. Object disappeared from view at approximately 30° above the horizon and was one-half size in relation to first observation. All local facilities checked. Results negative.3 112 This report is typical of most declassified military documents, and the data is, to say the least, fragmentary. It does not specify what type of aircraft the two servicemen had been flying, or whether the UFO bad registered on their radar. Did its presence affect the operation of the on board instruments? Were attempts made to film or photograph the object and if so what were the results? These are just a few of the questions that to date have remained unanswered under the pretext of preserving our national security. 1 Richard H. Hall, ed., The UFO Evidence (Washington, D.C.: National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1964), p. 18. 2 Donald I. Keyhoe, The Flying Saucer Conspiracy (New York: Henry 1-kit & Company. 1955), p. 277. 3 Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences Section, National Research Council, Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, N68-N17, (Ottawa), Ontario. 113 Chapter 8 UFOs and Energy Generating Sites In some quarters, one of the most disturbing aspects of the UFO phenomenon is the concentration of sightings in the immediate vicinity of energy-generating installations. This apparent UFO interest in power production centers has been noted in virtually every corner of the world. Hundreds of witnesses from all walks of life claim to have observed an assortment of unconventional aerial craft over hydro, nuclear and thermal (fossil fuel) energy-generating facilities. Frequently, these sightings have coincided with inexplicable power disruptions which many observers have attributed to the presence of these enigmatic craft. (See Chapter 9, “E.M. Effect and Power Blackouts”.) Curiously, virtually every known sighting has occurred at night, or in the early morning hours. This fact alone strongly suggests that UFOs (whether manned or not) prefer to conduct their presumed monitoring activities when the risk of detection and possible retaliation are least likely. What then might be the possible motives behind these seemingly clandestine activities? Without going into sensationalist speculation, some of the more plausible reasons might include assessing our energy-producing activities, assessing the environmental impact of energy-production and possibly tapping our electrical energy. Assessment of Energy Production Activities. Although the appearance of UFOs date back to pre-biblical times, the so-called modern era of sightings was coincident with the reconstruction period immediately following World War II. This turning point in history marked our fateful entry into 114 the nuclear age. To many, this single leap by human kind into self-destructive capability seemed to have triggered the widespread appearance by these phantom craft. The concentration of sightings along high technology corridors has solidified the belief that the faceless entities behind the UFOs may be engaged in surveying our progress in harnessing energy sources and, in particular, nuclear energy. In view of the fact that UFO sightings have centred around nuclear power production and missile installations, we can assume that 'they' have recognised the dual application of this energy. Perhaps sensing the delicate balance between peaceful and military uses, their interest may lie in periodically surveying strategic sites to detect any new developments that might upset the existing equilibrium. (India’s recent transformation of nuclear applications is a case in point.) If, in fact (and admittedly this is highly-speculative), 'they' envisage us to have a common destiny, then their concern about our potentially apocalyptic Doomsday machines is well-founded. Assessment of Environmental Impact. Contrary to what some hydroelectric authorities would have us believe, electricity production is often responsible for widespread environmental damage. Consider Hydro-Quebec’s recent attempt to improve its image with the mass media slogan, "Nous sommes propre, propre, propre" ("We are clean, clean, clean"). While electricity itself may be termed clean, non-polluting energy, its generation inevitably creates harmful ecological side effects. There seems to be mounting evidence that UFOs are interested in assessing the extent of this damage to the environment. In several UFO appearances over these facilities, unknown 'objects' have reportedly been released by the craft into nearby lakes and forests. The prevalent theory is that these 'objects' may be some form of probe or remote sensor designed to sample and monitor the quality of air, water, soil and vegetation in the immediate vicinity of nuclear generating plants. It would seem that the visitors recognised the potentially catastrophic 'China Syndrome'. This environmental concern, if that’s what it is, may reflect our visitors’ interest in evaluating trends in environmental damage to the earth, for the purpose of projecting potential hazards to the rest of the solar system and galaxy. 115 Tapping Man-made Electrical Energy. UFOs have frequently been spotted hovering over or flying along high voltage transmission lines. Some witnesses have reported hearing a distinctive bum, resembling a generator, coming from these UFOs. This has led to speculation that the mysterious craft may actually be involved in draining some of our energy reserves. One such case which vividly illustrates this possibility occurred outside Ottawa, near Hammond, Ontario, in April 1969. Three witnesses were driving along a rural road when they were suddenly confronted with a pinkish saucer-shaped craft, estimated to be thirty feet in diameter. It was hovering above the high tension wires along the road. In the words of one of the startled witnesses: "It then followed along the wires, rising and falling with them, seeming to draw power from them." If, by some sophisticated induction procedure, UFOs do possess the technology to siphon off some of our 'electric gold', it stands to reason that hydroelectric utilities would have records of these sudden power losses. Whether they do or not remains a secret. If, and J do stress if, such unexplained losses have been registered, might this not partially account for the recent escalation in the cost of electricity to the consumer? On the other hand, the motives may be purely altruistic and the reverse may be taking place. Realising the impending energy crunch, they may be supplying power to our dwindling reserves via the transmission lines. This possible scenario might explain some of the power failures seemingly caused by sudden inexplicable power surges. (See Chapter 9, 'E.M. Effect and Power Blackouts.') 1 Ottawa Citizen, April 24, 1969. Pickering Nuclear Energy Generating Plant, Pickering, Ontario December 31, 1974/February 4, 1975 Ontario Hydro operates a total of seventy-eight energy generating stations, three of them nuclear fuelled. Ontario Hydro is the principal power utility in the province. The Pickering Nuclear Generating Plant, east of Toronto, is the second-largest electrical energy producing installation in the province and 116 one of the world’s largest nuclear generating facilities. In recent years, Pickering has become the focal point of persistent UFO attention. More than, any other known incidents, the Pickering sightings have clearly demonstrated UFO preoccupation with scanning and surveying the operations of nuclear generating sites. The most intensive period of this type of activity—some call it spying—stretched over a four-week-period beginning on New Year’s Eve 1975. Three security guards stationed inside the plant were preparing to greet the New Year when their attention was suddenly diverted to a bizarre sight. Over Lake Ontario, just south of the plant, they saw a cluster of brilliant red spheres. In a front-page account in Ontario Hydro’s publication, 'Hydroscope', Dave Percy, one of the guards, stated: One of the things moved in from the lake and hovered over Number 3 and 4 reactor buildings. It was bright red and seemed to pulsate. Comparing it with the size of the reactor buildings, I would say it was about thirty feet across.1 At this point, the security men alerted fire fighter Mike Dorian who noted that the object "hovered over the station for six or seven minutes, then an explosion-like flash occurred and the object took off." Oddly enough, at the time of the sighting, Reactor Number 3 was not in operation. It had been shut down five months earlier, following the discovery of heavy water leaks in 19 of the reactor’s 390 pressure tubes.2 While it would be highly speculative to suggest that the UFOs were specifically monitoring the malfunctions, the fact that the disk-like craft hovered directly over Reactor 3 tends to reinforce that possibility. A month after the New Year’s Eve incident, a half dozen similar craft again made an appearance over Pickering. The vessels, described as “balls of light” varying in colour from bright red to almost white, remained in the area for over two hours. According to security man Mike McKenna, stationed at the plant’s east gate on Brock Road, the objects ap- 117 peared to be a number of miles away and looked to be about the size of a softball. "But", he explains, "when you don’t know how far away something is, you can’t tell how big it is and vice versa."3 Two of the luminous craft then moved in from the lake and hovered over the service centre of the plant. After remaining motionless for about half an hour, the craft abruptly departed, shooting straight up into the sky at rocket-like speeds. Understandably, the three security men were somewhat reluctant to discuss the sightings, possibly for fear of public ridicule or even managerial sanctions. In the words of Dave Percy: "We took an awful lot of ribbing. We thought they were going to carry us off to [the hospital in] Whitby."4 Four nights later, several Ajax and Pickering area residents were treated to a dazzling acrobatic display by a dozen multicoloured UFOs once again maneuvering near the nuclear plant. The witnesses included a Durham regional police constable, three Pickering ambulance drivers, and Andy Parks, music director of radio station CHOO in Ajax. They were "damn sure" the plant was besieged by UFOs for nearly eight hours! In describing the movements of the silent red, green, yellow and pink craft, Andy Parks, who holds a private pilot’s license stated that they were "floating around, zipping this way and that". He maintained that "no planes move or pulsate like that!"5 At the same time he also swore that Oshawa Flight Control tower officials had confirmed the presence of the 'unidentified' objects. But on the following day, the same airport officials denied ever having seen any. 1 Ontario Hydro, Hydroscope, Vol. 12, No. 6 (February 14, 1975) Toronto: p. 1. 2 Hydroscope, Vol. 11, No. 42 (December 6, 1974) p. 1. 3 Hydroscope, (February 14, 1975) p. 1. op. cit~ 4 Ibid. 5 Toronto Sun, February 8, 1975. Douglas Point Nuclear Generating Station, Douglas Point, Ontario September 11-17, 1967 Within weeks of going into operation, Canada’s first full-scale nuclear power station became the scene of a week-long rash of UFO sightings. Located between Port Elgin and Kincardine, Ontario, on the eastern shores of Lake Huron, the 118 200,000 kilowatt Douglas Point Generation Station began producing electricity in August, 1967.1 Judging by numerous reports from credible witnesses, we are left with the impression that the mysterious disk-shaped craft must have been involved in monitoring not only the operation of the plant but also the water quality of Lake Huron in the immediate vicinity of Douglas Point. The Toronto Telegram reported: Port Elgin, Ontario—This village has a fully-fledged flying saucer mystery on its hands but nobody wants to talk about it. At least seventeen people have seen a UFO over Lake Huron in the past week here in Bruce County, about 180 miles Northwest of Toronto. One sighting rated an entry in the official log of the Douglas Point nuclear generating station of Ontario Hydro. Samuel Horton, superintendent of the Hydro station about ten miles south of Port Elgin, said between six and thirteen people at the plant sighted a saucer-shaped object last Monday, Sept. 11, 1967. The log entry reads: “On Monday, September 11, at 15:30 hours, (3:30 PM), a UFO was observed passing over the station in an easterly direction.” Witnesses said they thought the object was part of an orbiting spacecraft until it seemed to hover over the lake about one mile and a half out and then dropped something into the water. One plant employee said he and others saw a similar craft return two nights later and for the next five nights search for the dropped object. One witness said he saw the craft hover near the station. Two others said they saw sparks coming from it over the lake. Selfridge Air Force Base [across the lake] did not investigate and made no radar contacts.2 A similar report in 'Hydroscope' went on to say that plant employees were reluctant to openly discuss the sighting, because as one said, "We don’t want people to think we’re nuts!"2 While reports of UFOs ejecting small objects are not uncommon, this case is unique in that the craft returned in an apparent effort to retrieve the object. This suspected attempt may indicate that the object was some form of device designed to gauge the emissions from the nuclear plant. Nuclear generating plants are notorious for producing two types of emission by-products which, when uncontrolled, can have a devastating environmental impact. One such by-product is solid radioactive waste in the form of lethal plutonium which requires elaborate storage facilities. According to Ontario Hydro: Solid wastes are buried underground in concrete tile holes or stored in steel-reinforced concrete trenches at special sites.4 Environmentalists have long argued that these special containers are potentially vulnerable to long-term deterioration and geological shifts. The resulting leakage of these lethal wastes would ultimately filter down into lakes and rivers, setting oil an ecological chain reaction of catastrophic proportions. The other by-product, in the form of heated water, is directly released into lakes or rivers bordering nuclear generating facilities. All nuclear generating stations require vast amounts of water for cooling purposes. In the cooling process, the water temperature is raised by about 20° Fahrenheit, before being released back to its original source.5 The long-range effect of this treated water on a wide spectrum of aquatic life is now the focus of worldwide concern. Clearly, this theory of possible UFO environmental concern is well-founded. It is equally possible, of course, that this presumed gesture of 'cosmic humanism' may be far less noble. The 'drop-off' exercise may simply have been a method of collecting water for personal use. A less appetising possibility is that the discarded container may have held garbage, or yet, biological wastes. After all, the American astronauts who landed on the moon left behind more than just flags and instruments. 1 Ontario Hydro, Bruce Nuclear Power Development, PRD 6409/20M/ 3, 76, p. 1. 2 Toronto Telegram, September 18, 1967. 3 Ontario Hydro, Hydroscope, Vol. 4, No. 3 (September 29, 1967) p. 4 Ontario Hydro. Hydro and the Environment, PRD A6404-1OM, p.12. 5 Ibid. 120 Chalk River - Deep River, Ontario February 8, 1967 The Chalk River region in northeastern Ontario, 160 miles west of Ottawa, is one of Canada’s major energy producing and experimental centers. Within a twenty-mile radius are the Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD) station, the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, and Des Joachims Hydro Generating System, Ontario’s fourth largest hydro-electric station.1 Over the years, area residents have periodically reported the presence of unidentified craft in the vicinity of these installations. The most intensive period of UFO activity occurred on February 8, 1 968, when fourteen witnesses, including eight Ontario Provincial Police constables, were treated to an unforgettable display of aerial manifestations.2 On that evening the presence of a circular multicoloured craft disrupted one family’s dinner and apparently interfered with their television reception.3 This particular sighting took place over the W.J. McCarthy farm, three miles south of Deep River, across from the Des Joachims Hydro Generating Station. The Ottawa Citizen reported: Miss Mary McCarthy, sixty-five, a retired CPR wire operator, said her sixteen-year-old nephew, Lee Elliott, one of the six children of Mrs. Dan Elliott, who also lives at the farm, had first sighted the object from the supper table.4 There, on a hill, about a quarter of a mile away from the farm was a circular craft with a large core of dazzling pulsating yellow lights in its centre. From this core, red lights appeared to be pulsating outward toward the rim of the craft, resembling the pulsations of an intricate multicoloured neon sign. According to Miss McCarthy: When the object was spotted at 6:43 PM, the television set went on the blink. When the object disappeared about forty minutes later, the television reception was restored. 121 I was more curious than scared, if the snowmobile was working, I would have gone to investigate.5 For two of Mrs. Elliott’s children, Francis, eight, and Jamie, three, the ordeal was a frightening and tearful experience, but the older sisters, Margaret, thirteen, and Cathy, twelve, began drawing sketches of the object, reproduced here. Ironically, the children were arguing about flying saucers just as sixteen-year-old Lee spotted the UFO outside: "I had just said I did not believe this stuff about the police seeing them."6 This reference was made to the broadcast reports that eight OPP officers had viewed UFOs earlier that same morning near Killaloe Station and Eganville, both located about sixty miles south of Chalk River. One of the objects was described in the OPP reports: ... very bright, then dimmed to a red tinge in the low sky. Hovered over barn for five minutes, then rose in height. Moving very fast, then stopped. Glowed brightly, then dimmed with red tinge again. Viewed for forty-five minutes. No pickup on radar, nor sighting by Station Foymount personnel.7 In an attempt to defuse the controversy generated by the clay-long sightings, spokesmen at the Petawawa Canadian Forces Base, seventeen miles east of Chalk River, were quick to dismiss the sightings as misidentified "flares from a plane."8 One wonders why they didn’t dare question the testimonies of the eight OPP officers. The local press reported: "The Canadian Forces Base here at Petawawa has solved the mystery of the unidentified flying object seen by residents Thursday night in the Pembroke area. Captain Ken Parks, an information officer at the base, said planes were shooting flares in the area at, the same time as residents spotted the object. A number of persons reported seeing a bright blinding light ringed with small red lights."9 122 When was the last time you saw a sixteen-foot-wide circular flare with a built-in multicoloured light show? 1 Ontario Hydro, Hydroscope, Vol. 6, No. 4 (February 7, 1969). 2 Ontario Hydro, Power From the Ottawa, PRD A9394 19.5M. 3 Ottawa Citizen, February 9, 1968. 4 Ibid. 5 Ibid. 6 Ottawa Journal, February, 1968. 7 Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences Section, National Research Council, Non-Meteoritic Sightings, File N68-012, (Ottawa). 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid. Duncan, British Columbia March 7, 1969 A UFO sighting on Canada’s west coast in 1969 again shows UFO interest in energy generating facilities, but also demonstrates another rarely reported phenomenon occasionally associated with UFOs - the psychic or paranormal dimensions. On the evening of March 7, a strange case of apparent UFO 'mind-reading' took place in the town of Duncan, on the east coast of Vancouver Island. At about 8:30 PM, Mrs. William Marshall, her daughter and her daughter’s friend— the latter both University of Victoria students—were driving to a store near the Marshall home, when they spotted a bright red light crossing the sky. At first they thought it might be a NASA space capsule carrying astronauts, but when the craft stopped and hovered momentarily before moving in the opposite direction, they became intrigued. When they returned home, Mrs. Marshall’s husband and her mother joined in watching the mysterious vessel. According to Mrs. Marshall, the object: ... appeared to be looking for something, speeding up and then slowing down, almost to a standstill. It passed over Mount Prevost, and turned east until it was over the large B.C. Hydro generating station [Georgia Thermal Generating Plant] about four or five miles north of Duncan. By seeing the lights, we were able to ascertain that the UFO hovered over the plant. It hovered over the generating station for about fifteen minutes, and then returned over Mount Prevost again in a westerly direction for a time. It again turned and came straight towards our house, and as it passed over us we could see quite plainly its shape as it was flying at a much lower altitude than previously, and its lights threw their gleams onto the object. It was round in shape, and we could plainly see it rotating. It had four lights, one green, one red, one yellow and the other white. After passing slowly over our house, it hovered around for a few more minutes, then speeded up and headed rapidly in an 123 eastern direction towards where I believe Vancouver is situated from here. I timed bow long the UFO was in this area - forty minutes.1 It seems highly unlikely that the passage of the UFO over the Marshall residence was purely coincidental. There are hundreds of homes within a three- to four-mile radius of the Georgia Generating Plant, any one of which could have been the target of the UFO fly-by. The fact that the craft descended directly toward the location of the witnesses and then "hovered around for a few more minutes" suggests an act of surveillance. It would seem that the UFO, presumably manned, had detected that its presence was being observed by members of the Marshall household. The following day, one of Mr. Marshall’s fellow workers, Ernie Anderson of Duncan, also reported having sighted the craft the previous evening. As further confirmation, a local radio station carried an account of several sightings of a similar craft on that same night over Vancouver. 1 Canadian UFO Report, Vol. 1, No. 3 (May-June 1969) p. 4. 124 Chapter 9 The E. M. Effect and Power Blackouts The next time your car stalls, your television set goes haywire or the city you live in is suddenly plunged into darkness, look up at the sky. You may spot a UFO! Hundreds of incidents have been reported all over the world in which UFOs have been suspected of being instrumental in triggering electrical disruptions. This is commonly known as the electromagnetic, or the E.M. effect and internal combustion engines, household appliances, lighting systems, radios, television sets and even power networks have at one time or another all apparently succumbed to this mysterious phenomenon. Recent studies by physicists point to some form of high frequency electromagnetic radiation (microwave radiation) as a likely explanation for the EM. effect.' What remains unexplained is whether these disruptions are deliberate or accidental. One prevalent theory is that although the electromagnetic fields emitted by UFOs appear to inadvertently play havoc with the normal flow of electrical currents, they are not generally viewed as deliberate acts of sabotage, hostility or even mischief. Another possibility, previously explored here is that the suspected siphoning off or distribution of electricity by UFOs may, as a side effect, produce power failures. We cannot, however, rule out the disturbing possibility that, in cases involving large-scale power blackouts, some UFOs may be deliberately testing the strength and obvious vulnerability of our power transmission systems. 125 UFOs are apparently notorious for causing three types of disruptions - internal combustion engine failure - household appliance outages and large-scale power blackouts. Internal Combustion Engine Failures The E.M. effect has caused failures in all types of electrically sparked engines, with the exception of diesel engines. This, fact supports the theory that the disruptions are electrical or electromagnetic in nature.2 Automobiles, trucks, buses, tractors, snowmobiles, lawn mowers and even aircraft have at one time or another been silenced by a passing UFO. The most frequently reported E.M. effects usually involve motorists driving along relatively remote rural roads. Their cars may suddenly lose power or their engines may seize completely. As they look up there is a strange-looking craft, usually disk-shaped, hovering at low altitude. This is followed by strong static on car radios. At night, the headlights may dim or extinguish completely. in every known case, the electrical systems resumed normal operation following the departure of the craft. Household Appliance Outages The E.M. effect disrupts household appliances in different ways. Television sets are the hardest hit with reported interferences ranging from distorted and blurred images to dimming and/or loss of audio.3 Evidently, the problem is not one of total power loss, since in all cases the sets were partially operative. In rarer instances, electric clocks, toasters, washers and houselights went 'on the blink' whenever a UFO passed overhead. To a lesser extent, plug-in and battery-operated radios have also been temporarily silenced by the EM. effect. While most of them failed completely, some reportedly emitted static, pulsations and 'shrieking', as well as peculiar Morse Code type beeps, dots and dashes. This has prompted Large-scale Power Blackouts The reported concentration of UFOs over electrical generating and transmission installations has often resulted in unexplained power failures. Is there a direct relationship? The most widely accepted explanation is that the magnetic fields accompanying UFOs produce in 126 -creased power flows that overload transmission lines, trip circuit breakers and set up a chain reaction of uncontrolled power breakdowns.4 Two of the most prominent blackouts, during which UFO tampering has been suspected, were the massive 'Northeast Blackout' in November 1965 and a hushed-up power disruption on Ottawa's Parliament Hill in May 1969. 1 James M. McCampbell, 'Ufology: New insights from Science and Common Sense' (Belmont. Ca.: Jaymac Company. 1973). p. 52. 2 Ibid., p. 51. 3 Ibid.. p. 55. 4 Ibid., p. 57. The Great Northeast Blackout November 9, 1965 On November 9, 1965, the northeastern region of the United States and Canada was abruptly plunged into blackness. The worst blackout on record came to be known as the 'Big Blackout'. The facts are well known. At 5:16 PM, at the height of the evening rush hour, electrical power to one-sixth of the continent's population was suddenly cut off, trapping millions of people on expressways, in elevators and in office buildings. Altogether, thirty million people in eight U.S. states and in the province of Ontario were affected by the disruption.' In Ontario the blackout was confined to the eastern portion of the province - from Timmins in the north, across to Cornwall in the east and south toward Sarnia. Windsor, Ottawa and Sudbury were the only eastern centers to escape the blackout.2 Yet within three hours power was restored to most parts of the province. Mass media coverage naturally focused on the human aspect of the blackout and to a lesser extent, on the delay in determining the cause of the breakdown. There was, however, an even more dramatic story. UFOs had been reported in the vicinity of strategic hydro installations at the time of the blackout. The impressive number of credible sightings led many researchers to consider the possible role these craft may have played in the power collapse. The researchers included the late Dr. James E. MacDonald,3 a physicist at the University of Arizona; former NICAP director Major Donald E. 127 Keyhoe; and astronomer Dr. J. Allen Hynek, the current director of the Center for UFO Studies. Immediately following the breakdown, the U.S. Federal Power Commission and the Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Commission launched a full-scale investigation into the cause. At first, it was reported that the trouble originated with a mechanical breakdown in a high voltage line between Buffalo and Niagara Falls. According to the Globe and Mail: The report turned out to be false. Then a substation near Syracuse was reported to be the cause of the failure, but repairmen found it in perfect condition.4 Finally, six days after the blackout, Ontario Hydro engineers traced the trouble to the mammoth Sir Adam Beck No. 2 Generating Station at Queenston, Ontario, north of Niagara Falls. It seems that just prior to the blackout, power was flowing from Sir Adam Beck No. 2 into Ontario, then across the border via Cornwall into New York State. In graphic terms, power was flowing clockwise in a loop around Lake Ontario. At 5: 16 PM, a backup relay on one of the six lines linking Sir Adam Beck to the rest of the province mysteriously tripped the line's circuit breaker, which acts much like a household fuse. In quick succession the cut-off power jumped to the other five lines, causing an overload that tripped the circuit breakers on these lines as well. A veritable tidal wave of electricity - million kilowatts - flowed in the opposite direction into New York State.5 Inexplicably, the relays on the New York lines failed to isolate and contain the overload. Within seconds, the entire grid of thirty-one interconnected power utilities of CANUSE (Canada-United States Eastern grid) had broken down. Although experts could pinpoint the origin of the blackout, they were baffled by the cause of the relay malfunction and the failure of the protective systems to contain the overload, In the words of Ontario Hydro's system supervising engineer, Jim Harris: "It's incredible! I would have said this was impossible if I hadn't seen the evidence."6 The mystery deepened when it was discovered that the relay had not in 128 fact, malfunctioned, but had merely reacted to a sudden surge of power from an unknown source. As stated in the final report of the Us. Federal Power Commission: "The precise cause of the backup relay energisation is now known."7 Where did the unexplained surge of power come from? To this day that question has remained unanswered. Or has it? Although inconclusive, one answer might lie in the findings of the late Dr. James E. McDonald who contended that the magnetic fields accompanying UFOs can create sudden power surges in transmission lines as the craft flies overhead.8 In theory, these power surges could produce blackouts- of massive proportions. Since the 'Big Blackout', McDonald's theory has gained considerable support in the light of strong evidence confirming widespread UFO activity on that fateful evening. The Syracuse Herald-Journal was inundated with calls reporting more than one hundred sightings in the Syracuse area. One of the first came from Syracuse Deputy Aviation Commissioner, Robert C. Walsh, who was flying over Syracuse at the time of the blackout.9 Despite the darkness, be managed to land safely at Hancock Airport. Standing on the runway, with some airport officials, he suddenly noticed an enormous circular ball of light, drifting overhead. "It appeared to be one hundred feet in the air and fifty feet in diameter."10 It rose for several seconds, then suddenly disappeared. Moments later, a bewildered Walsh and his companions watched an identical device ascending over the airfield, before mysteriously "blinking out", as did its predecessor. Unlike the known high-speed plunges of fireballs, these craft moved upward at moderate speed - clearly under some form of intelligent control. At the same time, the mysterious craft were also being observed overhead. Veteran flight instructor Weldon Ross and his student, James Brooking, were approaching the darkened airport when they spotted a second fiery object below. The giant craft, estimated at well over one hundred feet in diameter, appeared to be positioned directly over the Clay substation, a strategic installation that channels power from 129 Niagara Falls to New York City.1 It was the same substation where hydro investigating teams bad initially pinpointed the origin of the blackout. In a relentless pursuit of a possible UFO-blackout relationship, Herald-Journal reporters succeeded in uncovering even more explosive evidence. In a front page story seven days after the blackout, the paper carried photographs of the mysterious red craft taken by Mr. William Stiliwell, a sexton at St. Paul's Episcopal Church. He described what he had observed through a 117-power telescope: "The centre was rotating, around and around and around. It came from the direction of DeWitt and shot. off at an angle and then went back the way it came."12 He had watched the glowing object for as long as two hours before it streaked away. While investigating teams continued to dig for the mysterious cause of the power failure, press coverage of a possible UFO connection gained momentum. In a strongly worded editorial, the Indianapolis Star urged: "The answer is fairly obvious - unidentified flying objects! It is one angle the multi-pronged investigation should not overlook."3 Support for the UFO possibility intensified as news of other sightings became known. In New York City, twenty minutes into the blackout, witnesses in the Time-Life Building spotted a peculiar glow in the sky over darkened Manhattan. According to Major Donald Keyhoe: "It appeared to come from a round object hovering over the city. This was twenty minutes after the lights began to go out. Several photographs were taken by a Time magazine photographer, one of which appeared in the November 19th issue."14 Although clearly visible in the photograph, Time editors failed to make any reference in their photo caption to the spindle-shaped craft. Journalistic over 130 sight or deliberate omission? The only hint of any usual aerial activity came in a facetious reference to a Soviet satellite: Some New Yorkers, claiming that they had seen a satellite pass over at the moment the lights failed, argued that the Russians had done it again.15 But UFO investigator and author, the late Frank Edwards disagrees with both the UFO and the Soviet satellite explanations. The spindle-shaped thing could have been a UFO - but it certainly wasn't. It was nothing more than an optical ghost, the result of reflections between the elements of an air-spaced lens.16 While disputing the validity of the Time photo, Edwards strongly supported the contention the UFOs were somehow involved in activating the blackout. In fact, while conducting his own investigation into the cause of the blackout he discovered that U.S. military authorities had been well aware of the UFO presence, at least forty-five minutes prior to the power failure.17 This startling disclosure came from two commercial pilots, Jerry Whitaker and George Croninger, who were flying over Tidioute, Pennsylvania, when they spotted two disk-shaped "shiny objects" overhead. Even more surprising was the sight of two military jets chasing the mysterious craft. Moments later, one of the disks put on a "burst of speed" and quickly outdistanced its pursuers. While watching the fast-disappearing UFO, the dazed pilots lost sight of the other object, which had presumably departed in the same manner. The most spectacular UFO revelation, however, came one day prior to the release of the 'official' explanation when, speaking before a nationwide television audience, NBC commentator Frank McGee announced that a private pilot had spotted "a round, glowing object near the Niagara Falls power plant." 18 Associated Press picked up the story and numerous newspapers subsequently carried it. The following morning, a well-documented article appeared in the New York Journal American blaming UFOs for the disastrous power-grid breakdown. 131 Any further media focus on the UFO connection was brought to an abrupt halt, however, with the release of the 'broken relay' explanation. Despite mounting evidence, the Federal Power Commission bad predictably chosen to side-step the possible UFO connection. This omission was eventually confirmed by Dr. James E. McDonald who, as a respected scientist, was allowed to interview certain FPC officials. "They admitted they had the Syracuse and Niagara Falls reports, also most of the others on that night. But they wouldn't discuss the UFO possibility... No matter what they believed, I think they were convinced the facts shouldn't be given to the public, and that's why they agreed to the 'broken relay' story. At any rate, it was obvious they were covering up."9 Under the circumstances there seems to be a strong possibility that Canadian authorities were also involved in the cover-up. Ontario Hydro-Electric Power Commission investigators, having become aware of the UFO reports, collaborated with the FPC by exchanging information that eventually led to the 'broken relay' explanation.20 Furthermore, this explanation had apparently been pre-arranged and was released simultaneously, in both countries.21 The Ontario Hydro press statement similarly neglected to include UFOs as the possible cause for the blackout. One reputable American ufologist went so far as to point an accusing finger at the late Lester B. Pearson, then Prime Minister. Major Donald Keyhoe contends that: "To shift attention from the UFO explanation, the 'broken relay' story was invented. Since this could be construed as blaming Canada, the Premier must have been convinced it was best for both countries not to disclose the true situation."22 If that was the case, then it represents one of the most shocking deceptions ever perpetrated - —leaving the heads of thirty one utility companies and thirty million people to grope in the dark in more ways than one! 1 Time (November 19, 1965), Canadian Edition, p. 24. 2 Ibid., p. 23B. 3 John G. Fuller, Aliens in the Skies: The New UFO Battle of the Scientists (New York: G.P. Putman and Sons, 1969), p. 85. 4 Toronto Globe and Mail, November 16, 1965. 5 Ibid. 6 Ontario Hydro, Hydroscope, Vol. 2, No. 40 (November 19, 1965) p. 2. 7 James M. McCampbell, Ufology: New Insights from Science and Common Sense (Belmont, Ca.: Jaymac Company, 1973), p. 57. 8 James B. McDonald, Statement prepared for the Hearings before a Committee of the U.S. Federal Power Commission. 9 Frank Edwards, Flying Saucers: Serious Business (New York: Bantam Books, 1966), p. 147. 10 Ibid. 11 Donald E. Keyhoe, Aliens From Space (Toronto: The New American Library of Canada Limited, 1973), p. 172. 12 Frank Edwards, op. cit., p. 148. 13 Donald E. Keyhoe, op. cit., p. 176. 14 Ibid., p. 172. 15 Time, op. Cit., p. 28A. 16 Frank Edwards, op. cit., p. 149. 17 Ibid. 18 Donald E. Keyhoe, op. cit:, p. 177, 19 Ibid., p. 182. 20 Toronto Globe and Mail, op. cit. 21 Ibid. 22 Donald E. Keyhoe, op. cit., p. 180. 132 Parliament Hill March July 1969 The national capital region of Ottawa-Hull has, over the years, become the scene of widespread UFO activity. The most dramatic sequence of sightings occurred in early 1969 when UFOs were spotted directly over Parliament Hill and the prime minister's residence on Sussex Drive. In one case, which was never reported, the Parliament Buildings were struck by a mysterious power blackout moments after a UFO had been reported overhead. The flurry of sightings began on the evening of March 4. First to spot a craft was RCMP Constable R. V. M., who at the time was stationed near the Privy Council door. He stated: At 7:45 PM, an object was seen from Parliament Hill, going through the sky at a terrific rate of speed, heading from south to north. This object stopped and appeared to hover in the sky over Hull. It gradually moved in a Northwest direction and at 9:34 PM disappeared from view. It appeared to be round in shape and much smaller than the moon in size.1 Six other RCMP officers stationed at various locations on Parliament Hill watched the same object. They notified National Defence authorities at Royal Canadian Air Force Uplands Base and, to their surprise, RCAF Captain H.R.W. told them that “he would not be taking any action concerning the object.”2 Thirty minutes later, RCMP Constable R.J.S. was startled by the appearance of two UFOs hovering above Sussex Drive, between the prime minister's residence and Government House, the governor-general's residence. According to the witness: At approximately 10:00 PM, while on foot patrol from the police lodge at Government House to the Prime Min- 133 ister's residence, I noticed two rather bright flashing red lights in the sky. At first glance, I assumed they were aircraft, but could hear no sounds of engines. One of these lights proceeded east and was lost from view within a minute or less, while the other one travelled in a westerly direction. These lights were first seen directly overhead at a point slightly inside the gates to Government House and were very bright red. No definite shape could be distinguished nor was there any type of trail visible behind these lights.3 Two other RCMP constables stationed on Parliament Hill also spotted the mysterious red craft overhead. As soon as it appeared it shot straight down toward the river as if on a suicide crash course. Just before impact, it suddenly changed direction and shot back up, performing an extraordinary ninety-degree turn! The object shone like a star, was small and had no discernible shape. Just before it disappeared, there appeared to be an orange brown trail.4 Three months later, on the evening of June 5, three Parliament Hill RCMP constables together with three young tourists were mystified by a peculiar luminous craft hovering over the Ottawa River behind the Parliament Buildings. It was 10:12 PM. They watched as the vessel emitted a dazzling array of lights, changing from red to green to red to white.5 Within minutes, the attraction in the sky became the subject of grave concern to security officials on Parliament Hill. According to the RCMP: At 10:10 PM, all the lights on Parliament Hill - East, West and Center Blocks - went out. Mr. L.T. of Ontario Hydro was notified, but he said the cause could not be ascertained at the time.6 With Parliament Hill totally blacked out, attention focused on the unidentified craft which was now moving eastward, with an up and down ping-pong-ball-like trajectory. It finally settled above Eastern Hull and Pointe Gatineau across the river from the Prime Minister's residence. There it remained 134 stationary for about five minutes, with its lights blinking on and off. About ten minutes later, "it proceeded west of Hull at an altitude of approximately a thousand feet and came across the river in the Ottawa area and disappeared from view behind high buildings of Wellington Street at about 10:35 PM. All this while, the object was of no discernible shape."7 Twenty minutes later, the same witnesses spotted a bright luminous object due south of Ottawa. This time, it was accompanied by a smaller craft five hundred feet below it. According to the onlookers, it was difficult to determine whether this was the object they had seen before. The two craft, now in the vicinity of the RCAF base at Uplands Airport, continued to float about for another fifteen minutes before disappearing. The apparent inaction by federal defence forces regarding both these UFO visitations demonstrates the government's indifference to a potentially serious situation. From all accounts, no military jet interceptors were scrambled in response to the presence of these unidentified and visibly 'alien' craft over the city. We can only speculate whether this seeming indifference by the government is based on bureaucratic myopia, disbelief in RCMP reports or an open admission of helplessness. Whatever the answer, the Department of National Defence continues to maintain its policy of silence, referring all UFO inquiries to the National Research Council, which admits that it does not actively solicit or investigate UFO reports.8 It is equally disturbing that neither the sighting nor the blackout received noticeable press coverage. A check of subsequent editions of the Ottawa Journal and the Ottawa Citizen failed to reveal any reference to either event. Whether this omission was intentional or accidental does not alter the fact that while two potentially explosive events were taking place, the public was left virtually in the dark. The scrutiny of Canada's national capital region by UFOs was not over, however. Six weeks later, on the morning of July 20, Ms. Manque D., a resident of Hull, Quebec, and an employee of the National Research Council, was going to 135 work across the river, when she suddenly noticed a bright oval object overhead.9 Resembling a gigantic watermelon, the orange craft hovered above her momentarily before zooming noiselessly across the Ottawa River. To her astonishment, the craft stopped directly above the Parliament Buildings. It remained stationary for several minutes, then with a burst of speed it was gone from sight. Soon after, the National Research Council switchboard was swamped with telephone calls from people in the area who had also witnessed the sighting. One of them was a Hull police officer. NRC scientists, however, chose not to conduct an investigation because they felt they bad insufficient information. 1 Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences Section, National Research Council, Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, N69-077, (Ottawa). 2 Ibid., N69-077. 3 Ibid., N69-078. 4 Ibid., N69-077. 5 Ibid., N69-104. 6 Ibid., N69-104. 7 Ibid., N69-104. 8 UFO-Quebec, Vol. 1, No. 7 (1976), p. 12. 9 Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, op. cit., N69-128. The Province of Quebec July 20 - 23, 1971 On July 23, 1971, most of Quebec was struck by a massive power blackout that chiefly affected the two major urban centers - Montreal and Quebec City. Quebec UFO researcher Claude MacDuff is convinced that this disruption, as well as several other outages during the same period, can be directly related to the presence of UFOs.1 This case is somewhat reminiscent of the 'Big Blackout' since in both instances widespread UFO sightings were followed by shaky 'official' explanations. The disruption began at about 8:26 PM Daylight Saving Time.2 It was relatively short-lived; by midnight power had been restored to most areas. Following the failure, spokesmen at Hydro-Quebec could not immediately account for the mysterious breakdown. After six days of silence, Quebec residents were finally given the 'official' explanation. Mother Nature was singled out as the likely culprit. According to the morning tabloid 'Montreal Matin'. The blackout which paralyzed a large sector of the province of Quebec on July 23, 1971, might have been caused by lightning damage to a 750 kilowatt power 136 line. After careful analysis of the causes that may have activated the relay systems, Hydro-Quebec concluded that an 'arc drop' coinciding with the lightning bolt must have caused a false signal that triggered the relays. The simultaneous cut-out of service from three lines of 735,000 volts caused the general blackout.3 This story did not impress Claude MacDuff who categorically denied the lightning explanation based on evidence that: "during that same period, no regional storm or thunderstorm was registered in the area where the main electric power stations, or even substations are located... and no precise indication was given as to the exact location of the station damaged by lightning. MacDuff pointed to the numerous UFO sightings during the week preceding the blackout, some in the immediate vicinity of hydro transmission stations. Specifically, be referred to a well-documented incident over the Manicouagan hydroelectric complex shortly before the outage of July 23.4 This massive installation, located 240 miles northeast of Quebec City, consists of five dam sites that generate a substantial part of the province's electrical energy. The pattern of sightings appeared to have been concentrated along the Saint Lawrence River corridor, from Manicouagan and Rimouski, south through the Montreal region, and stretching toward Ottawa-Hull. Two days before the blackout, round, flashing craft had been observed in the Rimouski region which lies across the river from the Manicouagan complex. These sightings had received considerable attention in the province's most prestigious newspaper, the Montreal-based Le Devoir, which reported in its July 23 edition that: Several round unidentified objects, continuously pulsating, were observed in the sky from various locations in the Rimouski area, causing some consternation with the local population. The phenomenon, sighted Tuesday night, July 20, 1971, at Rimouski, St. Odile, Sacré Coeur and Bic, was described by many witnesses as rotating, fire-red in colour with green and blue rays flashing around. The most ac- 137 ceptable hypothesis is that the objects could have been artificial satellites of earthly origin, seen under special conditions, but this has been rejected by the Chairman of the Physics Department at the Centre d'Etudes Universitaires de Rimouski. Michel Campagnat stated that such satellites cross the sky in an arc in ten minutes and cannot in any way be geo-stationary, as in the case of the sighted objects.5 Since it wasn't a plane, helicopter, satellite, weather balloon or meteor, what was it? On that same evening, a woman living on a farm outside St. Hyacinthe, forty miles east of Montreal, watched as two dark circular craft with red rotating lights hovered over her potato field and then suddenly disappeared. The next morning, her husband found two eleven-foot-wide circular patches of crushed and burned potatoes exactly where the two UFOs had hovered the night before. Investigators from UFO-Quebec inspected the patches and concluded that "the object topped at a height of about fifteen feet, and burned a circular area with some form of radiation or energy."6 In conclusion, then, the massive power blackout coincided with widespread and very credible eye-witness reports of UFO sightings, some near key hydroelectric generating sites. Added to this is yet another questionable 'official' explanation. While no direct proof is available linking the blackout to the sightings, there is sufficient circumstantial evidence to suggest seriously the possibility of the blackout being UFO-related. The 'jury' is still deliberating... 1 Claude MacDuff, Le Procès des Soucoupes Volantes (The Trial of the Flying Saucers), (Montreal: Editions Quebec-Amerique, 1975). 2 La Presse, July 24, 1971. 3 Montréal-Matin, July 29, 1971. 4 Claude MacDuff, op. cit., p. 129. 5 Le Devoir, July 23, 1971. 6 Official UFO, Vol. 1, No. 6 (February 1975). Rougemont, Quebec September 20, 1972 The province of Quebec has had more than its share of encounters with airborne craft of unknown origin. On September 20, 1972, a night-time sighting near Mont Rougemont, twenty-five miles east of Montreal, again coincided with widespread power disruptions believed to be attributable to UFOs.1 138 This sighting involved one of the largest UFOs ever reported and it draws attention to the attraction UFOs seem to have to communication installations. In addition, attempts by the principal witness to communicate with the massive craft were met with dramatic and hair-raising response. On that September night, Mr. G.P. (identity known to UFO-Quebec investigators) was driving home toward Rougemont. It was about 00:45 AM and silhouetted against the bright moonlit sky he could see massive Mont Rougemont, one of the many mountains that dot the landscape of the Eastern Townships. About two miles from the intersection that led to his residence, he noticed a peculiar flying ball of dazzling light on his left. The luminous sphere appeared to be headed toward the lower slopes of the mountain and was now moving in a peculiar up and down pendulum-like trajectory. As he watched, he was overwhelmed by the dimensions of the spherical craft which be estimated to be well over 350 feet in diameter (the height of a thirty-five storey building). A thin, luminous wedge-like ring encircled the gigantic mass, giving it a striking resemblance to the planet Saturn. Just above the ring, a series of oval 'windows' or 'portholes' were emitting a brilliant white light that illuminated the entire craft. Hoping to get a better look, he stopped his car on the side of the road, roughly half a mile away from it. He left the motor running and stepped out of his vehicle to view the object which was now slowly drifting past two communications installations - one a Canadian National-Canadian Pacific microwave relay tower, the other a television transmission antenna. To add to the eerie spectacle, the craft was moving in complete silence. As it reached the base of the thousand-foot-high butte, it stopped its swinging motion and began a slow vertical climb to the top of the butte. From there, it hovered barely a few feet above the tree tops. Just then another car, a Volkswagen, pulled up behind and the driver got out.2 She and her passenger were both trembling with fear, visibly shaken by the unearthly sight. While exchanging a few words with Mr. G.P. they kept their eyes riveted to the vessel in the sky, which had now begun a slow colour metamorphosis. Its bottom half had turned to blazing rosy red and then changed back to its original metallic tinge. This pulsating procedure was repeated at regular intervals, 139 creating a surrealistic image that gave the whole mountainside a rose-coloreds, dream-like appearance. This latest performance filled Mr. G.P. with awe. The driver of the other car found this cosmic light show too much to bear and with a moan of despair, she and her passenger jumped back into the car and departed at full speed. Alone again, he suddenly remembered reading about a UFO sighting during which a woman had attempted to send signals to the craft with a flashlight.3 He climbed into his car and began to flash his headlights on and off - a move which "I was to deeply regret later!" The reaction was instantaneous. With incredible speed, the massive sphere plunged toward him as if on a head-on collision course. Before he could so much as gasp in horror, the blazing mass was overhead! He ducked but could feel the car bounce from side to side as if struck by a hurricane. Then a shrill suction noise blasted his ears - a nightmarish sound he said be would never forget. Then... nothing. Total silence. Emotionally drained and shaking like a leaf, be crawled out of his car and glanced around. There was no sign of the craft. It had disappeared. Slowly he regained his composure and he tried to start the car which had previously stalled. But the motor would not turn over. Only after several attempts did it start. It was then that he realised his eyesight had become blurred. This discovery only worsened his already nervous state. He somehow managed to get home, but once there, he began to replay the events in his mind. He couldn't fall asleep. He stayed up all night, perplexed and stunned. When investigators from UFO-Quebec visited him three days later, be still appeared dazed. He consented to lead them to the site and together they scaled the butte, hoping to find some evidence. After a thorough search, all they could find were leaves which had turned brown. This was inconclusive evidence, since it could easily have been caused by the seasonal autumn discolouration. They did discover, however, that the flight path of the UFO corresponded with a major geological fault line. This apparently was a recurring pattern, matching similar sightings in the area. Aside from the stalling car engine, other E.M. effects soon came to light. Upon questioning nearby residents, it was learned that reception on several television Sets had been mysteriously disrupted at the exact time of this reported sighting. 1 UFO-Quebec, Vol. 1, No. 1 (1975) p. 4. 2 Canadian UFO Report, Vol. 3, No. 1 (1974) p. 20. 3 UFO-Quebec, op. cit., p. 5. 140 Chapter 10 UFOs and Radar Sites That UFOs are interested in /'scouting' some of our strategic military radar facilities is becoming increasingly apparent. Personnel manning radar stations along the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line and Pinetree Line have often been mystified by the visitations of UFOs in the vicinity of these defence outposts which are off-limits to all but authorised personnel. At the height of the Cold War in August 1957, the two thousand-mile DEW Line began to operate on the northern perimeter of the continent.1 Under U.S.-Canadian command, it marked the birth of a joint defence agreement, better known as the North American Air Defence Command (NORAD). Designed to detect incursions into North American air space by enemy aircraft and missiles, the DEW Line today comprises thirty-one radar stations from Greenland to Alaska, twenty-one of which are in Canada.2 Soon after, the older Pinetree Line which bad been in operation since 1952, was incorporated into the NORAD plan. It comprises a string of twenty-two radar stations on the northern perimeter of border population concentrations. As with most matters pertaining to NORAD, very little is known about the operations of radar stations. It is therefore not surprising that even less is known about radar-tracked UFO sightings. Added to that, the northern DEW Line sites are in remote, isolated tundra regions where few civilian witnesses would observe a UFO presence. Not only are military personnel at DEW Line sites sworn to secrecy about 141 their work, but members of the local indigenous Inuit population probably would not trust a white man enough to inform him if they had sighted a UFO. A similar situation applies to stations along the Pinetree Line, which largely are also located in fringe, rural areas. However, alien craft have been known to appear over the few Pinetree stations which are closer to urban concentrations. Radar stations are then inundated with phone calls from local residents inquiring whether the object had appeared on radar screens. This public inquisitiveness usually puts officials in the position of having to explain the sightings about which they themselves often have no information. Official statements, however, rarely recognise such phenomena as being genuine UFOs. The objects are usually dismissed as meteors, satellites, weather balloons or the planet Venus. Quite often, an unexpected blip will show up on the radarscope for which there is no visual sighting. This usually occurs under conditions of darkness or low cloud cover, or where the blip is at an extremely high altitude. Although unseen, these blips usually display flight maneuvers characteristic of the UFO phenomenon, ranging from prolonged hovering to bullet-like accelerations well beyond our current flight capabilities. Publicly, they are often dismissed as false targets detected by radar screens. These can be caused by curved beams bouncing off some ground object, dense nimbo-stratus rain clouds, or even the mysterious slow-moving targets known as 'radar angels', of which there have been no known visual observations. The "false target" explanation has been openly challenged and rejected by many prominent researchers, including NICAP’s panel of science advisors, which stated: that the radar-UFO reports, after all, were made largely by experienced radar operators who were convinced they had tracked something solid and unexplained... 3 Except for cases of so-called "anomalous propagation" - false radar targets caused by bending of radar signals - UFO targets on radar constitute objective confirmation of the reality of unexplained objects in the atmosphere.4 One of the most publicized UFO incidents that involve ra- 142 dar tracking is the controversial in New Zealand sightings. In late December 1978 swarms of oval, luminous UFOs were observed over New Zealand’s South Island by hundreds of witnesses including pilots and members of a Melbourne, Australia television crew. While the crew was filming the UFOs (ten were seen at one stage), civilian aviation staff at Wellington Airport in New Zealand were tracking corresponding targets "other than airplanes"5 on their radar screens. According to Wellington air traffic controller A. Causer: "We now have recorded sightings by six pilots on three Argosy aircraft over ten days and a host of radar sightings. There is obviously some strange phenomenon and it needs to be investigated."6 Despite the widespread visual and radar confirmation, however, most official explanations attributed the UFOs to misidentified natural phenomena that ranged from meteorites and the planet Venus to bright lights from Japanese fishing vessels 150 kilometers away! Another possible explanation comes from W.H. Lehn, professor of engineering at the University of Manitoba, who in an interview with Barbara Frum, host of CBC Radio’s 'As It Happens', suggested that the lights were caused by the 'Novaya Zemlaya Effect'. Better known as an 'Arctic mirage',7 this effect involves light bouncing off the boundary between a warm and a cool air layer often over vast distances. According to Professor Lehn, the light source in this case could have originated with the distant Japanese fishing vessels. He does admit, however, that: "I only managed to get about three recorded sightings of it in past history in the last three hundred years." Recent photo interpretation of the film by optical physicist Dr. Bruce Maccabee, nuclear physicist Stanton Friedman and Dr. S. Allen Hynek has ruled out that the objects were "planets, stars, balloons, meteors, other aircraft, secret military maneuvers, radar angels, fishing boats or weather phenomena.'8 1 Windsor Star, September 10, 1977. 2 Canadian Forces Command and Location Map, Mapping and Charting Establishment, Department of National Defence, 1916. 3 Richard H. Hall, The UFO Evidence (Washington, D.C.: National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1964), p. 76. 4 Ibid, p. 82. 5 Toronto Star, January 1, 1979. 6 Toronto Globe and Mail, January 2, 1979. 7 'As It Happens. CBC-AM Radio Network, Toronto, Ontario. January 3, 1979. 19:30 Eastern Standard Time. 8 The UFO investigator, April 1979. National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena. 143 Goose Bay Air Force Base, Labrador Summer 1948 One of the earliest UFO incidents to be reported over a radar installation served to demonstrate the advanced maneuverability of these unusual craft. The 1948 sighting over Goose Bay Air Force Base in Labrador also focused attention on the inability of the Canadian and U.S. military hierarchies to explain the phenomenon. A detailed account of the incident was given to NICAP in early 1961 by Major Edwin A. Jerome, a retired United States Air Force Command pilot and one-time intelligence officer.1 As the world’s largest non-profit UFO research organisations, NICAP has over the years been involved in serious - investigations under the direction of a board of prominent scientific and academic advisors.2 At the time of the sighting, Major Jerome was stationed at Goose Bay, which then was used as the servicing and refuelling outpost for all military and civilian air traffic crossing the North Atlantic. He stated: "It seems that a high-ranking inspection team was visiting the radar facilities of this base... GCA (Ground Control Approach radar) was a critical part of this picture, thus these high-ranking RCAF and USAF officers, up to the rank of General, as I recall. While inspecting the USAF radar shack, the operator noted a high-speed target on his scope, going from NE to SW. Upon computation of the speed, it was found to be about 9,000 mph! This incident caused much consternation in the shack, since obviously this was no time for levity or miscalculations in the presence of an inspecting party. The poor airman technician was brought to task for his apparent miscalculation. Again, the target appeared and this time the inspectors were actually shown the apparition on the radar screen. The only reaction to this was that obviously the American equipment was way off calibration." 143 The party then proceeded to the Canadian side to Inspect the RCAF GCA facility. Upon their arrival, the OIC (Officer in Charge) related this most unbelievable target they had just seen. The inspecting officers were appalled that such a coincidence should happen. I was part of the meager reporting machinery at the base and I was called in to make an immediate urgent intelligence report on the incident. The prevailing theory at the time was that it was a meteor. I personally discounted this, since upon interviewing the radar operators on both sides of the base they stated that it maintained an altitude of 60,000 feet and a speed of approximately 9,000 mph. To make the story more incredible, the very next day both radars again reported an object hovering over the base at about 10 mph at 45,000 feet! The 'official' story on this was that they were probably some type of "high flying seagulls". You must remember that all these incidents happened before the days of fast high-flying jets and missiles and the now common altitude record-breaking helicopters.3 1 Richard H. Hall, ed. The (UFO Evidence (Washington, D.C.: National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1964), p. 83. 2 Ibid, p. ii. 3 Ibid, p. 83. Falconbridge Canadian Forces Radar Station, Sudbury, Ontario November 11, 1975 One of the longest and most controversial UFO sightings, ever recorded by radar personnel happened in the Sudbury area in northern Ontario. The appearance of unidentified craft on November 11, 1975, prompted NORAD officials to send military jet interceptors to investigate. Despite denials, this move clearly exposed the government’s interest in exploring the phenomenon. The Sudbury sightings coincided with an unprecedented week-long flurry of UFO activity over key military installations in both Canada and the United States.’ First to spot the objects were two Sudbury Regional Police Constables, Bob Whiteside and Alex Keable. At about 5:00 AM, while patrolling the streets of western Sudbury they spotted four bright objects high up in the sky.2 Because of 145 the brilliance of the craft, no shape could be discerned, but the officers agreed that the bizarre vessels, which produced no noticeable sound, were definitely not conventional aircraft. One object, brighter than the others, appeared in the southwest and seemed to be bobbing up and down like a ping-pong ball; a second one in the northeast remained stationary, while two others drifted aimlessly. In the western part of the city, meanwhile, Constable Gary Chrapynski and Policewoman J.B. Deighton watched what were presumably the same four objects. They saw light rays being emitted which seemed to illuminate the clouds overhead. Viewed through binoculars, one of the objects looked long and cylindrical, similar in shape to a dirigible. Other police officers stationed at various locations in a thirty-mile radius around Sudbury also reported spotting various types of pulsating, circular craft, noiselessly maneuvering in the early morning sky. At 6:15 AM, four officers at the Canadian Forces Radar Station at Falconbridge, ten miles north of Sudbury, similarly reported three unidentified targets on their Height Finder Radar and Search screens.3 One appeared to be a very bright stationary light at thirty thousand feet over the station, visible for thirty seconds. Another, spherical in shape, appeared to be rotating, while ascending and descending thirty miles south of the station. This object apparently remained visible for over two hours, while maintaining elevations ranging from forty to seventy thousand feet. The third object appeared to be: circular, brilliantly lit, with two black spots in the centre, moving upwards at high speeds from 42,000 to 72,000 feet. No circular movement, viewed for fourteen minutes. Major 0. took pictures, but it is not sure whether they will turn out.4 That same Tuesday, a report in the Sudbury Star confirmed that photographs of the mysterious objects bad been taken. In Ottawa, National Defence Headquarters confirmed that four people at the radar station, alerted by the police, saw three bright circles with two black dots about 146 6:15 AM. The objects were photographed by the base staff.5 Later that afternoon, Star reporters were advised by the public information office at Defence Headquarters in Ottawa that the photos would soon be released to the press. This was corroborated by Falconbridge radar station personnel, who indicated that the developed prints would be available the following (Wednesday) morning. When contacted the next morning, the station’s commanding officer, Major Oliver, made the following surprise announcement: There have been no photographs taken, nor any messages sent to Ottawa that mentioned photographs! He said he had investigated and had found "no one bad grabbed a camera."6 This sudden reversal was in direct conflict with statements issued earlier by Defence Headquarters. What’s more, the Ottawa statements confirming the existence of the photos were based primarily on the Telex report sent from Falconbridge to Defence Headquarters, which specifically stated: "Major 0. took pictures, but it is not sure whether they will turn out."7 Even more bizarre is the mystery of why, for a period of over twenty-four hours, Defence Headquarters and the National Research Council as well as Sudbury Star reporters were led to believe that the (non-existent) photos would be released - to the public! Was this an intra-departmental communications breakdown, or a last-minute coverup? We may never know the reasons for the apparent secrecy, but there seems to be no doubt that UFOs were indeed present over Sudbury that morning. In fact, the objects were still in the neighbourhood six hours later, when NORAD officials decided to send up jet interceptors. The Sudbury Star reported that: "the fighters were scrambled from the U.S. Air Force base at Selfridge, Michigan, at 12:50 PM local time."8 This was eventually confirmed by Captain Rudy Miller, public relations officer at the 22nd Division of NORAD in North Bay, who stated that the two F-106 interceptors of the United States Air National Guard Squadron "reported to have a lock on the object. The only thing the pilots reported 147 encountering were sun reflections on ice crystals in the clouds. "9 It cannot be disputed that the pilots may indeed have observed sun reflections off cirrus clouds. What remains questionable is whether these reflections could account for the many reported sightings. The NORAD explanation clearly overlooked the fact that seemingly geometrical maneuvers were observed both visually and on radar by a variety of qualified witnesses. Perhaps the most original explanation came from Dr. Ian Halliday, research officer at the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics at the National Research Council, who commented that in all probability what the officers had seen was Venus or Jupiter. Venus rises around 3 AM high in the southeast and is still bright and high in the sky after sunrise. Jupiter is also bright and sets about 4:30 AM.10 As to the sightings registered on radar, Dr. Halliday ventured: as near as we can tell, it is a coincidence. This sort of thing is not uncommon on radar. They just happened to see one at the same time,11 Meanwhile, area residents continued reporting sightings for the next few days. More than three years later, the entire matter surfaced again with the release of previously 'TOP SECRET' documents by the U.S. Air Force and the U.S. Defence Department. The documents, released under provisions of the U.S. Freedom of Information Act, following the successful court action by Citizens Against UFO Secrecy (CAUS) of New York, indicate that the UFO presence over military installations was far more widespread than initially reported. These disclosures were confirmed by National Research Council (NRC) officials in Ottawa on January 19, 1979.12 According to Research Officer Dr. Bruce McIntosh of NRC’s Planetary Sciences Section of the Herzberg Institute 148 of Astrophysics, Canadian jets were scrambled to intercept UFOs on at least two occasions during the week-long wave of sightings. It seems that on the night of November 6, six days prior to the Sudbury occurrence, unidentified targets were also spotted on the radar screens at the North Bay NORAD Command base, seventy miles east of Sudbury. As in the Falconbridge case, the prolonged presence of the targets on the radar screens prompted officials to send up Canadian interceptors later that morning. Nothing was found, according to Dr. McIntosh.13 During the same period, Canadian interceptors were again scrambled to intercept a UFO that was approaching the Canadian border after it had hovered over the missile launch area at Loring Air Force Base in Maine. The documents gave no indication whether or not the Canadian plane spotted the UFO. The U.S. records also reveal exten.sive UFO activity over other nuclear missile launch sites and bomber bases along the Canadian border in Maine, Montana and Michigan. Once again, NRC downplayed the North Bay sighting. One possible explanation proposed by Dr. McIntosh was that the layers of high density ice crystals could reflect radar beams Onto aircraft over the horizon, creating a false radar signal. He also suggested that Venus, “sticking out like a sore thumb,”4 could have accounted for the sighting. 1 Toronto Star, January 20, 1979. 2 Sudbury Star, November 11, 1975. 3 Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences Section, National Research Council, Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, N75-147 (Ottawa). 4 Ibid. 5 Sudbury Star, op. cit. 6 Sudbury Star, November 15, 1975. 7 Ibid. 8 Sudbury Star, November 12, 1975. 9 UFO-Quebec, Vol. 1, No. 7, p. 12. 10 Sudbury Star, November 14, 1975. 11 Ibid. 12 Gratti, Art. 'Saucer-Eyed Spies' UFO Update, OMNI Magazine, June 1979. Volume .1, No. 19. OMNI Publications International Ltd. New York, p. 32. 13 Toronto Star, January 20, 1979. 14 Ibid., p. 2. Sioux Lookout Canadian Forces Radar Station, Sioux Lookout, Ontario November 27, 28, 1968 In late November 1968, the Sioux Lookout region of northwestern Ontario was plagued with a rash of UFO sightings which prompted John Reid (L-Kenora-Rainy River) and the former Federal-Provincial Relations minister, to raise the. issue of public access to UFO information in the House of Commons. His interest in the matter stemmed from disclosures that these sightings had occurred in the immediate vicinity of the Sioux Lookout Radar Station on the Pinetree Line. Here are excerpts from John Reid’s remarks as recorded in the House on December 12, 1968: 149 Shortly after my last visit to Sioux Lookout, I was told by telephone, and in person, that there had been a large number of sightings there. An article appeared in the town’s paper, the Daily Bulletin (November 29th),: which I should like to quote to bear out my claim that there have been extensive sightings in this area. For the last two evenings, several people in town have sighted an unidentified flying object over Pelican Lake. Last night’s sighting was observed by quite a few people outside Jim’s Coffee Bar on Front Street at about 6 PM. The only information we could gather from the observers was that it was "a big light in the sky, which kept changing colour". No idea as to its shape or maneuverability was given. About two months ago, at least five people saw a UFO. Four on a return trip from Dryden, Ontario spotted a green light in the sky near the Turkey Trail, white another person in town saw the same phenomenon about two hours earlier over Pelican Lake. Both descriptions tallied on checking them out and the UFO was described as a flat circular object of bright greenish hue, which appeared to be pulsating. It was travelling at conventional speed for an airborne object and glided down behind the tree line out of sight.l That brings me to the point of my question, Mr. Speaker. We do have this very extensive facility at Sioux Lookout that is operated by the Department of National Defence, Surely if anything was in the sky over that period, records would be kept by this most efficient establishment... Therefore, I would like to ask the parliamentary secretary whether he could release some of this supposedly confidential information for the benefit of the Canadian public. The Christmas holiday season is fast approaching, but I do not want to receive the answer from the Parliamentary Secretary that it was Santa Claus trying out his reindeer in anticipation of Christmas.2 In response, Defence Parliamentary Secretary D.W. Groos confirmed that strange lights had been reported but bad not been picked up by radar screens at Sioux Lookout. He failed to specify whether the radar system was operating at the 150 time, or even whether the system was designed to pick up low-flying or hovering objects. Instead he forecast that on Christmas Eve:3 there probably will be some unidentified flying objects picked up by that radar station... There is some evidence that these will eventually be identified as a space vehicle propelled by eight unknown objects.3 1 Sioux Lookout Daily Bulletin, November 29, 1968. 2 House of Commons Debates, December 12, 1968: (Ottawa: Queen’s Printer), p. 3900-3901. 3 House Of Commons Debates, op. cit., p. 3901. Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line 1956 to 1967 Only a very limited number of DEW Line sightings have ever managed to surface. In an excellent appraisal of the UFO dilemma, in 'Science, the Public and the UFO' (Bray Book Service, Ottawa, 1967), ufologist Arthur Bray, a former pilot and retired Royal Canadian Navy Lieutenant-Commander, describes a particularly detailed incident that occurred in the autumn of 1956 at an unspecified 'site' on the DEW Line. At the time, the principal witness, Donald Oliver of Halifax, was working with Maritime Central Airlines as an aircraft mechanic. It was in the early hours of an October morning. Another mechanic, Donald MacDonald of Prince Edward Island, and I were attending our aircraft and getting them ready for flight in the morning. There were no flights scheduled that night and there was not a thing in the sky, not even a weather balloon. The sky was clear. We were just standing there talking when there was a loud report like a Cannon going off and the sky seemed to light up in a really brilliant way. Then we saw it. It was like a green ball flashing at high speed over the runway. It came over the runway parallel like a plane on a fly past about 250 feet up. When it reached the south end of the runway it veered sharply eastward’ and rose very steeply, picking up speed. As it did so, it seemed to take on a fluorescent colour, like a fiery ball. It was really moving. It all happened so quickly. In a couple of seconds it had disappeared. I couldn’t say how big it was - it just looked like a large ball. We reported it immediately to 151 the control tower where we were met with laughter. But an hour or so later they sent for us and said they had received reports from two other sites, of vapour trails from an unidentified flying object flying constantly at very high velocity.1 The initial account of this sighting appeared in the Halifax Mail-Star on April 15, 1959. Curiously enough, two days earlier, most Canadian newspapers had featured a front-page Canadian Press story describing a UFO sighting over Air Defence Command Headquarters at St. Hubert, Quebec. (See Chapter 6, 'UFOs and Military Installations'.) Whether this was a coincidence or not, one can only speculate, but in view of the similarities between the two sightings, I am inclined to believe that the St. Hubert disclosure prompted both Mr. Oliver and the Halifax Mail-Star to publicise the DEW Line sighting. In 1964, the Washington-based UFO research organisations, NICAP, revealed information regarding another DEW Line sighting, this one in November 1950.2 According to NICAP, the UFO descended from the maximum altitude range of the radarscope (DEW Line radar range is classified), moved horizontally at about 575 mph over a distance of one hundred miles, before ascending vertically. Unfortunately, this report from the Calgary NICAP Subcommittee provides no description as to the, structural or aerodynamic characteristics of the UFO. Finally, on August 24, 1967, officials stationed at the Cape Perry DEW Line Site, on the shores of the Beaufort Sea, were baffled by a large spherical object which drifted slowly overhead for some time. The object was also spotted by witnesses aboard a light aircraft (Registration CF-OZS) flying in the vicinity of the site. According to the Cape Perry report, the craft was described as: Translucent, silver and round, about the size of a baseball held at arm’s length. Looked like a large soap bubble. No trail, no sound, 25° angle from surface directly west of Site, appears to be moving very slowly 152 southward. Object not painting on DEW Surveillance Radar.3 The 'bubble' remained in the Cape Perry vicinity for over ten hours! The fact that it had not registered on DEW Line radar eliminated several possible explanations, including weather balloons or experimental craft of Soviet origin. It is unlikely that the Soviets could produce a noiseless craft with a built-in radar detection scrambler that could totally stump sophisticated NORAD instruments. It is even more unlikely that the Soviets would conduct open surveillance at low altitudes over a period of ten hours! 1 Arthur Bray, Science, the Public and the UFO (Ottawa: Bray Book Service, 1967), p. 165. 2 Richard H. Hall, ed., The UFO Evidence (Washington, D.C.: National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1964), p. 80. 3 Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences Section, National Research Council, Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, N67-029, (Ottawa). 153 Chapter 11 Civilian Pilot Sightings Most commercial air flights are uneventful. Occasionally some turbulence might distract the passengers, but if we exclude the rare occurrences of sky-jacking, mid-air births, high-altitude coronary arrests or even mechanical malfunctions, air travel can be downright boring. If we are to believe a growing number of eye-witness reports, however, the UFO factor can now be added to the list of possible events that passengers might encounter while travelling by air. In fact, civilian airline pilots may now hold the distinction of being the most prolific UFO spotters on earth. There is growing evidence that the majority of these pilots have, in the course of their flying careers, come across intelligently controlled phenomena for which there is no explanation. This comes as no surprise if we consider that; unlike most other professions, air crews spend the best part of their working lives scrutinising celestial conditions. Yet, as in other countries, only a limited number of Canadian mid-air UFO encounters have reached public attention. Several factors have contributed to the secrecy that surrounds such events. Commercial air travel is a lucrative and highly competitive industry, and most airlines shy away from the harmful publicity that might surround them if exaggerated tales of mid-air UFO sightings were to come to light. Perhaps, however, a well-promoted UFO incident might spark an unprecedented boom in airline ticket sales. After all, today’s air traveller is an entertainment-hungry individual raised on Arthur C. Clarke, Flash Gordon, Apollo missions, 'Star Trek', 'Star Wars', 'Close Encounters' and 'Battlestar 154 Galactica'. Besides, close to 60 per cent of western society believe in the existence of UFOs.’ Most airline pilots would be hesitant about publicising their UFO experiences, because they do not want to jeopardise their advancement within the company. Predictably, most airlines are quick to emphasise that their pilots have no explicit directives prohibiting disclosures of such matters; in fact, they stress that pilots who encounter UFOs may submit anonymous in-flight 'Incidents Reports'. Because such reports are for internal use only and confidential in nature, however, it is at the airline’s discretion whether or not they are released to the public. Another possible reason for the silence surrounding UFO sightings stems from the fact that pilots are concerned about maintaining professional integrity. They generally shy away from controversy, especially in situations where their credibility and judgment may come under public scrutiny. Air Canada pilot, Captain Norm B., formerly with the Canadian Air Line Pilots Association, probably best expressed the view of most members of his profession when he stated: "I think it’s a natural reluctance on the part of the pilots not to release anything until it’s been thoroughly investigated... the vast majority of pilots would be very hesitant to run to the media until something bad really been investigated carefully."2 One notable exception to this image of the cautious, tight-lipped professional is CP Air Captain Robert Millbank. Following his UFO experience over the Peruvian coast in December 1966, Millbank emerged as one of the most vocal witnesses in the annals of ufology. Because of his willingness to speak openly about his encounter, the incident quickly gained international notoriety. It occurred in the early morning hours of December 30, while Millbank and his co-pilot, John Dahl, were at the controls of a DC-8, en route from Lima, Peru, to Mexico City. It was about 2 AM. and all the passengers were asleep. Suddenly, against the background of the night sky, they noticed two steady white lights on their left. Puzzled, Millbank summoned the other three crew members - the navigator, the 155 purser and a pilot trainee. As they watched it soon became evident that the lights were headed toward their aircraft. In the written report filed with aeronautical authorities in Mexico City, Millbank described what happened next: "Then I noticed that one of the lights was pulsating and changing in intensity. Then, we noticed two beams of light coming from the lights and shining upward in a V-shape. The two main lights seemed to be descending and they levelled off alongside our aircraft. At one time, the object shot out a trail of sparks, like a rocket. I tried to convince myself that this object was only another aircraft, or a satellite re-entering the atmosphere, but it was pretty obvious that it was neither of those. Then it seemed to be edging closer to us, and we could see a string of lights between the two white lights. It levelled off at our left wing tip and, in the light of the full moon, we could see a shape between the two lights, a structure which appeared to be thicker in the middle. It stayed there for a couple of minutes and then disappeared behind our aircraft."3 From the growing number of reported incidents, it appears that there are two types of UFO mid-air encounters - the random, distant fly-by and the close-range inspection. The Random, Distant Fly-by The random, distant fly-by is the more common of the two, and normally lasts a short time only. Usually, peculiar-looking luminous craft are seen flying by at night, a fair distance away from the observer. Some of their maneuvers include 'on-the-spot' hovering, jerky, wave-like trajectories and bullet-like accelerations. On the surface it does not appear as if any surveillance by these UFOs was taking place, yet we cannot exclude the possibility that they may be engaged in some form of sophisticated remote inspection. The Close-Range Inspection The close-range inspection is less frequent. These sightings consist of a rendezvous in which a disk- or cigar-shaped craft will take up a fixed position alongside an aircraft and remain there, sometimes for 156 hundreds of miles. The majority of these encounters do not appear to pose a threat to the safety of the aircraft occupants, but in some cases pilots have been forced to take drastic evasive actions to avoid collisions with UFOs which displayed highly dangerous maneuvers. 1 Toronto Star, October 23, 1973. 2 Telephone conversation with Captain B., December 13, 1977. 3 Frank Edwards, 'Flying Saucers; Here and Now!' (New York: Bantam Books, 1968), p. 114. One Hundred Miles Northeast of Sept-Iles, Quebec June 29, 1954 One of the earliest close-range inspections ever recorded left twenty witnesses, including seven crew members, aboard a BOAC Stratocruiser completely mesmerised. The event occurred on June 29, 1954, about a hundred miles northeast of Sept-Iles, Quebec, four hours after the plane had left New York en route to London. After landing in England, the pilot, Captain James Howard, revealed details of the sighting to London’s Sunday Chronicle: "I bad taken off from Idlewood airfield in New York at five o’clock and was headed northeast across the St. Lawrence River. It was about 9:05 PM Labrador time and we were about twenty minutes’ flying time northeast of Sept-Iles, when I first sighted the thing."1 The 'thing' appeared as a "dark blob” in the distance, with a cluster of smaller objects around it: "It was something like an inverted pear suspended in the sky.2" As the stunned pilot watched, the cluster of circular craft dodged about the central craft, all the while maintaining a straight-line formation around the 'mother craft'. "Sometimes there were three stretched out in front and three behind. Sometimes five stretched out in line ahead and only one behind."3 During the entire eighteen-minute sighting, the objects main- 157 tained a course parallel to the plane at a distance estimated at about five miles away. Co-pilot Lee Boyd of Fillmore, Saskatchewan, was convinced the strange formation was not of earthly origin: "Whatever they were, they were intelligently controlled and maneuvered. I don’t think any science on this planet could have produced them."4 As a veteran pilot who had flown more than a half a million miles, Boyd’s statements could not be taken lightly, especially since the other five crew members, who had also observed the spectacle, supported his remarks. To rule out the possibility of experimental aircraft, Captain Howard had radioed Goose Bay Air Force Base to confirm that no other air traffic had been registered in the area. At Howard’s request, Goose Bay agreed to sent up a jet fighter to investigate. Meanwhile, the crew was witnessing a startling turn of events: the 'mother craft' was changing shape! "It turned into what looked like a flying arrow - an enormous delta-winged plane turning in to close with us!"5 It seemed to grow in size as if it were coming closer to the plane, and then it changed shape again, this time becoming flattened and elongated. Finally, the large craft shrank to its original size while the smaller 'satellites' continued their curious 'leap-frog' maneuvering. Within minutes, the fighter plane pilot radioed that he was twenty miles away from the craft at a higher altitude. The captain confirmed that the strange formation was still keeping pace with his plane. All of a sudden, the smaller craft stopped their acrobatics and appeared to merge with the 'mother craft'. Then, with a tremendous burst of speed, the large craft shot away and, within seconds, completely disappeared! The swift departure left observers wondering whether the presence of the jet fighter had been detected, If so, the UFO occupants, if there were any, must have chosen to avoid an undesirable mid-air confrontation. After landing at Goose Bay, the entire crew of the BOAC Stratocruiser was questioned by U.S. Air Force Intelligence. In conclusion, Captain Howard stated: 158 "It was a solid thing. I’m sure of that. Maneuverable and controlled intelligently—a sort of base ship linked somehow with those smaller attendant satellites. . . . It must have been some weird form of spaceship from another world!6 This sighting soon became a classic. Fascinated by the curious incident, the late Dr. James E. McDonald, a physicist at the University of Arizona, decided to conduct his own detailed investigation. At the astronautics conference of the Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute, held in Montreal in March 1968, Dr. McDonald revealed some of his findings in a public address: "No meteorological-optical phenomenon (assuredly not a sundog) could reasonably account for the reported phenomena. The Stratocruiser was cruising at about 240 knots (276 mph) at 19,000 feet on the southwest edge of a high-pressure centre over Labrador, scarcely meteorological conditions favourable to ball lightning or any other electrical disturbances; and visibility was described by Captain Howard as 'perfect'. To suggest a natural 'plasmoid' of any sort could keep pace with an aircraft at 240 knots for eighteen minutes and ninety miles seems entirely unreasonable on a number of grounds: the speed and motions categorically rule out meteors; the peculiar maneuvering of the smaller objects and curious shape changes of the larger object suggest no conventional explanation. It was First Officer Lee Boyd’s impression that the smaller ones merged into the larger prior to departure, again defying obvious explanation. At that time, Howard had 7,000 flying hours; he is still flying with BOAC. In a recent interview, be corroborated details of the 1954 press accounts and even added interesting additional points. The distance of the objects precluded seeing any structural details, if any had been present; it is the performance characteristics and the pronounced shape-changes that mark this well-authenticated sighting as a puzzling UFO case for which no adequate explanation has ever been proposed." 1 Richard H. Hall The UFO Evidence (Washington, D.C.: National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1964), p. 126. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. 4 Toronto Globe and Mail, July 2, 1954. 5 Richard H. Hall. op. cit., p. 126. 6 Ibid. 159 One Hundred and Sixty Nautical Miles Northeast of Churchill, Manitoba October 23, 1972 On October 23, 1972, the crew and passengers aboard a Wardair jet came face to face with an awesome cigar-shaped craft at twenty-two thousand feet. The jet was en route from Churchill, Manitoba, to Yellowknife, seven hundred miles to the northwest.1 Forty-year-old Captain Darryl Brown was piloting the Grumman CF-COL jet, which took off from Churchill at 5:50 PM. Forty minutes into the flight, as the sun was setting on the northern tundra, the pilot noticed what first appeared to him as a bright comet approaching from the west. He quickly abandoned this theory, however, as the object came closer, revealing a bullet-like profile adorned with a cluster of multicoloured pulsating lights. As this 'flying cigar' began to crowd the plane, the crew was overwhelmed by its dimensions. It appeared to be much larger than any man-made craft, including a Boeing 747. Perhaps out of the need to share this moving experience with others, Captain B. notified the fifteen passengers aboard and shut off the interior lights to enhance the viewing of the vessel which was by now dwarfing the jet. About a dozen circular 'portholes' or 'windows' strung along the base of the craft were now discernible while a series of yellow and red lights flashed on and off overhead. The rear of the UFO was enveloped in a fog-like cloud, behind which orange sparks were seen shooting out. The craft took up a position about 2,500 feet in front of the jet and in perfect alignment with its flight path. Suddenly, the aircraft was bathed in a beam of light, coming from what was presumably the front end of the 'cigar'. It was so bright that it was possible to read inside the previously darkened cockpit. Suddenly, as the three-man crew watched in horror, the giant craft stopped in mid-air directly in front of the jet! Before Captain Brown could take evasive action, the 'cigar' quickly moved over to the right. That was when the pilot 160 courageously decided to follow the fast-disappearing craft. Unfortunately, it was quickly obscured by a dense layer of fog which seemed to have appeared from nowhere. The UFO had vanished and any renewed attempts at tracking it down failed. Because existing meteorological conditions were not conducive to the formation of such fog layers at that altitude, we cannot rule out the possibility that the fog layer may have been a smoke screen produced by the UFO as an escape device. The fact that the substance enveloped the rear of the craft tends to add weight to the escape device theory. During the sighting, the crew noted that the radio had gone dead. After the mysterious craft departed, radio transmission returned to normal. (See Chapter 8. 'The E.M. Effect and Power Blackouts'.) Following the incident, Captain B. stated: "My personal opinion is that the craft was extraterrestrial. Why would the object approach at close quarters to inspect us? I can’t speculate for what reasons, except possibly due to curiosity on their part."2 1 UFO-Quebec, Premier Trimestre, Numéro 9 (1917) p. 13. 2 Ibid. Sudbury, Ontario and Eastern Townships July 12-15, 1974 Another recent close-range inspection, this time over Sudbury, Ontario, almost ended in a mid-air collision between a Canadian Pacific Airlines jet and an enormous cigar-shaped UFO. The sudden appearance of the silvery craft forced the pilot of CP Air Flight 52 to dive evasively to avoid a crash. The event occurred around 9 AM on July 15, 1974, while the jet was en route from Montreal to Vancouver. One of the passengers, Mr. R.F. (identity known to investigators of UFO-Quebec), later disclosed that immediately following the near-accident, the captain told the passengers: "Sorry about that. We had to take action because there was an unidentified flying object ahead. You can see it if you look out to the right side of the aircraft, to the north.1 161 The passengers watched in amazement as the large object appearing slightly transparent, continued to pace the jet for another five minutes before disappearing. "It wasn’t there anymore", said passenger R.F. He continued: "The Captain said he had been in contact with Ground Control but they knew nothing about it. It had not been on their radar screen at all. He said it might have been a balloon but he did not know. There was just no record of anything like this very big object on our course."2 In the ensuing investigation, Wido Hoville of UFO-Quebec discovered that numerous Sudbury area residents had called the Sudbury Airport Weather Office to report seeing the craft. Asked what he thought the object was, the weatherman suggested it might have been a Defence Department altitude balloon launched in Manitoba. But a check with the Defence Department and with meteorological records for that date eliminated the possibility that the balloon could have been in the Sudbury area at the time. The balloon theory was also dismissed by a flight debriefing officer at Montreal’s Dorval Airport, on the grounds that the pilot would have been notified by either the Defence Department or the Transport Department weather office. Also, according to Hoville, the balloon would have registered on the aircraft radar screens. The mysterious craft did not.3 This incident coincided with a rash of other sightings. in both Ontario and Quebec. Sixteen hours earlier, campers near Daveluyvile, Quebec, south of Quebec City, saw a large triangular craft, described as "brilliant" and "silvery", hovering over their campsite.4 The object appeared to be rotating on its own axis, while maintaining a fixed position at an altitude of about four thousand feet. After about three hours of noiseless maneuvers, the craft finally drifted away to the southeast. Asked about its size, campsite owner Roger Côté, a medical technician, compared it with a fifty-cent piece held at arm’s length.5 At roughly four thousand feet, this would indicate that the object was well over two hundred feet in diameter. When police officials later 'identified' it as a weather balloon, Mr. Côté flatly rejected this explanation. 162 About an hour later, the pilot of a Scandinavian jet, Captain K., was flying over Charlevoix, on the eastern outskirts of Quebec City, when he spotted what was presumably the same craft moving in a southwesterly direction.6 It appeared to be travelling toward Montreal, along the St. Lawrence River. This sighting, which occurred near Valcartier Mobile Command Base, was relayed to military authorities at the NORAD Air Command Centre at North Bay Air Force Base. A report of this and several subsequent sightings were in turn filed with the National Research Council. In the same report we learn that Commander W.C.B., flying a military jet to Burlington, Vermont, from Quebec City, also spotted the same craft. He described it as "triangular in shape, stationary and estimated to be at forty thousand feet."7 His aircraft, was flying at thirty-five thousand feet, thirty to forty miles southeast of Quebec City. During both sightings, the radio transmission and reception sites at Canadian Forces Base Bagotville and Canadian Forces Station Mont Apica experienced strong interference. CFB Bagotville is one hundred miles north of the capitol. There is no direct evidence linking the presence of the UFO to the radio interference, but it is significant that the difficulties occurred while the military jet was in close proximity to the mysterious triangle. Equally significant is the fact that the interference registered on a frequency of 121.5 megacycles—the universal distress frequency. The most controversial piece of evidence came from Drummondville photographer Jean Roy who had shot six photos of the giant craft.8 They clearly show the movements of a luminous bell-shaped object. However, it is not known what type of camera was used or whether the negatives were subjected to authentication procedures. Equally nebulous is the source of a rumour that the object had been a high altitude weather balloon. Radio stations reporting this explanation attributed these statements to officials of La Sûreté du Quebec (SQ), the Quebec provincial police force,9 which vehemently denied the charges. 163 To round out this UFO marathon, a disk-shaped UFO had also been observed by military and airport officials over Sudbury. Two days earlier, Private W.V. and Corporal A.L., of Canadian Forces Falconbridge Radar Station, saw a multicoloured oval disk moving southeast of the station.10 This same craft was also tracked by Ministry of Transport radar screens at the Sudbury Airport weather office.11 At the same time, ‘Mrs. K.K. of Sudbury also confirmed sighting the oval disk, which she described as "orange under, blue on top, and a ,white stripe with a blue cross on it."12 She claims to have filmed the UFO with her movie camera! 1 Canadian UFO Report, Vol. 3, No. 4 (1975) p. 7. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. 4 UFO-Quebec, Vol 1, No. 2 (May-June-July 1975) p. 12. 5 Ibid. 6 Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences Section, National Research Council, Non-Meteoritic Sightings File N74-052, (Ottawa). 7 Ibid. 8 La Parole de Drummondville, Vol. 49, No. 31 (July 31, 1974) p. 1. 9 Ibid., p. 1. 10 Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, op. cit., N74-050. 11 Ibid., N74-051. 12 Ibid., N74-049. Windsor - Southern Ontario December 12, 1957 Sightings by commercial and private pilots are often observed simultaneously by ground witnesses. One such incident occurred in southwestern Ontario, east of Windsor, on the evening of December 1957. Hundreds of witnesses, including Essex and Kent County police and an airline pilot, were mystified by the circular object that streaked across Lake Erie in the direction of Windsor. It was believed to be the same as the one sighted over Cleveland moments earlier. One of the first to spot it was Captain J.A. Miller, who was pilo.ting Trans-Canada Airlines (now Air Canada) Flight 239 from Toronto to Windsor. In a front-page story in the Windsor Star the following day, Captain Miller described the saucer as: an oval, whirling, orange flaming disk, flying at about two thousand feet and moving at a terrific rate of speed.1 It apparently stayed alongside his plane for several minutes before swinging toward Lake Erie, where it disappeared "in a cloud of orange smoke." The pilot thought that the craft had dropped toward the plane with what be called "planned accuracy", from a higher altitude. Although the incident was 164 brief, there is no doubt that the craft bad been attracted to the plane for a specific purpose. In an apparent move to downplay the event, TCA officials reported that none of the forty passengers aboard the aircraft had mentioned seeing the saucer. However, it was not specified whether any of them had ever been questioned. Miller’s story received support from many credible witnesses. For over half an hour, police radios had crackled with accounts, including those by police officers who excitedly reported spotting the UFO. The same Star article stated that: "Provincial police in Chatham and Ridgetown were insistent that this was the real thing. Police also reported that motorists along county highways stopped to observe the strange and fascinating gyrations of the oval object."2 When Ontario Provincial Police Constables Ted Wickens and John McPherson were dispatched to Blenheim, where Mrs. Robert Moore reported watching the saucer overhead, both confirmed seeing the craft. One of the officers later commented: "We can’t say too much, but there have been enough responsible persons sighting the saucer and we figure this time it’s for real."3 1 Windsor Star, December 13, 1957. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. 165 Chapter 12 Government and UFOs Governments around the world have been hard-pressed to deal with the post-World War II phenomenon of UFOs. Canada is no exception. But this country can at least boast of having initiated progressive UFO research policies and over the last thirty years, it has demonstrated varying degrees of interest in this multifaceted phenomenon. No less than five different departments - the Departments of National Defence and Transport, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the National Research Council and Agriculture Canada - have at one time or another attempted to grapple with it. The highlights of these efforts can best be summarised in the following three statements. First, after years of predominantly secretive research into UFOs, the Canadian government, as other world governments, has never found a shred of evidence to conclusively disprove their existence.. On the contrary, with the official conclusion the UFOs do not pose a threat to national security, and that they warrant further scientific scrutiny, military and scientific researchers have recognised the reality of the phenomena.' Second, the evolution of Canadian UFO policies appears to be closely linked to and seemingly influenced by the prevailing American trends to respond to the UFO presence.2 166 Third, the Canadian government has done little to dispel speculation that the Department of National Defence is to this day collaborating secretly with its U.S. counterpart in studying UFO-related phenomena. 1 Chief of Defence (CDS) Briefing on Unidentified Flying Objects, November 15, 1967. P. 3. Directorate of Operations, Department of National Defence. From the Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, DND 222. Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences Section, National Research Council. (Ottawa). 2 Leonard H. Stringfield, Situation Red: The UFO Siegel (New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1977), p. 160. Department of National Defence Defence Research Board On Thursday, April 17, 1952, Canadians were stunned by the front-page Ottawa Journal revelation that the Department of National Defence (DND) had been investigating UFOs from as early as 1947. The majority of sightings left top military and scientific officials, as they frankly admitted, totally "baffled".l This disclosure came in the wake of the furour and consternation caused by the reappearance five days earlier of UFOs over North Bay Air Force Base in Ontario. (See Chapter 6, 'UFOs and Military Installations'.) The explosive headline story also shed light on the origins of reported sightings in Canada: "The first report of a flying saucer over Canada was one given by an Ottawa resident on June 26, 1947."2 This date marked the birth of what has become known as the 'modern era' of the UFO presence in Canada. It was then that a series of military investigations into the celestial mystery was launched. Ironically, this Canadian UFO 'premiere' came only two days after the widely publicized UFO encounter by Idaho commercial pilot, Kenneth Arnold, who was credited with having coined the phrase "flying saucers".3 Arnold's historic airborne encounter with nine disk-like craft is generally regarded as the cornerstone of the modern UFO era in America. Since 1947, Canadian military response to the persistent UFO presence can best be described as a mish-mash of reactionary attitudes and crisis-oriented policies that have varied from genuine interest and openness to disinterest and blatant secrecy. In retrospect, the twenty-one years of official military scrutiny can be broken down into the following distinct periods. 167 June 1947 - April 1952 Very little is known about the embryonic stage of military interest in UFOs. The only known disclosures pertaining to the period from 1947 to April 1952 are contained in the above-mentioned Ottawa Journal expos& The article stated that, since June 1947, the Intelligence Branch of the Royal Canadian Air Force has collaborated with the scientific research arm of the army, the Defence Research Board (DRB), in assessing the growing number of reported UFO encounters.4 By early 1952, over thirty well documented cases had been subjected to rigourous analysis. Aside from a few which could easily be explained as misidentified natural phenomena, most of them left the experts completely mystified. April 1952 - 1956 Following the furour over the North Bay revelations, DRB Chairman Dr. O.M. Solandt urgently convened an interdepartmental committee ten days later to outline strategies aimed at tackling the enigma. Aside from representatives from DRB and the Defence Services (army, navy and air force), the committee also included such notable figures as astrophysicist Dr. Peter M. Millman and Wilbert B. Smith who headed the UFO study sponsored by the Department of Transport, known as Project Magnet.5 Named Project Second Storey (PSS), the committee acted as the coordinating and advisory body for those government departments which were directly or remotely involved in UFO investigations.6 Under the chairmanship of Dr. Millman, PSS drew up a comprehensive questionnaire which was distributed to personnel of both the Defence Services and the Department of Transport. In this way, PSS members were fed a steady flow of fresh nationwide UFO reports. But in the eleven months that followed, the committee made no significant progress in unravelling the UFO mystery. Therefore, instead of intensifying research efforts, PSS began to phase out its activities and by March 9, 1953, it had reached the questionable conclusion that: "evidence to date did not seem to warrant an all-out investigation by the Canadian Services... For the present at least, it was considered unnecessary for this 168 Committee or any other section of DND to undertake a detailed analysis of the reports received to date.7 Although PSS continued to exist in name only until 1957, its meetings became less frequent and to all intents and purposes the government seemed to have washed its hands of the thorny UFO problem.8 Rather than release the PSS findings, military strategists adopted a policy of secrecy, parallelling the trend initiated two months earlier by the American military establishment in response to recommendations by the Robertson Panel of Scientific Consultants. This CIA-sponsored panel consisted of five hand-picked scientists who concluded that UFOs posed no "direct physical threat to national security", recommending that they be "stripped" of their "special status" and the "aura of mystery" they may have acquired.9 Subsequent leaks to the public about military pursuits of UFOs, including several tragic mishaps, threatened to put the Robertson Panel findings into serious jeopardy. In an effort to contain further leaks, the U.S. Air Force quickly moved to tighten security on all UFO-related activities.10 Information about attempts by the Royal Canadian Air Force to capture UFOs was also kept from the general public, as was the establishment of the UFO landing site at DRB Suffield Experimental Station. (See Chapter 7, 'Military Pilot Sightings'.) To this day, it is unclear what factors precipitated the secrecy. Some of the more plausible reasons might be the reliance on blueprinting U.S. policies, the fear of causing mass panic, the Canadian government's inability to effectively explain the phenomenon to the public or the suspicion that UFOs might be enemy craft, possibly of Soviet origin. While all these factors could have contributed to the secrecy scenario at one time or another, I am inclined to believe that the military establishment was primarily afraid to be placed in the position of explaining a phenomenon that defied explanation. Because of this emphasis on secrecy, much of the UFO activities by the military between 1952 and 1966 have remained 169 obscured under security classifications. It was not until July 1967, during a major nationwide UFO wave, that the veil of secrecy was partially lifted. Confronted with demands for government action, Defence Minister Paul Hellyer set out to reassure the public that the DND was looking into the matter. At the same time, he made the surprise revelation about the existence of the DRB landing site.11 Nine months later, in March 1968, the transfer of UFO investigative responsibility to the National Research Council brought about a further release of UFO files, Even though the documents focused primarily on DND findings between August 1965 and 1968, they did contain certain information about the pre-1965 era. One of the documents - an internal brief to the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) from the Directorate of Operations (DOPS) - brought to light the extent of U.S. influence on Canadian military attitudes toward UFOs. According to the brief dated November 15, 1967, a Canadian scientific committee (unspecified, although presumably Project Second Storey) again concluded the UFOs posed no threat to national security, thereby echoing the findings of the U.S. Robertson Panel.12 The 1968 declassifications also revealed that some of the less sensitive military activities of the 1950s, which included the Project Second Storey findings, were given the less restrictive 'CONFIDENTIAL' security classification.13 It was not until February 16, 1978, that DND's Directorate of History took the bold step of declassifying these documents. While some may conclude that the government's proposed 'freedom of information'14 policy was instrumental in having these documents released, it is my belief that government officials recognised they could no longer maintain a contradictory position on the UFO question. It would be absurd to withhold UFO-related files on the basis of national security, while at the same time officially proclaiming they did not threaten national security. 170 Predictably, the documents that covered the period between July 3, 1947 and March 8, 1961 proved to be of little value. For one thing, the files have been 'sanitised', meaning the names and addresses of UFO witnesses and investigating authorities have been deleted. For another, documents on UFO sightings sent to DND through RCMP channels were withheld at the request of the RCMP.15 Furthermore, records of numerous major sightings were missing, while those that had been released were, at best, fragmentary. Among the cases omitted was the first incident ever to be investigated by government officials: the June 26, 1947, sighting over Ottawa. Also visibly absent were the recurring UFO incidents over Goose Bay (Labrador) Air Force Base between 1948 and 1952. (See Chapters 7 and 10, 'Military Pilot Sightings' and 'UFOs and Radar Sites') In addition, documents covering the three and a half years between December 1954 and June 1958 are missing.16 Are we to conclude that there were no UFO sightings during that period? On the contrary. The crucial and most revealing interdepartmental correspondence between top-ranking military strategists involved in orchestrating UFO policies could not be located either. Furthermore, the files contained no references to RCAF attempts to down a UFO or the ensuing DRB landing site. To close out this period of 'transition', we learn from the November 15 CDS brief that: "at one time, UFO reports were forwarded to Air Defence Command (ADC) for investigation."17 While no dates are given, it is believed the period covered is 1953 to 1957. In 1961, the 1953 date was confirmed by Defence Minister Douglas S. Harkness when he wrote to a NICAP member: "As of 1953, the Air Office Commanding Air Defence Command is charged. with the military investigation of Unidentified Flying Object reports. Information compiled by the RCAF pertaining to this matter (UFOs) is not available to the public."18 171 1956 - Early 1960s. The period from 1956 to the early 1960s marked the intensification of the Cold War and the subsequent emergence of NORAD. With sophisticated radar outposts monitoring the perimeter of the North American continent for hostile, suspicious or unidentifiable airborne craft, UFO reports naturally became subject to even greater secrecy. But the bubble burst on April 12, 1959, when a red disc-like UFO was spotted over Air Defence Command Headquarters at St. Hubert Air Force Base, east of Montreal! The sighting was subsequently confirmed by military authorities. (See Chapter 6, 'UFOs and Military Installations'.) These embarrassing leaks led to further tightening of security measures in an effort to eliminate any further unauthorised disclosures. Soon after, RCAF Group Captain L.C. Dilworth, a spokesman for the Chief of Air Staff, wrote to a NICAP member: The RCAF has recently implemented the JANAP 146(D) procedure for the reporting of vital intelligence sightings. (UFOs included)... Needless to say, the RCAF, in concert with American Forces, is interested in all such reports, and evaluation is done on a systematic basis. While the outcome of individual evaluations is not made public, you may rest assured that any threat to the security of Canada or the United States will be reflected in appropriate military plans.19 Under the JANAP 146(D) provisions, any person (military or civilian) reporting a UFO sighting through official channels is subject to prosecution under the Canada Official] Secrets Act of 1939 if convicted of unauthorised transmission or disclosure of such a sighting.20 As a deterrent, JANAP 146(D) and its successor, JANAP 146(E) (amended it March 1966), were effective in preventing additional UFO leaks. By the early 1960s, Air Defence Command opted out of the UFO business, and Canadian Forces Headquarters (CFHQ) in Ottawa took over the responsibility to investigate 172 sightings. Officially, the "no threat to security" was once more dragged out as the reason behind the transfer.21 Early 1960s to March 1966. This era of military UFO research from the early 1960s to March 1966 was characterised by stepped-up attempts at defusing the entire UFO controversy. Not only was secrecy further entrenched, but government officials went so far as to state that all UFO sightings could be easily explained. On July 22, 1963, in the House of Commons, in response to questions from Liberal Member of Parliament Leonard 'Red' Kelly about Canada's current UFO research activities, the government spokesman replied: While it is not the policy of the department (of National Defence) to deny the public information about Unidentified Flying Objects, such reports are not produced in published form. Investigations to date have classified the sightings as either man-made objects, of which we are aware, or as natural phenomena, well known in scientific circles, but unfamiliar to the general public.22 These statements were in direct contradiction to the November 1967 brief addressed to the Chief of Defence Staff which indicated that: At that time, the Director of Intelligence co-ordinated DND action on UFO reports. Correspondence held on CFHQ UFO files also indicated that Dr. J.C. ArnelI, who was at that time the Scientific Deputy Chief of Technical Services, was an active and interested participant in dealing with UFO matters.23 Clearly, the DND was interested in studying manifestations of UFOs and not natural identifiable celestial objects. To this day, their findings have not been released. The CFHQ participation in solving the UFO mystery came to an abrupt end in March 1966 when, for reasons unknown, another transfer of responsibility took place, this time to the Directorate of Operations (DOPS). March 1966 - March 1968. The phase of military UFO research between March 1966 and March 1968 coincided 173 with Canada's most intensive period of UFO activity up to that point. It also marked the beginning of more intensive attempts by the military to solve the UFO riddle. The transfer to DOPS had barely been consummated when Southern Ontario was struck by extensive UFO activity. During a week-long flurry, which appeared to have spilled over from Michigan, scores of unidentified craft of every conceivable shape and colour were observed by hundreds of onlookers from Windsor to Toronto. Witnessing these sightings were such diverse observers as Metropolitan Toronto police officers and air traffic controllers, as well as Canadian Heavyweight Boxing Champion George Chuvalo.24 Accompanied by his wife and cousin, Chuvalo watched a saucer-shaped craft for over four hours on the evening of March 29, 1966. He declared: "It was a blinking light, mainly red and blue, but it didn't move at all."25 Chuvalo's sighting came only twenty-four hours after he had been defeated by Muhammed Ali in the World Heavyweight Boxing Championship at Maple Leaf Gardens in Toronto. But the most dramatic UFO incident involved Charles Cozens of Hamilton, Ontario, who claimed to have touched the antenna of a landed craft. (See Chapter 3, 'Physical Reactions to Sightings.') This prolonged UFO presence, which had ben recorded earlier in the United States, led former President Gerald Ford, then House Republican Leader, to request a Congressional inquiry into UFOs. Soon after, the U.S. Air Force set up the controversial Condon Committee at the University of Colorado. Evidently influenced by these developments, the DND introduced, in October 1966, a special reporting procedure known as CFAO 71-6 (Canadian Forces Administration Order),26 which was aimed at streamlining the transmission of UFO reports from Canadian Forces Bases to Defence Headquarters. These reports were received from a variety of sources, including law enforcement agencies, military and commercial pilots and the public at large. The directive applied only to UFO reports deemed to be of an 'UNCLASSIFIED' nature, that is, the less sensitive sightings. Apparently, the 172 'juicy' ones, those of military interest, were protected from public exposure through the sanctions of the JANAP directives. During this two-year DOPS tenure, incoming UFO reports were first divided into two general categories: fireball-meteorites and non-fireball meteorites (UFOs). To differentiate between common celestial debris and genuine unidentified craft, the Defence Director of Scientific Coordination (DSC) was routinely called in to assist DOPS staff in conducting the initial breakdown.27 Reports dealing with fireball-meteorites were forwarded to the National Research Council Meteorite Centre for evaluation, while the UFO cases were broken down into three further categories. Reports containing information that warranted further investigation were given a Class A designation, while those of lesser importance or of little predictable value were designated Class B and C respectively,28 Because of the fragmentary nature of the majority of these reports, few sightings merited Class A status. Out of 193 received in the ten and a half months, between January 1 and November 15, 1967, only nine met Class A requirements. Out of these nine, six were judged to contain evidence confirming the presence of a craft of inexplicable origin, while the remaining three could not be dismissed as natural identifiable phenomena.29 Collectively, these nine cases represented some of the most convincing sightings recorded anywhere, including the July 1967 Warren Smith photos (Chapter 1, 'The Photographic Evidence',); the Shoal Lake tree-top damage (Chapter 2, 'UFO Landings and Physical Traces'); and the Falcon Lake UFO landing (Chapter 3, 'Physical Reactions to Sightings'.) As the number of serious, newsworthy UFO incidents increased in late 1967, so did the public demand for military accountability. Combined with parliamentary questioning, this led the military establishment to look for alternate ways of coping with the enigma.30 Unable on the one hand to disprove the existence of UFOs, but unwilling to go so far as to officially admit their existence, Canadian military authorities again took a page out 175 of the American UFO experience. Inspired by the Condon Committee, DND officials decided to refer the entire UFO hot potato to a recognised scientific agency - this time, the National Research Council. In a news release dated January 8, 1968, NRC announced that its Space Research Facilities Branch would soon be: "acting as a clearing house to determine whether there was any scientific reason which would warrant further investigation of UFO reports."3' One reason cited for the transfer was the 'detrimental' and 'disruptive' effect on DND personnel created by the increased workload of UFO investigations.82 In my opinion the transfer was simply a buck-passing exercise to avoid further embarrassment to a government already perplexed by its inability to come to grips with the phenomena. Since the implementation of the transfer in March 1968, the DND has fervently reiterated that it no longer conducts UFO-related research, and that this responsibility now rests solely with the NRC. To this day, any sightings referred to DND are automatically channelled via Telex to the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics in the Planetary Sciences Section of the NRC.33 On the other hand, there seems to be increasing evidence that the military has not altogether abandoned its interest in UFOs. As revealed in the NRC Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, the DND periodically transmits information on certain sensitive UFO occurrences, via Telex, to its U.S. counterpart at NORAD Headquarters in Colorado Springs, and NORAD Regional Headquarters at McCord Air Force Ease in Washington State.34 Transmitted as 'RESTRICTED' material under the U.S./Canada CIRVIS/JANAP directive (Communications Instructions for Reporting Vital Intelligence Sightings), these reports have also been channelled to local strategic military installations, such as NORAD Regional Headquarters at North Bay Air Force Base, North Bay, Ontario, DND Air 176 Command in Winnipeg, as well as National Defence Headquarters in Ottawa.35 One such 'RESTRICTED' CIRVIS report - a suspected UFO landing outside Grande Prairie, Alberta - was transmitted from Canadian Forces Station Beaverlodge (Alberta) to all the above mentioned locations as recently as January 21, 1976.36 Essentially, this means that the DND. through its participation in NORAD, is collaborating with its U.S. partner in collecting and transmitting such 'RESTRICTED' UFO reports. Admittedly, this apparent NOR AD-generated report-sharing does not conclusively prove current DND involvement in UFO research, On the other hand, a deliberate laissez-faire policy toward UFOs seems highly unrealistic. To ignore the consistent presence of unidentified and potentially hostile craft over strategic military installations would represent an unthinkable violation of the mandate and the philosophy inherent in NORAD. 1 Ottawa Journal, April 17, 1952. 2 Ibid. 3 Curt Sutherly, 'First American Pilot to Report UFOs', Sage UFO Report, Vol. 3, No. 6 (March 1977). 4 Ottawa Journal, op. cit. 5 Project Second Storey, 'Minutes of a Meeting to Discuss 'Flying Saucer' Sightings',' April 22, 1952. Defence Research Board. Ottawa. 6 Ibid., Summary Report, November 21, 1953. 7 Ibid., “Minutes of the Meeting,” March 9, 1953., p. 2. 8 Weekend Magazine, Vol. 7, No. 27 (1957) P. 22. 9 Leon Davidson, “Flying Saucers: An Analysis of the Air Force Project Blue Book Special Report No. 14,” Report of the Scientific Panel on Unidentified Flying Objects. H.P. Robertson, Chairman, January 17, 1953 (Saucerian Publications, January 1971). 10 Donald E. Keyhoe, “Flying Saucers: Top Secret”. Doubleday & Co. Inc. New York. 1964. p. 42. 11 Ottawa Journal, July 20, 1967. 12 Chief of Defence (CDS) Briefing on Unidentified Flying Objects, November 15, 1967. p. 3, Directorate of Operations, Department of National Defence. From the Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, DND 222. Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences Section, National Research Council, (Ottawa). 13 Project Second Storey, op. cit., April 24, 1952. 14 The Honourable John Roberts, Secretary of State. 'Legislation on Public Access to Government Documents', (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, June 1977). 15 Telephone conversation with Senior Research Officer P.A.C. Chaplin. Directorate of History, Department of National Defence. Ottawa. February 17, 1978. 18 Department of National Defence UFO File, HQ 940.105-Vol. 2 Directorate of History, Department of National Defence, (Ottawa). 17 CDS Briefing on UFOs, op. cit., p. 4. 18 Richard H. Hall, ed. The UFO Evidence (Washington, D.C.: National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena, 1964). p. 118. 19 Ibid., p. 118. 20 Canadian-United States Communications Instructions for Reporting Vital Intelligence Sightings. Ibid JANAP 146. The Joint Chiefs of Staff Joint Communications-Electronics Committee Washington 25, D.C. February 1959, p. 134. 21 CDS Briefing on UFOs, op. cit., p. 4. 22 The House of Commons Debates July 22, 1963, p. 2448. 23 CDS Briefing on UFOs, op. cit., p. 4. 24 Toronto Star, March 29, 1966. 25 Toronto Telegram, March 31, 1966. 26 Reporting of Unidentified Flying Objects, CFAO 71-6, s-1605-71-6 V 2000-4 (DOPS). Issued 7 October 1966. Department of National Defence (Ottawa). 27 CDS Briefing on UFOs, op. cit., p. 9. 28 Ibid., p. 10. 29 Department of National Defence, DOPS UFO File, January 1 - November 15, 1967. From the Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, DND 24-222. Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences Section, National Research Council, (Ottawa). 30 The House of Commons Debates, November 6, 1967. p. 3918. of the American UFO experience. 31 Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences Section, National Research Council, Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, DND 209, January 8, 1968, (Ottawa). 32 CDS Briefing on UFOs, op. cit., pp. 24-25. 33 A.G. McNamara, 'UFOs - What Are They?' Journal of the Canadian - Air Traffic Control Association, Vol. 8, No. 1(1976). 34 Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, NRC N76-011, op. cii. January 21, 1976. 35 Ibid. 35 Ibid. Department of Transport Project Magnet One of the first scientists to suggest that UFOs represented a probable by-product of advanced extra-planetary technology was Wilbert B. Smith. a radio engineer with the Canadian Department of Transport (DOT). Recognised today as the pioneer of UFO research in Canada, he was instrumental in generating DOT-sponsored UFO research in 1950 which yielded some startling findings. At the time, Smith was head of DOT's Broadcast and Measurements Section. As a world expert in electromagnetism and telecommunications, he had little difficulty in convincing his superiors to examine what in effect was his personal fascination with the UFO phenomenon.1 It was at a North American broadcasting conference in Washington in early 1950 that he first proposed to his superior, DOT Deputy Minister John Baldwin, the need for government-spon- 177 sored UFO study.2 The dramatic increase in the volume of nation-wide sightings during the ensuing months added considerable support to his proposal. Despite mass media's sensationalist portrayal of the UFO phenomenon, public acceptance at that time was surprisingly high. According to a poll taken in July of 1950 by the Canadian Institute of Public Opinion, Half of the adult population of Canada believed that these mysterious disks are not just imagination and that they are not just a natural phenomenon.3 By December of that year, Smith was given the green light by Commander G.P. Edwards, then Deputy Minister of Transport for Air Services, to go ahead with a UFO study which came to be known as Project Magnet.4 Authorised by DOT engineers to draw on UFO reports from across Canada, Smith embarked on this historical venture with the assistance of his colleagues from within his own Broadcast and Measurement Section. To this day many of the Project Magnet findings remain classified material, with two notable exceptions - a small-scale study of twenty-five 1952 sightings. released in May 1968; and the public disclosure of an unprecedented instrument recording of a suspected UFO over the Project Magnet sighting station at Shirley Bay, ten miles west of Ottawa, in August 1954. The 1952 study clearly demonstrated that the majority of cases compiled in the eight-month period from May I to December 31 could not be explained as natural identifiable phenomena. Of the twenty-five sightings analyzed, sixteen—or 64 per cent—were either circular, elliptical, ring-like or cone-shaped vessels unlike any known man-made craft.5 From this cross section of nation-wide cases Smith was able to draw the following conclusions: They are a hundred feet or more in diameter; they can travel at speeds of several thousand miles per hour; they can reach altitudes well above these which would support conventional aircraft or balloons; and ample power 178 and force seem to be available for all required maneuvers. Taking these factors into account, it is difficult to reconcile this performance with the capabilities of our technology, and unless the technology of some terrestrial nation is much more advanced than is generally known, we are forced to the conclusion that the vehicles are probably extra-terrestrial, in spite of our prejudices to the contrary.6 Even though DOT had initially given Smith full authorisation and co-operation, it soon became evident that his controversial findings led to a downgrading of Project Magnet by subsequent administrations. When portions of its report were declassified on May 9, 1968. it became clear that the government had entirely disassociated itself from both the mandate and the conclusion of the project. This was spelled out in a disclaimer signed by Dr. Peter Millman, then head of Upper Atmosphere Research of the National Research Council, and former Chairman of the Project Second Storey Committee: I have been informed by the Department of Transport that although Project Magnet was officially authorised by the Department, work on this Project was carried out almost entirely by Mr. W.B. Smith and was in the nature of a spare time activity. The conclusions reached in this report are entirely those of Mr. Smith and do not represent an official opinion of either the Department of Transport or of the Second Storey Committee.7 What may have triggered the demise of Project Magnet was Smith's highly publicized instrument recording in August 1954, heralded by the press as the worlds first.8 In the wake of the excitement generated by his 1952 findings, Smith had received approval to set up a UFO detection station at DOT's electronic establishment at Shirley Bay. Open for operations in mid-December 1953, the twelve-foot-square laboratory was equipped with an assortment of sophisticated electronic equipment including a gamma ray detector, a radio wave detector, an ionospheric recorder to monitor activity and changes in the ionised layer of gases sixty miles from the earth's surface, and a gravimeter, designed to detect magnetic 179 and gravity fluctuations in the atmosphere.9 Assisting Smith were Professor J.T. Wilson of the University of Toronto; Dr. James Wait, a theoretical physicist with the Defence Research Board, and Dr. G.D. Garland, gravitational expert at the federal Mines and Technical Survey Department.10 Once the station was in operation, Smith and his colleagues instituted a twenty-four-hour vigil. Nothing unusual was recorded until eight months later when on Sunday, August 8, 1954, at 3:01 PM, the station's alarm bells rang out signalling that the gravimeter had been tripped. Fortunately, Smith was on hand to observe the instrument activation.11 He dashed over to look at it and: the deflection in the line (drawn by an electronically operated-pen) was greater and more pronounced than we have seen even when a large aircraft has passed over. bead. I ran outside to see what might be in the sky. The overcast was down to a thousand feet, so that whatever was up there, whatever it was that caused the sharp variation was concealed behind the clouds. We must now ask ourselves what it could have been, Although the evidence was inconclusive, Smith was convinced no known natural atmospheric phenomenon could account for the unusual pattern.12 Uncomfortable with the extensive press coverage sparked by the incident, Department of Transport officials unceremoniously discontinued Project Magnet two days later. This surprise move, described years later by Smith as "premature",13 coincided with a tightening of military secrecy on UFOs in the United States, following repeated leaks about tragic mishaps and mysterious disappearances of military pilots who had pursued UFOs. It soon became apparent that Smith had been persuaded to publicly downplay the Project Magnet findings. When he appeared before the House of Commons Special Committee on Broadcasting on May 17, 1955, be made the surprise admission that: 180 On the basis of our measurements, which were nil, we came to the conclusion we had very little data of any nature to go on.14 After that, Smith was still allowed to pursue his interests in UFOs privately: but without DOT co-operation he was forced to scale down his research. Prior to his untimely death in 1962, he restated his beliefs in an interview with Weekend Magazine. From the weight of the evidence, I think they come from outer space. But I can't prove it. The best I have is data on which you can put a probability figure . . look at this way, if a stock promoter told you that there was a 60 per cent probability that a certain stock would go up, I don't think you'd invest with him. But if the weatherman told you there was a 60 per cent probability that a hurricane was going to hit your area, I think you'd hurry up and bring in the lawn furniture. It's a question of viewpoint. You have to make up your own mind how significant you think the matter is.15 The documents relating to the Shirley Bay operation have remained classified to this day. The following classical case of parliamentary 'double talk' took place in the House of Commons on December 4, 1963, and demonstrates the government's preoccupation with secrecy. Government spokesman Yvon Dupuis (Parliamentary Secretary to the Secretary of State) responded to questions from Harold Winch (PC-Vancouver East). Winch: Is Canada co-operating with the special United States program for investigation of unidentified flying objects and if so, is this entitled 'Project Magnet'? Dupuis: The United States program known as 'Project Magnet' is not directed to the investigation of unidentified flying objects. Winch: Is 'Project Magnet' an un-publicised,. worldwide operation, using specially equipped, super constellations, non-uniformed pilots and civilian scientists? Dupuis: 'Project Magnet' is a program conducted by 181 the naval oceanographic office of the U.S. Navy concerned with the compilation of geo-magnetic data covering all the oceans of the world. Winch: Is any data available from 'Project Magnet' to the general public? Dupuis: It is understood that data obtained in 'Project Magnet' in the form of geo-magnetic charts is available upon the application to the Naval Oceanographic Office of the U.S. Navy.16 1 Harry Tokarz. 'Canadian UFO Research-Tribute to a Pioneer' Wilbert B. Smith, 'The UFO Pulse Analyser', Issue No. 1 (April 1977) p. 19. 2 Weekend Magazine, Vol.7, No. 27 (1957) p.4. 3 Ibid., p. 4. 4 Project Magnet Report, Radio and Electrical Engineering Division, National Research Council. Released May 9, 1968. (Ottawa), p. 1. Ibid., pp. 6-7. 6 Ibid., pp. 10-11. 7 Ibid., Note on Project Magnet Report, Forward. 8 Toronto Globe and Mail, August 10, 1954. 9 ibid. 10 Sudbury Star, November 12, 1953. 11 Toronto Globe and Mail. op. cit. 12 Toronto Star, May 18, 1955. 13 Toronto Star, op. cit. 14 The House of Commons Special Committee on Broadcasting. Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence. No. 8. Tuesday, May 17, 1955 (Ottawa: Queen's Printer). 15 Weekend Magazine, op. cit., p. 21. 16 The House of Commons Debates December 4, 1963, p. 5408. The National Research Council Since it took over responsibility for UFO investigation from the Department of National Defence in February 1968, th6 Planetary Sciences Section of the Hcrzberg Institute of Astrophysics at the National Research Council (NRC) has acted primarily as a compilation and recording agency and only peripherally as an investigative body. This fact was recently confirmed in a telephone interview I bad with the bead of the Planetary Sciences Section, Dr. Allen G. McNamara, who disclosed that since 1968 the NRC had received between fifteen hundred to two thousand UFO sighting reports classified as 'non-meteoritic sightings'. Of these, about one hundred, or between 5 to 6.6 per cent were examined: in what we would call some detail... checking data on planets, satellites, analysis of position in the sky and calculation of where this might be in respect to celestial objects. According to Dr. McNamara, "none have defied explanation."2 This estimate of the number of actively investigated cases is much higher than the number specified by Dr. McNamara on the August 15, 1976, edition of the CBC-Radio phone-in program 'Summer Switchboard', in which he stated: 182 "I don't know the specific number, but I suppose there were at least two."3 Attempting to explain the low numbers of UFO investigations in both instances, Dr. McNamara referred to the UFO research mandate inherited by the NRC: "Our responsibility was that the NRC would take over the maintenance of a file of UFO reports and conduct any investigations determined by the scientific merit they appeared to have. There was no commitment to do anything specific."4 His interpretation of NRC activities falls short of the initial intent by the military when they transferred responsibility to the research agency. In a November 1967 brief from Chief of Defence Staff it was recommended that: The National Research Council accept the responsibility for co-ordinating a scientific and objective investigation into UFO reports.5 NRC's poor record can be explained by its apparent disinterest in UFO matters. According to John B. Musgrave, Alberta Provincial Director for the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON): Although often believed or stated that this section is actively engaged in UFO study, this branch is only interested in these reports as potential sightings of meteorites. Hence, all reports sent to NRC are classified as either 'meteoritic' or 'non-meteoritic'. Needless to say, for their purposes, any potential UFO sighting is part of their 'garbage-can' file.6 Musgrave's assessment of NRC's lack of interest remains unchallenged. When asked what determines whether a UFO sighting is investigated, Dr. McNamara replied: "anything that appears of scientific interest with particular reference to 183 meteors of course." When asked if the priority would, then, be meteorites and fireballs, he replied "Yes."7 As a result, it would appear that UFO reports deemed to be of 'scientific interest' receive, at best, a cursory evaluation. The examples are plentiful. Some of these include the Shoal Lake tree-top damage physical trace (June 18, 1967) and the case of the disappearing UFO photos at the Falconbridge Radar Station (November 11, 1975). Even more curious is the high number of UFO incidents that have aroused only negligible response from the NRC - the Montreal rooftop occupant landing (January 6, 1977), the Pat McCarthy (Hamilton) UFO photos (March 18, 1975), the Lake Baskatong UFO photos (March 11, 1978) and the UFO presence and ensuing blackout over the Parliament Buildings in Ottawa (June 5, 1969). Several other important points came to light in the interview with Dr. McNamara. First, all incoming UFO reports are initially broken down into meteorite and non-meteorite classifications by a data analyst "who had been trained to recognise these things". Dr. McNamara does not personally check each sighting report as it comes in. Second, only one UFO-related ground marking case has been investigated by the NRC. After a white granular material was found near Stirling, Ontario, in May 1971, on a circular patch of inhibited plant growth, samples were submitted by Toronto ufologist Henry McKay to the NRC; scientists there referred the matter to the Soil Research Institute of Agriculture Canada.8 Laboratory findings revealed the substance to be anhydrous uric acid. Third, subsequent physical trace cases were not looked into since "on the basis of the previous one (the Stirling incident) it could not be done again unless it Was paid for by the person who bad requested it." Fourth, the NRC has not requested UFO research funds from the Treasury Board, nor does Dr. McNamara see "any justification for this." Fifth, no one within the Planetary Sciences Section is involved in analyzing UFO reports on a full time basis. Sixth, allegations that the NRC has a secret UFO file is in Dr. McNamara's words, "pure fabrication". 184 Seventh, the NRC has never submitted incoming UFO photos to the digital computer photo evaluation experts at Ground Saucer Watch in Phoenix, Arizona. Eighth, the NRC claims not to accept any classified military UFO reports. Nevertheless, “Restricted” CIRVIS/ JANAP reports not destined for the NRC- and, in effect, not for public exposure, have ended up in NRC flies. Dr. McNamara dismisses the bilateral military research “collaboration theory” and believes the misdirected transmission of such reports is purely accidental. Meanwhile, significant UFO incidents remain unexplored, and ignored. 1 Telephone conversation with Dr. Allen 0. McNamara, January 18, 1979. 2 Ibid. 3 UFO-Quebec, Troisième Trimestre, Num6ro 7 (1976) p. 13. 4 Telephone conversation with Dr. McNamara, op. cit. 5 Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) Briefing on Unidentified Flying Objects, November 15, 1967. p. 26. Directorate of Operations, Department of National Defence. From the Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, DNO 222. Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Planetary Sciences Section, National Research Council, (Ottawa). 6 Leonard H. Stringfield, Situation Red: The T.JFO Siegel (New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1977), p. 160. 7 Telephone conversation with Dr. McNamara. op. cit. 8 N. Miles and S.P. Mathur '“Seasonal Incidence of Anhydrous Uric Acid Granules in the Collision Zone of Two Fairy Rings', Canadian Journal of Soil Science, No. 52 (October 1972) p. 515. Bibliography BOOKS Berendzen, Richard, ed. Life Beyond Earth and the Mind of Man. Washington: National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) SP-328. 1973. Blum, Ralph and Judy Bluni. Beyond Earth-Man's Contact With UFOs. New York: Bantam Books, 1974. Bourret, Jean-Claude. La Vouvelle Vague des Soucaupes Volantes. Paris: Editions France-Empire, 1974. Bowen, Charles. The Hurnanoids. London: Neville Spearman Ltd., 1974. Bray, Arthur. Science, the Public and the UFO. Ottawa: Bray Book Service, 1967. Condon, Edward U. First Report of the Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Saucers. New York: Bantam Books, 1969. Edwards, Frank. Flying Saucers - Serious Business. Secaucus, N.J. Lyle Stuart Inc., 1966. Flying Saucers Here and Now. Secaucus N.J.: Lyle Stuart Inc., 1967. Flammoode, Paris. UFO Exist! New York: Ballantine Books, 1977. Fuller, John G. Aliens in the Sky. New York: G.P. Putnam - Berkley Medallion, 1967. Geis, Larry and Florin, Fabrke (ed). Worlds Beyond - The Everlasting Frontier. Berkeley, Ca. And/Or Press. 1979. Haisell, David. The Missing Seven Hours. Markham, Ontario: PaperJacks, Ltd., 1978. Hall, Richard H. (ed) The UFO Evidence. Washington: National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP), 1964. Hobana, Ion and Weverbergh, Julien. UFOs From Behind the Iron Curtain. New York: Bantam Books, 1975. Hynek, J. Allen and Vallée, Jacques. The Edge of Reality. Chicago: Henry Regnery Co., 1975. The UFO Experience - A Scientific Enquiry. New York: Ballantine Books, 1974. Keyhoe, Donald E. Aliens From Space. New York: New American Library. 1974. The Flying Saucer Conspiracy. New York: Holt, 1955. Flying Saucers From Outer Space. New York: Bolt, 1953. Flying Saucers: Top Secret. New York: G.P. Putnam, 1960. Klass, Philip J. UFOs - Identified. New York: Random House, 1968. Landsberg, Alan and Sally Landsberg. The Outer Space Connection. New York: Bantam Books, 1975. Lorenzeu, Coral E. Encounters With UFO Occupants. New York: Berkley Medallion, 1976. and James Lorenzen. UFOs: The Whole Story. New York: New American Library, Inc, June 1969. McCampbell, James M. UFOLOGY - New Insights From Science and Common Sense. Belmont, Ca. Jaymac Co., 1973. MacDuff, Claude. Le Procès Des Soucoupes Volantes. Montréal: Editions Québec-Amerique, 1975. McHale, John. The Future of the Future. New York: Ballantine Books, 1971. Magor, John. Our UFO Visitors. Vancouver: Hancock House, 1977. Menzel, Donald H. Flying Saucers. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1953. Michalak, Stephen. My Encounter With the UFO. Winnipeg: Osnova Publications, 1967. Michél Aimé. Flying Saucers and the Straight-Line Mystery. New York: Criterion Books, Inc., 1958. Michél, Aimé. Pour Les Soucoupes Volantes. Nancy, France: Bergen-Levrault, 1969. Neville, Roy G. et al. Microwaves. Kirt Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Wiley, 1971. Pearce, Joseph Chilton. The Crack in the Cosmic Egg. New York: Pocket Books, 1973. Sagan, Carl (ed). Communication With Extraterrestrial Intelligence (CETI). Boston: MIT Press. 1973. and Jerome Agel. The Cosmic Connection: An Extraterrestrial Perspective. New York: Dell, 1973. and Thornton Page. UFOs - A Scientific Debate. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., Inc., 1972. Sanderson, Ivan T. Uninvited Visitors. London: Universal-Tandem Publishing Co. Ltd., 1974. Saunders, David R. and Roger R. Harkins. UFOs? Yes! New York: New American Library, 1968. Steiger, Brad. Project Blue Book. New York: Ballantine Books, 1976. Stringfield, Leonard H. Situation Red, the UFO Siege! Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Co., Inc. 1977. Telihard de Chardin. The Future of Man. New York: Harper & Row, 1964. PERIODICALS The APRO Bulletin - Tucson, Arizona: Aerial Phenomena Research Organization. Canadian UFO Report - Duncan, British Columbia. CAPRO Bulletin. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Canadian Aerial Phenomena Research Organization. Flying Saucer Review - Maidstone, Kent, England. The Futurist - Washington, D.C. World Future Society. The Humanist Hydroscope - Toronto: Ontario Hydro. Inforespace - Brussels. SOBEPS. International UFO Reporter - Evanston, illinois: Center for UFO Studies. Journal UFO - Mississauga, Ont. U.P. Investigations Research Inc. Just Cause - Bronx, N.Y.: Citizens Against UFO Secrecy. The MUFON UFO - Journal/Skylook - Seguin, Texas: The Mutual UFO Network. OMNI - New York: 0MNI Publications International, Ltd. Res Bureaux Bulletin - Kingston, Ontario: Res Bureaux. SAGA UFO Report - Brooklyn, N.Y.: Gambi Publications, Inc. Science Digest - New York: The Hearst Corporation. Topside - Aylmer, Quebec: Ottawa New Sciences Club. UFO Canada/UFO Researcher's Newsletter - Laval, Quebec: UFO Canada. The UFO Informer - St. Catharines, Ont.: Project S.U.M. (Solve the UFO Mystery). The UFO Investigator. Kensington, Md./Washington, D.C.: National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomenon (NICAP). UFO Québec. Dollard-Des-Ormeaux, P.Q.: Association UFO Québec. The UFO Pulse Analyser - Willowdale, Ont.: Canadian UFO Research Network (CUFORN). UFO Review - New York: UFO News Service. UFO Update - Mississauga, Ont.: Northeastern UFO Organization. MISCELLANEOUS Allan, William K. A compendium of taped interviews with. UFO witnesses. Kelowna, British Columbia. Canadian Forces Administrative Order (CFAO) 71-6, s-1605-71-6 V 20004 (DOPS). Issued October 7, 1966. Department of National Defence, Ottawa. Canadian Forces Command and Location Map. Mapping and Charting Establishment. (Ottawa), Department of National Defence, 1976. Canadian-United States Communications Instructions for Reporting Vital Intelligence Sightings (CIRVIS/MERINT), JANAP 146. The Joint Chiefs of Staff Joint Communications-Electronics Committee. Washington, D.C., February, 1959. Davidson, Leon, 'Flying Saucers, an Analysis of the Air Force Project Blue Book Special Report No. 14'. Saucerian Publications, January, 1971. DND UFO File. HQ-940-105-Vol. 2 Directorate of History, Department of National Defence, Ottawa. Fowler, Raymond E., ed. MUFON Field Investigator's Manual, Mutual UFO Network, Sequin, Texas, 1975. Friedman, Stanton T., 'Flying Saucer Energetics'. UFO Research Institute (UFORI), Hayward, Ca., 1970. 'Flying Saucers and Physics'. UFO Research Institute (UFORI), Hayward, Ca., June, 1974. 'Ufology and the Search for ET Intelligent Life'. UFO Research Institute (UFORI), Hayward Ca., June, 1973. 'UFOs; Myth and Mystery'. UFO Research Institute, Hayward, Ca., June, 1971. Grescoe, Paul, 'This Man Knows UFOs'. Weekend Magazine, May 25, 1968. Ground Saucer Watch, Computer Photographic Analyses. Phoenix, Arizona. Courtesy. William H. Spaulding, Director. Directorate of Operations (DOPS) Report to Chief of Defence Staff. Planetary Sciences Section, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council. Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, DND 222. November 11, 1967. Ottawa. House of Commons Debate: Hansard. Queen's Printer, Ottawa. The House of Commons Special Committee on Broadcasting, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence. No. 8, May 17, 1955. Queen's Printer, Ottawa. Hynek, J. Allen, 'The UFO Phenomenon/UFO-IFO/Close Encounters', three-tape cassette/slide narrations. Edmund Scientific Co. Barrington. New Jersey. Klass, Philip J. 'UFOs. Fact or Fantasy?' The Humanist, July/August, 1976. Carison, David R. 'The Air Force and the UFO'. Aerospace Historia, Canada Publication, Toronto. Vol. 22, No. 4. Winter 1974. Manitoba Centre for UFO Studies, Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature, (Winnipeg Planetarium). Research documents, courtesy of Edward Barker, Director. McNamara, Allen G., UFOs - What Are They?' Journal of the Air Traffic Control Association, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1976. Miles, N. and Mathur, S.P., 'Seasonal Incidence of Anhydrous Uric Acid Granules in the Collision Zone of Two Fairy Rings'. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, No. 52, October, 1972. MUFON Symposium Proceedings, 1976, Ann Arbor, Michigan. A preliminary catalog. Mutual UFO Network, Seguin, Texas. Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, Planetary Sciences Section, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, Ottawa, 196 to present. Official Secrets Act. R.S., c. 198, sl Section 15 (1) Chapter 0-3, p. 11. Queens Printer, Ottawa. Ontario Hydro, 'Bruce Nuclear Power Development', 'Hydro and the Environment', 'Pickering Generating Station', 'Power From the Ottawa', Toronto, Ontario. Phillips, Ted and Mimi Hynek, 'Physical Traces Associated With UFO Sightings'. Center for UFO Studies, Evanston, Illinois. July 1975. Proceedings of the 1976 CUFOS Conference, Center for UFO Studies, (Evanston, Illinois), 1976. Project Magnet Report. Radio and Electrical Engineering Division, National Research Council, Ottawa. Released May 9, 1968. Project Second Storey. A Compendium of Minutes of Meetings and Summary Reports. Defence Research Board, Department of National Defence, Ottawa. Roberts, John, The Honourable, Secretary of State. 'Legislation on Public Access to Government Documents'. Queen's Printer, Ottawa, June, 1977. Tennyson, Rod. 'Analysis of Ground Markings, Summary'. Aerospace Studies Institute, University of Toronto, 1969. 'Thesis, Synthesis, Antithesis', A Joint Symposium sponsored by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (ATAA) and the World Future Society, Los, Angeles, Ca., 1975. The UFO Society of Edmonton, research documents. Courtesy, Ashley Pachal. Weekend Magazine, Volume 2, No. 6. February 9, 1974. Index Abductions of animals, 60, 74 witnesses 60, 75-76 Abee, Alberta, 49-52 Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO), 17, 40, 48, 76-77 Air Canada, 45, 154, 163 Alberta, 65, 105-107 Aliens From Space, 98 Allan, William K., 65-67, 82 American Astronomical Society, 2 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), 55 Amnesia, 75-82 Annola, Sylvia, 49-52 APRO Bulletin, 17 Arnold, Kenneth, 166 Associated Press (AP), 104 Australia, 2, 142 Baskatong Reservoir, Quebec, 9-12, 183 Beaverlodge (Alberta), Canadian Forces Station, 176 Bennett, Tom, 27 Bermuda Triangle, 58, 102 Bissky, Squadron Leader, P., 40 Blaquière, Phillipe, 73 Boyd, Lee, 157, 158 Bray, Arthur, 150 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), 40 British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC), 156 Brown, Darryl, 159 Cadieux, Leo, 43, 45 Calgary, Alberta, 13-15, 80-86, 106 Canada, 1, 3, 5, 22, 73-74 Canada, Government of, Agriculture, Department of, Soil Research Institute, 23, 165, 183 Atomic Energy Control Board, 90-91 CDS (Chief of Defence Staff), 14, 32, 169, 172, 182 CFAO (Canadian Forces Administration Order), 173 CFHQ (Canadian Forces Headquarters), 32, 46. 108, 111, 172 Defence Photo Interpretation Centre, 14 Defence Research Board, 46, 90, 98, 165-66, 169-70, 179 Defence Research Naval Laboratory, 94 DEW (Distant Early Warning Line), 140, 150-52 Directorate of History, 169 Directorate of Intelligence, 112 Directorate of Scientific Coordination, 173-74 DOPS (Directorate of Operations), 46, 169, 172-73 House of Commons, 19, 42, 45, 148, 172, 179-80 National Defence, Department of, 14, 33, 42, 88, 96, 102, 106, 132, 134, 143, 149, 161, 165-75 Air Defence Command, 170-71, 175-76 Headquarters, 98, 145-46, 176 National Health and Welfare, Department of, 41 National Research Council, 19, 33, 42, 89, 135, 141, 162, 165. 169, 174, 175, 181-84 Non-Meteoritic Sightings File, 43, 175, 181-84 NORAD (North American Air Defence Command), 62, 87-89, 96, 102, 140, 144, 152, 171, 175-76 Pinetree Line, 140-49 Privy Council, 43 Project Magnet, 93, 167, 177-81 Project Second Storey Committee, 91, 161-69, 178 RCAF (Royal Canadian Air Force), 40, 49, 89, 93, 98-99,105, 108-109, 132, 134, 168-71 RCAF Intelligence, 91, 166 RCMP (Royal Canadian Mounted Police), 24, 26, 40-43, 48, 132-33, 165, 169 Scientific Deputy Chief of Technical Services, 172 Transport, Department of, 161, 162, 165, 161, 176-71 180 Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute, 158 Canadian Institute of Public Opinion 177 Canadian Press, The, 30, 151 Cannon, Brian, 95 Cape Perry, Dew Line State (Yukon), 151 Carter, Jimmy, 2-3 CAUS (Citizens Against UFO Secrecy), 3, 147 CBC (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 40, 142, 182 CETI (Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence), Bywakan Astrophysical Observatory, 57 CFCN-AM Radio, 66, 82 CIA (Central Intelligence Agency), 3, 102, 168 Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS), 2, 11, 22, 80, 127 Chapeau, Allummette Island, Quebec, 29-30 Chaput, Leo, Paul, 29-30 Chicago Tribune, 104 Childerhose, Robert, 1, 107 China Syndrome, 114 Churchill, Manitoba, 159-60 Chuvalo, George, 173 CIRVIS/JANAP (Communications Instructions for the Reporting of Vital Intelligence Sightings), 93, 139, 171, 174, 175-76, 184 Clappison Esther, 65-67 Close Encounters of the Third Kind, 9, 36 'close encounter symptoms', 35-36, 39-40, 78 Condon Committee, 77, 173-74 Conway, Graham, 25, 28 Cooper, Gordon, 5 Cote, Roger, 161-62 Cozens, Charles, 44-45, 173 CP Air, 154, 160 Crandell, Sergeant D.V., 89 David Dunlap Observatory, 110 Deep River, Ontario, 120-21 Devoir, Le, 136-37 Donderi, Don, 12 Dorval Airport (Montreal), 62-63, 92, 161 Douglas Point Nuclear Generating Station, 117-19 Dreams, 77, 82-83 Dupuis, Yvon, 180 Edwards, Frank, 130 Environmental Damage, 114, 119 Esquimalt (British Columbia), Canadian Forces Base, 93-95 Extraterrestrial life, 5, 6, 19, 53-55, 57-59, 78-79, 88, 93 176-78, 179 Fairy rings Marasmius oreodis, 23 Falcon Lake, Manitoba. 37-43, 174 Falconbridge, Canadian Forces Radar Station, 144-48, 163, 183 Flammonde, Paris, 3 Flying Saucers and the Straight-Line Mystery, 12 Ford, Gerald, 173 Fort Macleod, Alberta, 107 Fortney, Edward, 47-49 France, 2, 3 Freedom of Information Act, 3, 5, 88, 147, 170 Friedman, Stanton, T., 4, 5, 105-106, 142 Frum, Barbara, 142 Funk, Gilbert, 49-53 Gairy, Eric, 4 Gammie, Bert, 99 Gander, Newfoundland, 100-101 Gander Airport, (Gander), 101 Georgia Thermal Generating Plant, 122 Globe and Mail (Toronto), 89, 127 Gontovnick, Howard, 63 Goose Bay Air Force Base, Newfoundland, 110-11, 143-44, 157, 170 Government House, Ottawa, 132-33 Grand Falls, Montana, 106-107 Green Lake, British Columbia, 99 Ground Saucer Watch (GSW), 3, 7, 13, 15-16, 89 Guelph Daily Mercury, 19 Halifax Mail-Star, 151 Halliday, Dr. Ian, 147 Hamilton, Ontario, 7, 17-19, 44-46, 75, 173 Hamilton Spectator, The, 18, 45 Hammond, Ontario, 115 Harder, Dr. James, 76-78 Harris, Jim, 127 Hellyer, Paul, 98, 169 Horton, Samuel, 118 Hoville, Wido, 11-12, 63, 67, 73, 161 Howard, James, 156-58 Howe, William D., 45 Hull, Quebec, 134-36 Hunag, Dr. S.S., 57 Hydro-Quebec, 114, 135 Hydroscope, 116, 118 Hynek, Dr. J. Allen, 2-3, 4-5, 11-12, 19, 33, 126, 142 Hypnotic regression, 54, 69-71, 76-81, 82 Indianapolis Star, 129 Jacobson, Eleanor M., 15-16 Jerome, Major Edwin A., 143-44 Journal de Montreal, Le, 62-63 Keel, John A., 79-80 Kelly, Leonard (Red), 172 Kenora, Ontario, 15-16 Keyhoe, Major Donald E., 98, 99, 102 110-11, 126. 129 Kinross U.S. Air Force Base, 103-104 KLRH Radio, Lackland U.S. Air Force Base, 103, 104 Lake Huron, 117-18 Lake Ontario, 18, 117, 127 Lake Superior, 102-105 Langenburg, Saskatchewan, 23 Lavoie, Jacques, 9-12 Lehn, W.H., 142 London, Ontario, 109-10 London Free Press, 109-10 Lucas, Douglas, 29 Maccabee, Dr. Bruce, S., 5, 142 MacDonald, Dr. James E., 126, 128, 130, 158 McKenna, Dr. C.J., 90 MacDuff, Claude, 136 Maine, Dr. Frank, 19 Malboeuf, Florida, 61-64 Manicouagan Hydro-electric Complex (Quebec), 136 Manitoba Centre for UFO Studies, 35-41 Manitoba, Government of Forestry, Department of, 33 Health and Social Development, Department of, 40, 41 Marshall, William, (Mrs.), 121-23 Mather, Barry, 43 Mayo Clinic, 42, 44 McCampbell, James M., 33, 35-36 McCarthy, Mary, 120-21 McCarthy, Pat, 7, 17, 19, 183 McCord U.S. Air Force Base, 175 McIntosh, Dr. Bruce, 147-48 McKay, Henry, 183 McMaster University (Hamilton Ont.), 18 McNamara, Dr. Allen G., 181-84 McRae Flight Sergeant Reginald, Michalak, Stephen, 37-43, 60 Millbank, Stephen, 153, 154 Miller, J.A., 163-64 Millman, Dr. Peter, 33, 90, 167, 178 Monda, Lieutenant Felix, Jr., 103-104 Mont Rougemont, Quebec, 73, 137-39 Montreal-Matin, 135 Montreal Urban Community Police, 63 Morier, Ronald L., 24 Mount Pleasant, Ontario, 27-29 Musgrave, John B., 54, 182-83 Mutual UFO Network (MUFON), 5, 54, 75-76, 182 My Encounter With the UFO, 37-43 National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA), 2, 8, 122 NBC-TV, 14, 100 Neal, Reginald, 94-95 New York City, 128-29 New Zealand, 5, 142 Niagara Falls, Ontario, 127-28 NICAP (National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomenon), 103, 105, 126, 141, 143, 151, 171 North Bay Air Force Base (Ontario), 62, 87, 90-91, 147-48, 162, 166, 175 Northeast Blackout, 125-31, 135 Novaya Zemlaya Effect, 142 Nuclear Energy, 114-19 Nuclear Power Demonstration, (NPD), Rolphton, Ontario, 120 Oliver, Donald. 150-51 Oliver, Major Michael, 145 Ontario, 45, 108-109, 126, 173 Ontario, Government of, Lands and Forests, Department of (Environment), 30 Ontario Provincial Police (OPP), 28, 120-21. 164 Solicitor General, Forensic Services Centre, 28-29 Ontario Hydro, 115-17, 120, 127, 133 Ottawa, Ontario, 14, 132-36, 166, 170, 177 Ottawa Citizen, The, 120, 134 Ottawa Journal, The, 121, 134, 165-66 Pachal, Ashley, 49-52 Parks, Andy. 117 Parliament Hill, 8, 126, 132-35, 183 Pembroke, Ontario, 29 Persinger, Dr. Michael, 58 Petawawa (Ontario), Canadian Forces Base, 121 Phillips, Ted, 20, 23-24 Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (Ontario), 115-18 Pilots, Civilian, 153-64, 173 Pilots, Military, 87, 96-110, 144, 147-48, 173 Poher, Dr. Claude, 4 Port Coquitlam, British Columbia, 25-27 Project Blue Book, 14, 106-107 Project UFO (TV Program), 100 Quebec (Province), 135-38, 154-63 Quebec City, 161-62 Radar, False Signals, 5, 141, 147 installations, 101, 103, 106-107, 111, 140-52 Tracking of UFOs, 6, 101, 103, 106-108, 110, 140-52, 160, 163 Radiation, Microwave, 21, 33, 35-36, 48, 52, 67, 124 Nuclear, 36, 39-40, 42, 45, 116, 119-20 Radium, 40-41 Regina, Saskatchewan, 107 Reid, John, 148-50 Rimouski, Quebec, 136 Rosedale, Alberta, 56, 65, 67 Rossell, Warrant Officer E.H., 90 Rougemont, Quebec, 137-39 Roy, Jean, 68, 162 Sagan, Dr. Carl, 57 Saint Matthias de Chambly, Quebec, 72-74 Schreyer, Edward (Governor General of Canada), 43 Seewaldt, David, 81-86 Selfridge (U.S.) Air Force Base, Michigan, 118, 147 Sept-Iles, Quebec, 156-58 Shirleys Bay, Ontario, 177-SO Shoal Lake, Ontario, 31-33, 174, 183 Simon Fraser University (Vancouver, B.C.), 27 Sioux Lookout Canadian Forces Radar Station (Ontario), 148-49 Sioux Lookout Daily Bulletin, 149-50 Sir Adam Beck No. 2 Generating Station (Ontario), 127-30 Smith, Warren, 13-14, 174 Smith, Wilbert B., 93, 167, 176-79 Solandt, Dr. O.M., 90, 167 Soo Locks, Michigan, 103 Soroka, Staff Sergeant Bud, 29 South America, 56, 76 Soviet Union, 3-4, 96-97, 130, 140, 152, 168, 171 Spaulding, William H., 8, 15 Sprinkle, Dr. Leo, 77 St. Cyrille de Drummondville, 57, 67-71 St. Hubert Air Base (Quebec), 87, 91-93, 151, 171 St. Hyacinthe, Quebec, 137 Star Trek, 78, 97, 153 Stirling, Ontario, 183 Stringfield Leonard, 5, 97 Sturrock, Dr. Peter A., 2 Sudbury, Ontario, 105, 144-48, 160-63 Sudbury, Star, The, 145-46 Suffield ORB Experimental Station (Alberta), 98, 168 Syracuse Herald Journal, 129 Time Magazine, 129 Toronto Star, 91-92 Turner, Colonel, W.W., 14 UFO, Aerodynamic maneuvers, 5, 7, 9-10, 12-13, 16, 17-19 23 25, 30-32, 37, 46, 61, 64, 67, 89-91, 93-94, 98, 100-102, 105-12, 116-47, 129-30, 132, 135-36, 138, 141-42, 143-45, 151-52, 155-57, 161, 163, 178 Attempts to communicate with, 38-39, 125, 138 Chases by military aircraft, 81, 96-100, 102-107, 109, 144, 147-48, 157 Chases, disappearance of planes/crew, 81, 97, 102-107, 168, 179 Chases, filming of UFOs, 99-100, 102, 106 Chases, pilot fatalities 97, 104, 105-106 Crashes, 5. 97 EM (Electromagnetic) Effect, 6, 49, 125, 128 Internal Combustion Engines, 124-25 139 Radio Disruption, 12, 32, 125, 160, 162 TV Disruption, 124-25, 139 Emissions, 13, 20, 24-28, 35-36, 49, 67, 93, 99, 114, 118-19, 137, 159-60, 163 Foliage Damage, 21-22, 30-33, 49, 52, 66-67, 69, 73, 137, 183 Ground Markings, 5, 16, 19-31, 39, 62-64, 66-67, 68-69, 73, 137, 183 Hoaxes, 7-8, 21, 24, 41, 43, 64, 78, 149-5 1, 164 Landings, 5-6, 16-17, 19-31, 37-39, 44-45, 65-68, 69, 72-74, 175 National Security Threat, 6, 46, 88 98, 111, 165, 168-72 Occupants, 3, 5, 9, 20-21, 46, 48, 53-74, 75-86 Official Recognition of, 3-4, 90, 92-93, 165, 185 Origin Hypotheses, 6, 19, 57-58, 93-94, 157, 158 Over Communications Installations, 47, 60, 138-39 Over Energy-Producing Facilities, 60, 95, 114-23, 126, 128-30, 136 Over Farms, 22, 27-31, 137 Over High-Voltage Transmission Lines, 46-47, 95, 115, 125 Over Military Installations, 59, 87-95, 98, 114, 140-52, 162-63, 166 Paranormal Aspects, 6, 27, 58-59, 79, 81, 82-83, 86, 97, 101, 103-104, 106, 121-22 Photographic Evidence, 5, 6, 7-19, 20, 94, 98, 102, 106-107, 128-29, 141-42, 145, 162-63, 183-84 Physiological Reactions to - Animal Response, 6, 15-16, 25, 29, 37-38, 52, 66 Human Response, 6, 27, 30, 35-45, 47-49, 5], 75-76, $4, 139 Related Power Blackouts, 114, 115, 124-39 Witnesses abduction of, 60-61, 75-86 amnesia of, 75-86 behaviour modification, 78, 79-80 contactees, 75-81 disappearance of, 80, 97-98 UFO Exist, 3 UFO-Quebec, 11, 63, 67, 69, 72-73, 137, 139, 160-61 UFO Society of Edmonton, 49-52 UFOCAT, 3 Ukrainian, 38, 60 United Nations, 3-5, 54 United States, 2, 5, 22, 76, 98 United States, Government of, ADC (Air Defence Command), 106-107 Air Force Intelligence, 97-98, 101-102, 111, 157 Air Technical Intelligence, 102 Defence Department, 1, 6, 102, 143, 147 Defence Intelligence Agency, 3 FPC (Federal Power Commission), 127 Freedom of Information Act, 3, 147 House Committee on Science and Astronautics, 77 NASA, 3, 8, 122 National Security Agency, 3 NORAD (North American Air Defence Command), 87-90, 102, 140-44, 152, 171, 176 NORAD Headquarters (Colorado Springs), 62, 175-76 Robertson Panel of Scientific Consultants, 167-68 U.S. Air Force, 2-3, 14, 77, 97, 102-104, 106-107, 110-12, 143, 147, 168-69, 173 U.S. Navy, 100 Naval Intelligence, 102 University of British Columbia, 26-27 University of Calgary. 82-86 University of Manitoba, 32 Vallée, Dr. Jacques. 4, 36 Vancouver, British Columbia, 25, 99 Victoria, British Columbia. 93-94 Voorsluys, Hermanus, 93 Waldheim Kurt, 4 Walsh, Robert C. 128 Wardair, 159 Webb, David, 54, 75, 80 Weekend Magazine, 180 Wilmot, Daisy, 17 Winch, Harold, 180 Windsor, Ontario, 163-64, 173 Winnipeg, Manitoba. 37, 39-40, 46-48, 108, 176 Wood, Dr. Robert M., 55, 57 X-Ray Spectrometry, 27 Yeo, Warrant Officer W.J., 89